Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Solutions Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century

World in the Twentieth Century The World Text Questions and Answers

Question 1.
How did Industrial Revolution cause colonization? Prepare a flow chart and explain.
Answer:
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century 1

Question 2.
How does imperialism differ from colonization?
Answer:
Colonization:
Colonial countries considered the colonies as the source of raw materials and the market for their industrial products.

Imperialism:
The distinctive phase of flow of finance capital to colonies is known as imperialism. Imposing a nation’s political, economic and cultural dominance on other nation is a fundamental feature of imperial.

Question 3.
How did Industrial Revolution cause conflicts among nations?
Answer:
Industrial Revolution resulted in the increase of capital and that was to be invested in for eign trades. These resulted in financial ex-exploitation and competition among the nations and as a result the strong and powerful ones began to divide Africa. This competition for the markets, raw materials and the colonies went on in the last phase of 19th and in the 20th century. All the imperialist nations too joined in this competition that resulted in the outbreak of wars.

Question 4.
How did the competitions among the imperialist nations lead the world to a war? Discuss.
Answer:
Imperialist rivalry drove the European countries into several crisis among which the Moroccan crisis and Balkan crisis were considered to be important. When Austria laid its claim over the Balkan region with the support of Germany, Serbia claimed this region with the support.of Russia.

During this time, a Serbian youth GaveriloPrinsep, assassinated Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria at the Bosnian capital Sarajevo in July 1914. Austria held Serbia responsible for it and declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914. The allied nations rushed to help their allies. Almost all the nations of the world directly or indirectly were involved in it. Therefore this war is known as the First World War.

Question 5.
The Treaty of Versailles was an example of the vengeance against the defeated nations. Discuss.
Answer:
A peace conference was convened at Paris in 1919 to discuss post war situation under the leadership of the winning allies, Britain and France. They signed different treaties with the defeated nations. The treaty of Versailles, the important one was signed with Germany in 1919.

German colonies were divided among the victorious powers and Germany was forced to pay a huge amount as war intensity. Germany had to accept the whole. Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey also signed treaties. Treaty of Versailles stood only for the interests of winning allies.

Question 6.
Find out how the economic depression in the USA affected the economy of other nations and prepare a short note.
Answer:
After losing in the war, the European nations managed to get loans from the U.S.A. The economic crisis began in USA in 1929. American dollar over took British pound on the basis of foreign exchange holding. The loans given for Germany could not be refunded as the banks collapsed.

Inflation became uncontrollable. Unemployment and poverty increased. Goods were kept unsold in factories. To overcome the crisis, European nations imposed heavy taxes on the colonies. The economic depression in the USA affected other nations.

Question 7.
“ Fascism was a product of the First World War”. Discuss.
Answer:
The European nations resorted to various strategies to succeed in their imperialistic competitions. Aggressive nationalism was one among them. The European nations used aggressive nationalism to invade other countries. Aggressive nationalists considered their own nations as the supreme and justified whatever be the actions of their nations. Various movements in Europe were an offshoot of aggressive nationalism.

The First World War devastated both the allies. Many European governments lost their power. People were in misery. Unemployment, poverty and inflation gnawed their entire system. Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany rose to power, capitalizing on the political and economic chaos prevailing then. Economic destruction, rivalry against the victors, aimlessness etc. facilitated these forces to grab power.

Question 8.
The ideologies put forth by both Fascists and Nazis had several similarities. Find some examples from the textbook and complete the table.
Answer:
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century 2
Question 9.
How did Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Ger-many defy world peace? Conduct a seminar on this topic.
Answer:
The First World War devastated both the allies. Many European governments lost their power. People were in misery. Unemployment, poverty and inflation gnawed their entire system. Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany rose to power, capitalizing on the political and economic destruction, rivalry against the victors, aimlessness etc. facilitated these forces to grab power.

Fascism and Nazism were geared for war and expansion. Both regimes started from a vision of a world of narrowing opportunities in which nations and races had to struggle, expand, or die. Nazism was the German version of fascism Hitler adopted and aggressive foreign policy and attacked Austria and Czechoslovakia. Alliances with Italy and Japan was formed, our countries opposed this which led to the Second world war.

Question 10.
The reasons behind the outbreak of First World War and Second World War had several similarities’. Analyze the statement.
Answer:
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century 3
Question 11.
Given below are some of the outcomes of the First World War. Discuss how they resulted in the Second World War.

a. The Treaty of Versailles
b. Formation of the League of Nations
c. The emergence of Fascism and Nazism

Answer:
The Treaty of Versailles:
According to the Peace of Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1919, German colonies were divided among the victorious powers.Germany was forced to pay a huge amount as war indemnity. She was disarmed.

Formation of the league of nations:
To bring about peace in the world, the league of nations was formed. But if failed to maintain world peace.

Emergence of Fascism and Nazism:
Based on extreme nationalism Fascism (Italy) and Nazism (Germany) rose to power. By fol-lowing aggressive foreign policy, these two nations began to conquer other nations, they prepared the ground for the second World War.

Question 12.
War affects both innocents and culprits. Prepare a note on the lessons that we can imbibe from the First and Second World Wars.
Answer:
Many lost their lives in 1st world war. They suffered from poverty and unemployment. The culture and development was lost in IInd world war. The dangers of nuclear explosion in Hiroshima and Nagazaki are still continuing. Every nation has developed in the field of science and technology. If a world war hap pens again the new weapons would bring an end to the whole mankind. So, let us dream for a world wide peace.

Question 13.
Prepare a magazine on the liberated nations and their leaders in Asia and Africa.
Answer:
India:
India contributed for the freedom movements in Asian countries. Indian become aware of the religious, education, social reformation and connection with western nations in 19th century. India was saved from British under the leadership of Gandhiji. On 15 August 1947 India and Pakistan became independent.

Burma:
Burma was under British rule till Japan surrendered in the second world war. When Japan lost in the war, British tried to capture Burma, but they protested under the leadership of OngSan. Burma became free in 1948.

Question 14.
It was the conflicting ideologies that led to ‘Cold war’? Evaluate.
Answer:
The USA and the USSR that formed antifascist alliance during the Second World War parted from each other after the war. The USA floated a new alliance of capitalist countries while the USSR led socialist nations. These two blocs capitalist bloc and socialist bloc that represented contradictory ideas continued their political and diplomatic wars. This enmity based on ideological conflict and diplomatic confrontations was called the cold war.

Question 15.
How did decolonization and cold war lead to the formation of Non-Aligned Movement?
Answer:
America and Soviet Union which were united leaving Fascism during the second world war were again separated after the war. America became the new economic nation and led capitalists. Soviet Union formed socioeconomic growth of the nations.

A result of cold war was the differences in the ideologies and diplomatic confrontation of two regions which were enemies. They planned to help their own regions. When the whole world decided to be a part of any powerful region the countries in Asia arid Africa stayed free. They were called third world nations. They feared that the powerful regions may lead for threats and use of dangerous weapons may lead for a 3rd world war. Gradually non-alignment was formed.

Question 16.
Examine how imperialist interests caused the unrest in West Asia.
Answer:
Until the First World War, the territory including Palestine was part of the Turkish Empire. As Turkey was defeated in the war, Britain took over the region. Since the Jews helped Britain in the war, then British foreign secretary Arthur Balfour declared the establishment of a Jewish nation in West Asia as a reward. It is known as Balfour Declaration.

Zionism is an international movement with an objective of the establishment of a homeland for the Jews. We have already discussed the assault and cruelty of Hitler towards the Jews. This intensified the demand for a separate Jewish state. In 1948, the nation Israel was formed. Consequently, many wars broke out between Israel and the Arab nations. Israel seized Palestine, expelling the Palestinians from their homeland.

The Palestinian refugees migrated to various Arab countries. In this context, with an objective of establishing a nation for the Palestinians, a movement called Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was founded with Yasser Arafat as the President. After a series of bloodshed’s and massacres, Israel agreed in principle to recognize Palestine as a free nation. This agreement mediated by the US is called the Oslo Pact (1993). But, the provisions in the pact are yet be implemented.

Question 17.
How does neo imperialism affect the economy of Third World countries?
Answer:
A new imperialistic view came out for serving the interests of capitalist countries. The MNCs competed with one another to control the resources and assets of 3rd world countries. They promoted consumerism. As a result, the farmers suffered and could not export their goods. They could not get even what they had spent. Unemployment and no wages brought the nation to disaster.

World in the Twentieth Century Let’s Assess

Question 1.
What is meant by imperialism?
Answer:
Using the political power and military forces European countries captured the colonies and considered it as the source of raw materials and market for their industrial products. Later on, the colonial masters started to invest capital in the colonies.

The distinctive phase of flow of finance capital to colonies is Imperialism. The fundamental feature of imperialism is to impose a nation’s political economic and cultural dominance over another ration. Colonialists imposed their dominance using legal system, administrative measures, military forces etc.

Question 2.
How does colonization differ from imperialism?
Answer:
In the 18th century, as a result of Industrial Revolution, the investment began to increase and many nations produced more than what they needed. It could not be accommodated in domestic markets. The trade relation was established with Asian, African and Latin American nations. The European countries economically exploited other from tries using political power and military forces.

The nations produced more than their need and it could not be accommodated in domestic markets. This resulted in competition among the European countries. The economical exploitation of European countries using political power and military forces among the nations later resulted in colonization.

They had considered the colonies as the source of raw materials and market for industrial products. The colonial masters began to invest capital in the colonies.

The phase of flow of finance capital to colonies is termed as imperialism. A nation imposing its political, economic and cultural dominance on another is a fundamental feature of Imperialism. This was done using legal system, administrative measures, military force etc.

Question 3.
“Paris Peace Conference led to the outbreak of the second world war”. Do you agree? Why?
Answer:
Indeed the statement is true. The winning allies of the first world war signed the Treaty of Versailles with Germany. According to the treaty, German colonies were divided among the Victorian powers and Germany was forced to pay a huge amount as war indemnity. Germany was disarmed.

The Germans were depressed and agitated. On account of the Treaty, Nazism under Hitler came into power succeeding in creating revenge and nationalism in Germany.

When Germany, Italy and Japan attacked nations, Britain and France did not protest. Socialist country Soviet Union, was their chief enemy. This encouraged fascists attack and was called the policy of Appeasement. Poland was attacked by Germany on 1 “ September 1939. Allied nations declared war on September 3 which resulted in the second world war.

Question 4.
What are the factor that led America into economic crisis?
Answer:
The world was thrown into economic crisis in 1929. Poverty increased among the majority. The production rate increased but goods were kept unsold. The fall in share market resulted in economic crisis. Banks collapsed in the years between 1929 and 1932. Farmers could not sell the products and lost the property.

Question 5.
List the features of fascism.
Answer:

  • Antagonism to democracy
  • Opposition to socialism
  • Glorifying the nation
  • Adoring the purity of peace
  • Justification of war
  • Diffusion of aggressive nationalism
  • Deifying the past
  • Indoctrination of ideologies through art, literature and education
  • Military dictatorship
  • Destruction of political rivals

Question 6.
Match column A with column B.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century 4
Answer:

a. ii,
b. i,
c. iv,
d. iii

Question 7.
Elucidate the political circumstances that led to Isreal-Palestine conflict.
Answer:
Palestine was a part of Turkey till the first world war. But when Turkey was captured, Palestine came under Britain. As the Jews helped Britain in the war, then the foreign secretary Arthur Balfour declared the establishment of Jewish nation in West Asia as a reward. This is Balfour declaration.

Zionism is an international movement with an objective of the establishment of a homeland for the Jews. The cruelty upd assault of Hitler towards Jews intensified the demand for a separate Jewish state. In 1948, Israel was formed. Many wars broke out between Israel and Arab nations. Israel seized Palestine and they were expelled from their homeland. The Palestinian refugees migrated to Arab countries.

PLO (Palestine Liberation Organisation) was formed to establish a nation for Palestinians. Yasar Arafat was the President. After a series of blood shed and massacres, Israel agreed to recognize Palestine as a free nation. This agreement was mediated by the U.S in Oslo Pact. But the provisions are yet to be implemented.

Question 8.
Examine the relevance of Non-Alignment.
Answer:
After the Second World War, Asian, African and Latin American countries became independent. They realized that cold war was another face of imperialism and a threat to world peace. The liberated nations decided not to join any of the blocs and formed Non-Aligned Movement.

They realized that weapons and strong military force would be a threat. Only a world without war or conflict would develop economically and socially. The idea of Non-Aligned Movement was formed in Bandung in Indonesia in 1955. The First Conference was held in Belgrade in 1961.

Question 9.
What are the changes that the disintegration of the Soviet Union brought to the world?
Answer:
The world faced a drastic change after the second world war. America to protect vested interests of imperialism and Soviet Union to protect socialistic ideas. Soviet Union could protect the world from American imperialism. Soviet Union was able to protect the interest of Egypt in the Suez Canal Crisis. Also, Soviet Union stood for justice in the Cuban Crisis and in the conflict on Kashmir between India and Pakistan.

But Soviet Union lost its power in the year 1991. Deviation from the basic principle of socialism and the external intervention as a part of globalization was the reason for the disintegration. The policies of Michael Gorbachev, the President, took Soviet Union to Imperialism.

World in the Twentieth Century Extended Activities

Question 1.
Prepare an essay on ‘the impact of multinational companies on our daily life.
Answer:
Have you ever thought on the influence of multinational companies in our daily life?
There are mainly 10 multinational companies in India. Microsoft tops the list. American company Microsoft was established in 1991. The second one is IBM which brought drastic changes in the field of Information Technology.

Nestle is another one, which has a prominent place in our day to day life. Maggi, Nestle Milk, Kitkat Bon Bons, Nestea, etc. are the products. It has the third place in MNCs. P&G, the fourth one is for vicks, Ariel, olay, Parrtene, Tide, etc. These products have more than 600 million world wide consumers.

Next is Coco cola:
Lays, Kurkure, Cheetos, 7up, Pepsi all these are unavoidable for us. It is made by Pepsi Co. It came in 1960 and is in the sixth place. Next is ctti group, a venture in the banking sector. It has many branches in India.

T.V, mobile phones, cameras, head phones, memory cards etc. are the products of Sony corporation.Online provides software services part of multinational products. Laptop, desktop, tablet, monitor, printers all belong to the same company.

Apple INC stays for online services and electronic gadgets, i-phones, i-pad, i-pod are its contributions. Majoriy of food products and other items are the contributions of MNCs. Thus the importance of these companies are relevant in our day to day life.

World in the Twentieth Century Orukkam Questions And Answers

Question 1.
Complete the flow chart explaining the emergence of Imperialism. Industrial Revolution.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century 5
Answer:

a.Capitalism
b. Over Production
c. Expensive production
d. Export of Capital
e. Colonization.

Question 2.
Identify and write how Imperialism affected the Colonies.
Traditional economic system of the colonies was destroyed.
Answer:

  • Traditional economic system of the colonies was destroyed.
  • Administrative and judicial systems were replaced.
  • Poverty and unemployment increased.
  • Natural resources were widely exploited.
  • People in colonies were forced to cultivate cash crops in lieu of traditional food crops.
  • Indigenous arts, literature,language,culture and education system were destroyed.

Question 3.
List down the reasons for the first world war.
Imperialist competition for colonies
Answer:

  • Aggressive Nationalism
  • Assassination of Francis Ferdinand
  • Signing of military alliances.

Question 4.
Complete the table.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century 6
Answer:

a. Austria Hungary
b. Italy
c. England
d. Russia

Question 5
Complete the following table.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century 7
Answer:

a. Russia
b. Germany
c. France

Question 6.
Identify and write down the impacts for the First World War.

  • Economic dominance of Europe diminished.

Answer:

  • In Over 10 million people lost their lives or were injured in the war.
  • Poverty, Unemployment and inflation increased.
  • Liberation movements in Asia and Africa strengthened.
  • Agriculture , industry and communication system were destroyed.
  • In a bid to bring about peace in the world, the league of nations was formed.
  • Economic depression.
  • Fascism and Nazism.

Question 7.
Complete the time line given below.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century 13
Answer:
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century 14
Question 8.
Complete the Comparison Table given below.

Fascism Nazism
Italy a.
b. Adolf Hitler
Black shirts c.
d. Aryan Racial superiority

Answer:

a. Germany
b. Mussolini
c. Brown Shirts
d. To glorify the nation.

Question 9.
Find out and write down the reasqps for the Second World War.

  • Treaty of Versailles.
  • Polish invasion of Germany.

Answer:

  • Emergence of Fascism and Nazism.
  • Formation of league of Nations.
  • Nationalism.
  • Poland invasion of Germany.

Question 10.
Complete the following table.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century 8
Answer:

a. Italy
b. Japan
c. England
d. France

Question 11.
List down the results of the Second world War.

a. Over 10 million people died.
b. Independence of the Asio-African colonies.

Answer:

  • Economic system of European countries were destroyed.
  • European dominance in the world diminished.
  • America and Soviet Union emerged as global powers.
  • Freedom movements in Asia and Africa intensified.
  • In a bid to preserve and maintain world peace the United Nations Organization (UNO) was formed.

Question 12.
Complete time line below.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century 10
Answer:

a. 1939 September 1,
b. 1939 September 3,
c. United States of America dropped 2 atom bombs in Japan Little boy in Hiroshima on 6th August and Fat man in Nagasakiqn the 9th August,
d. 1945 August 15,
e. 1945, October 24,
f. Formation of Israel,
g. Non- aligned movement was formed,
h.l 96 l,
i. 199 l,
j. Oslo Pact

Question 13.
Complete the table
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century 11
Answer:

a. South Africa,
b. Ghana,
c. Kenya

Question 14.
List down the reasons for the disintegration of Soviet Union.

  • Deviation from the basic principles of socialism.

Answer:

  • Failure in bringing about changes in economic sector.
  • Regulation on freedom of expression and opinion.
  • Corruption and inefficiency of the bureaucracy.
  • Administrative measures of Mikhail Gorbachev.

Question 15.
Explain the following related to the West Asian problems.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century 12
Answer:

a. The idea of establishing a jewish homeland,
b. Establishing a nation for Palestines,
c. The agreement mediated by the U.S to recognize Palestine as a free nation.

Question 16.
Which were the strategies adopted by America to establish its dominance over the World.
• Extended Military Alliances
Answer:

  • Media were used to promote America’s vested interests.
  • Utilizing international agencies, America provided financial and military aids to the countries of the world.

Question 17.
Complete the following table.

Ideologies of Neo imperialism Features
Liberalization a.
b. Privatization of public Sector Undertakings
Globalization Protected the interests of the multinational companies
c.

Answer:

a. Adoption of liberal regulations and taxation systems to facilitate import of multinational products to domestic products,

b. Privatization,

c. Economic system of country linked to global economy, Competition driven market came into existence, Trans- border flow of products , services,raw materials, capital, latest technology and human resources facilitated.

Question 18.
Write how did globalization adversely affect developing nations.

  • Destruction of the indigenous culture.

Answer:

  • Destruction of indigenous culture.
  • Intervention of multinational companies challenged the concept of nation state.
  • Price of agricultural products plunged.
  • Public sector undertakings were destroyed.
  • Natural Resources were looted.

World in the Twentieth Century Evaluation Questions:

Question 1.
Which are the factors that prompted the capitalist nations to invest in the colonies?
Answer:

  • Cheap Labour
  • Availability of raw materials
  • Low cost involved in manufacturing and selling goods in colonies.

Question 2.
Analyse the back ground of the First World War.
Answer:
Traditional economic system of the colonies:
The European nations vied with each other in establishing colonies. This competition led to conflicts among them and caused mutual distrust and enmity. This further drove the nations to the signing of military alliances. The Triple Alliance and Triple Entente were examples of such military alliances.

Germany, Austria Hungary and Italy were members of triple alliance.Triple entente consisted of England, France and Russia. The formation of such alliances created a war atmosphere in Europe. They started manufacturing and buying lethal weapons.

Aggressive Nationalism:
The European nations used aggressive nationalism to invade other countries. Aggressive nationalists considered their own nations as the supreme and justified whatever be the actions of their nations. Various movements in europe were an offshoot of Aggressive nationalism.

Assassination of Francis Ferdinand:
When Austria laid its claim over the Balkan region with the support of Germany, Serbia claimed this region with the support of Russia. During this time a Serbian youth Gaverilo Prinsep assassinated Francis Ferdinand the heir to the throne of Austria at the Bosnian capital Sarajevo in June 1914.

Austria held Serbia responsible for it and declared war on serbiaon 28 July 1914. Almost all nations of the world directly or indirectly were involved in it. Therefore this war is known as the First world war.

Question 3.
Evaluate the results of the First World War.
Answer:

  • The first world war ended in 1918. It produced far reaching impacts around the world.
  • Over 10 million people lost their lives or were injured in the war.
  • Economic dominance of Europe diminished.
  • Poverty, unemployment and inflation increased.
  • Liberation movements in Asia and Africa strengthened agriculture, industry and com munication systems were destroyed.
  • In a bid to bring about peace in the world, the league of nations was formed.

In 1919 a peace conference was convened at paris to discuss post war situation under the leadership of winning allies, Britain and fiance. They signed different treaties with defeated nations. The Versailles Treaty signed with Germany in 1919 was the most important one. According to this treaty, German colonies were divided among victorious powers and Germany was forced to pay a huge amount as war indemnity. The allies occupied the rich mines of Germany.

Europe was the focal point of first world war and it had to bear the major brunt. Hence economically and politically, the European nations suffered serious setbacks. Ruling dynasties like Romanov in Russia , Hohenzollern in Germany and Hapsburg in Austria Hungary lost power.

The United states of America was not affected by war. Hence European countries was not affected by war. Hence european nations managed to get loans from the USA. Consequently American dollar overtook british pound on the basis of foreign exchange holding.

Question 4.
Arrange the following table.

A B
Holocaust of Ancient Roman Empire
Gestapo Glasnost
Mussolini Secret Organisation
Gorbechev Jewish Massacre

Answer:

A B
Holocaust Jewish Massacre
Gestapo Secret Organisation
Mussolini Restoring of Ancient Roman Empire
Gorbechev Glasnost

Question 5.
What is meant by New-imperialism?
Answer:
In the post war period a new kind of imperialism emerged. Multinational companies which are registered in a country and functioning in many countries, began to interfere in the economic, social and cultural sectors of the latter for serving the interests of the capitalist countries. It is known as New Imperialism.

Question 6.
What were the factors that led to the Second World War.
Answer:
Emergence of Fascism and Nazism:
Based on extreme nationalism Fascism (Italy?) and Nazism (Germany) rose to power. By following aggressive foreign policy, these two nations began to conquer other nations, they prepared the ground for the second World War.

The Treaty of Versailles:
According to the Peace of Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1919, German colonies were divided among the victorious powers. Germany was forced to pay a huge amount as war indemnity. She was disarmed.

Formation of the league of nations:
To bring about peace in the world, the league of nations was formed. But if failed to maintain world peace.

Question 7.
How did Fascism and Nazism become a threat to world peace?
Answer:
In 1919 Hitler formed the Nazi party. Hitler projected the purity of Aryans race and argued that Aryans should rule the world. He defied the aryans ancestry of the Germans. All other political parties except the Jazi party were banned. Military Service was made compulsory Hitler incited a spirit of revenge among the Germans against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.

Taking advantage of the Feeling of revenge among German, he adopted an aggressive foreign policy. He attacked Austria and Czechoslovakia. Germany formed alliance with Italy and Japan. It was opposed by other countries. Ultimately this led to the outbreak of another world war.

Mussolini resorted to despotic measures in the political and economic fields of Italy. Violence and Ferocity were the strategies of Fascist. Socialists and leaders of peasants and workers were proclaimed as enemies of the nations. Those who opposed the fascist party were executed. Using his military force the black shirts, Mussolini suppressed the opponents through Fascist policies.Italy’s run for dictatorship paved the way for outbreak of another war.

Question 8.
In which country did World economic depression start?
Answer:
America

Question 9.
Explain, what paved the way for the formation of cold war and Non-Aligned Movement
Answer:
The USA and USSR that formed anti – fascist alliance during the second world war parted from each other after the war.The USA floated a new alliance. The USA floated a new alliance of capitalist countries while the USSR led socialist nations.These two blocs- capitalist bloc capitalist bloc and socialist bloc that represented contradictory ideas continued their political and diplomatic wars.

This enmity based on ideological conflict and diplomatic confrontations was called the cold war. Cold war became intense when the two blocs started new military alliances and regional coalitions. Following the second war many Asian, African and Latin american countries became independent.

They realized that the cold war was yet another face of imperialism. and that it would threaten world peace. The liberated nations decided not to join any of the blocs and formed the Non aligned movement. They understood that the race of super powers for weapons and a stronger military force would pose harm to them.

Question 10.
Arrange the following incidents in chronological order.

  • Disintegration of Soviet Union
  • Formation of Israel
  • Oslo pact
  • Belgrade Sommit

Answer:

  • Formation of Israel -1948
  • Belgrade Summit-1961
  • Disintegration of Soviet Union -1991
  • Oslo Pact -1993

Question 11.
Arrange the following table.

A B
Yasser Arafat Yugoslavia
Gamal Abdul Nasser Indonesia
Marshal Titto Egypt
Ahammad Sukarno Palestine

Answer:

A B
Yasser Arafat Palestine
Gamal Abdul Nasser Egypt
Marshal Titto Yugoslavia
Ahammad Sukarno Indonesia

Question 12.
Evaluate, how America established its dominance over the world.
Answer:

  • America emerged as a global power and center of world politics following the disintegration of Soviet Union.This is called Uni polar world order.Several strategies were adopted by america to establish its dominance over the world . They are-
  • Utilizing international agencies, America provided financial and military aids to the countries of the world.
  • Extended military alliances
  • Media were used to promote America’s vested interests. It was America’s imperialist policy that paved the way for the gulf war. America utilized their military facilities and technological progress in these wars.

World in the Twentieth Century Scert Questions And Answer:

Question 1.
What are the consequences of industrial revolution which began in England in the eighteenth century.
Answer:

  • Capitalists invested in factories.
  • Capitalists increased production.
  • This made increase in profit.
  • Production and distribution were controlled by private individuals with the aim to increase profit.
  • The advent of large scale industries enhanced capital investments.
  • Over production forced them to search for foreign markets.
  • Asian and African nations were exploited by using political power and military forces.

Question 2.
What were the circumstances that led to the supremacy of Europeans in Asian and African nations?
Answer:

  • Capital investment in factories.
  • Capitalists increased production.
  • This made increase in production.
  • Production and distribution were controlled by private individuals with the aim to increase profit.
  • The advent of large scale industries enhanced capital investment.
  • Over production forced them to search for world markets.
  • Using political power and military forces Asian and African nations were exploited.

Question 3.
What are the factors that forced the capitalist countries to begin production in their colonies in Asia and Africa.
Answer:

  • Cheap labour.
  • Availability of raw materials.
  • Low cost as a result of manufacturing and selling goods in colonies.

Question 4.
How did imperialism affect the colonial countries.
Answer:

  • Traditional economic system of the colonies were destroyed.
  • Administrative and judicial system were replaced.
  • Forced to cultivate cash crops instead of food crops.
  • Indigenous art, literature, language, culture and education system were destroyed.
  • Poverty and unemployment increased.
  • Natural resources were exploited.

Question 5.
How did imperialist forces implement exploitative policies in the colonies?
Answer:
By using legal system, military force, administrative measures etc.

Question 6.
Which were the movements formed in connection with aggressive nationalism?
Answer:

  • Plan Slav movement, Pan – German movement, Revenge movement.
  • To unite the Slav people of Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece etc. in Eastern Europe was the objectives of Pan Slav movement.
  • To unite the Teutonic people in central Europe and Balkan provinces was the objective of Pan German movement.
  • The objective of Revenge movement in France was to conquer AlsaceLorrane which was under the control of Germany.

Question 7.
How did the imperialist crises cause the First World War. Explain.
Answer:
Moroccan Crisis:

  • A secret treaty was signed between Britain and France in 1904 in which Britain accepted the French supremacy in Morroco.
  • Germany did not approve it.
  • Germany sent battleships to Morroco.
  • The problem was solved by giving some parts of French congo to Germany.

Balkan Crisis :

  • Balkan was a part of the Ottoman empire.
  • In 1912, Balkan League defeated Turkey.
  • Difference of opinion among Balkan countries started in sharing the benefits of the war.

Question 8.
Analyse the results of the First World War.
Answer:

  • Millions of people lost their lives.
  • Economic dominance of Europe diminished.
  • Poverty, unemployment and inflation increased.
  • Agriculture, industry and communication systems were destroyed.
  • In a bid to bring about peace in the world, the League of Nations was formed.

Question 9.
What were the consequences of the First World War in Europe?
Answer:

  • As Europe was the focal point of war, it had to bear the major brunt.
  • Economically and politically, the European nations suffered set backs.
  • Ruling dynasties in Europe, lost power. (Hohenzollern in Germany, Habsburg in Austria – Romanov in Russia)

Question 10.
America was not affected by the hazards of the First World War. Substantiate the statement
Answer:

  • War did not take place in the USA.
  • European nations which were destroyed in war took large scale loans from the USA.
  • American dollar overtook British pound on the basis of foreign exchange holding.

Question 11.
Name of the leaders who gave leadership to the Non-Aligned Movement are given below. Name the countries they represent. Jawaharlal Nehru, Marshal Tito, Ahmed Sukarno, Gamal Abdul Nasser
Answer:

  • Jawaharlal Nehru – India
  • Gamal Abdul Nasser – Egypt
  • Marshal Tito – Yugoslavia
  • Ahmed Sukarno – Indonesia

Question 12.
Write a note on Non-Aligned movement.
Answer:

  • Movement formed after the Second World War. It was a unity of nations which did not become part of capitalist or socialist bloc
  • NAM was formed in the conference held at Bandung in Indonesia in 1955.
  • First conference was held at Belgrade in 1961.

Question 13.
What do you mean by Balfour declaration. Explain.
Answer:
Jews helped Britain in the First World War. As a reward for this the British foreign secretary Arthur Balfour declared the establishment of a Jewish nation including Palestine in West Asia. This is known as Balfour declaration.

Question 14.
Which was the agreement recognized by Israel with the mediation of America in 1993 to liberate Palestine.
Answer:
Oslo pact

Question 15.
What were the aims of Zionist movement and the PLO?
Answer:

  • Objective of the Zionist movement was to form a nation for the Jews.
  •  The objective of the PLO was to establish a nation for the people of Palestine.

Question 16.
Evaluate the causes for the disintegration of Soviet Union.
Answer:

  • Deviation from the basic principles of socialism.
  • Over importance to defense.
  • Regulation on freedom of expression and opinion.
  • Corruption and inefficiency of the bureaucracy.
  • The administrative reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev.

Question 17.
What were the changes brought about by the disintegration of Soviet Union in the international level?
Answer:

  • Marked the end of cold war.
  • Bipolar world destroyed.
  • Uni polar world emerged.
  • America became a supreme power.

Question 18.
What are the strategies adopted by America to retain its dominance over the world?
Answer:

  • By utilizing international agencies America provided financial and military aids to countries of the world.
  • Extended military alliances.
  • Overthrew the governments disliked by America.
  • Media were used to promote America’s vested interests.

Question 19.
How did the competition of multinational companies affect the developing countries?
Answer:

  • They tried to occupy the wealth of third world countries.
  • A new consumer culture developed.
  • Developing nations became the markets of the multinational companies.
  • Indigenous economy collapsed.

Question 20.
Liberalization, privatization and globalization are the concepts of neo imperialism. Substantiate the statement.
Answer:

  • Globalization:
    Protects the interests of multinational companies. Connected nation’s econorific system with global economic system. Trans border flow of products, raw materials, capital, latest technology and human resources facilitated.
  • Liberalization:
    Adoption of liberal regulation to facilitate the import of multinational products and capital.
  • Privatization:
    Privatization of public sector institutions to promote private sector.

Question 21.
Name the international organisations formulating the policies of globalization.
Answer:
World Bank, International Monetary Found, World Trade Organisation

Question 22.
Explain how globalization adversely affected the developing countries.
Answer:

  • Led to the destruction of indigenous culture.
  • The intervention of multinational companies over the concept of nation state.
  • Price of agriculture products plunged.
  • Natural resources were looted.
  • Government withdrew from social service sector.

Question 23.
The Treaty of Versailles was a one sided treaty. Substantiate the statement by analyzing the provisions of the treaty.
Answer:

  • German colonies were divided among allied powers.
  • Germany was forced to pay a huge amount as war indemnity.
  • The allies occupied the rich mines.
  • The war guilt was imposed on Germany and she was disarmed.

Question 24.
Analyse the results of the economic depression which affected the world in 1929?
Answer:

  • People who became pauper as a result of the war, could not purchase commodities.
  • Goods were kept unsold in factories.
  • European nations failed to repay their debts to the USA.
  • Banks collapsed.
  • Inflation became uncontrollable.
  • Acute unemployment and poverty.

Question 25.
Economic destruction, rivalry against the victors, aimlessness etc. were the factors that helped the growth of Fascism. Analyse the features of Fascism based on this statement ’
Answer:
Antagonism to democracy, glorifying the nation, justifying war, deifying the past, military dictatorship, opposition to socialism, adoring the purity of race, diffusion of aggressive nationalism, indoctrination of ideologies through arts, literature and education, annihilation of political rivals.

Question 26.
Analyse the circumstances that led the Fascist party into power in Italy.
Answer:

  • Italy got nothing though she was one among the victors of the First World War.
  • Destruction of industries, unemployment, increase in tax, inflation etc.
  • Fear of nation moving to socialist revolution.

Question 27.
Italy’s imperialist ambition led the nations of the world war. Substantiate the statement by evaluating the administration of Mussolini.
Answer:

  • Adopted violence.
  • Socialists and leaders of peasants and workers were proclaimed as enemies of the nation.
  • Those who opposed the fasist party were executed.
  • Aimed to restore Roman empire.
  • By using his military force, the ‘Black shirts’, he executed enemies.
  • Conquered nations like Ethiopia and Albania.

Question 28.
What are the factors that helped Hitler to become the ruler of Germany?
Answer:

  • Treaty of Versailles imposed by the victorious allies on Germany after the First World War.
  • Economic crisis and inflation.
  • Failure of German governments and the political uncertainty.

Question 29.
Nazism was the German version of Fascism. Substantiate.
Answer:

  • Major enemies of Nazism like socialists, communists, jews and democrats were executed.
  • Jews were declared as enemies of Germany.
  • Jews were massacred in concentration camps.
  • For executing enemies they formed military force ‘Brownshirt secret police troop – ‘Gestapo’.
  • They argued for the Aryan racial supremacy.
  • All the political parties except Nazi party were banned.
  • Military service was made compulsory.
  • Spread of ideas.

Question 30.
Differentiate and list out the following countries into Axis powers and Allied powers. England, China, Germany, France, Italy, Japan.
Answer:

Axis Powers Allied Powers
Germany

Italy

Japan

England

France

China

Question 31.
The Second World War had left far reaching consequences for the human beings. Evaluate the validity of the statement
Answer:

  • Millions of people died.
  • Economic system of European countries was destroyed.
  • European dominance in the world diminished.
  • Freedom movements in Asia and Africa intensified.
  • America and Soviet Union emerged as global powers.
  • To maintain world peace, the United Nations Organisation was formed.

Question 32.
What are the important aims of the United Nations Organisation?
Answer:

  • To save the succeeding generations from the scourge of war.
  • To protect international treaties and laws.
  • To consolidate activities for the development of the nations of the world.

Question 33.
Analyse the causes of decolonization.
Answer:

  • Supremacy of imperialist countries was questioned.
  • Freedom movements strengthened in colonies.
  • Super powers like USA and USSR supported freedom movements in colonies.

Question 34.
What do you mean by cold war? What was its base?
Answer:

  • Enmity based on ideological conflict and diplomatic confrontation between two power blocs was called the cold war.
  • Ideological conflict and political mistrust.

Question 35.
Why is the First World War called as an imperialist war? Explain.
Answer:
Crises as part of exploiting wealth by conquering colonies.

Question 36.
There were certain similarities between the ideologies put forward by Fascism and Nazism. Substantiate the statement.
Answer:
Hero worship, racism, glorification of the past, war mania, opposition to democracy and socialism

Question 37.
What was the reason for the Moroccan crisis? How was it solved?
Answer:

  • Germany opposed the claim of France over Morocco.
  • Morocco was given to France.
  • France allowed Britain to interfere in Egypt.
  • A part of French Congo was given to Germany.

Question 38.
Names of certain countries who participated in the First World War are given below. List out them into Allied powers and Central powers.
Russia, Turkey, France, Bulgaria, Germany, Serbia, Britain, Austria.
Answer:

Allied Powers Central Powers
Britain Germany
France Austria
Russia Turkey
Serbia Bulgaria

Question 39.
Elucidate the circumstances that led to the formation of military alliances among imperialist nations.
Answer:
Balkan crisis, Moroccan crisis and construction of the Baghdad rail by Germany created conflict among imperialist nations and eventually led to the formation of military alliances. This created suspicion and fear among two groups.

Question 40.
The reforms of Gorbachev intensified the disintegration of Soviet Union. Evaluate the statement.
Answer:

a. Deviation from the basic principles of socialism,
b. The reforms of Gorbachev led to capitalism,
c. Internal problems,
d. Corruption in administration.

Question 41.
The Non-Aligned Movement has relevance today even though there are no power blocs.

  1. What were the circumstances that led to formation of the Non-Aligned Movement?
  2. Who were its leaders?
  3. What does the non-alignment aim?

Answer:

  1. When the world was divided into two blocs, the newly independent nations wanted to stay independent without aligning to any bloc.
  2. Nehru, Tito, Nasser, Sukarno.
  3. Active interference in international issues.

Question 42.
Evaluate the circumstances after the Second World War which led to the formation of the Non-Aligned Movement
Answer:
World was divided into two power blocs under the USA and the USSR. Newly independent nations wanted to stay remain free. In this circumstances the NAM was formed in the Bandung conference held in 1955 in Indonesia.

World in the Twentieth Century Exam Oriented Questions & Answers

Question 1.
Which organisation was formed to maintain world peace after the First World War ?
Answer:
The League of Nations

Question 2.
What was the name of the secret police troop of Hitler?
Answer:
Gestapo

Question 3.
What was the name of the atom bomb which America dropped in Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 ?
Answer:
Little Boy

Question 4.
Where is the headquarters of the United Nations Organization situated ?
Answer:
New York, United States of America

Question 5.
Analyse how the UNO succeeded in gaining peace in the world?
Answer:
The UNO is strictly under powerful nations. It failed in protecting the small countries when subjected to powerful dangers. The UNO could not bring any control over the use of nuclear weapons.

  • It could not withdraw the Soviet forces from Hungary.
  • It was forced to surrender before, America in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Question 6. Fascism was a creation of 1“ world war. Discuss.
Answer:
First world war that began so as to protect democracy brought it towards destruction. The victorious nations suffered from unemployment, poverty and inflation. But the failed ones suffered severely. As a result, the treaties which stopped the war created enmity. Fascism in Italy, Nazism in Germany and Communism in Russia were the result.

Question 7.
Decolonization cold war led to Non-Alignment Movement Explain.
Answer:
America and Soviet Union which were united leaving Fascism during the second world war were again separated after the war. America became the new economic nation and led capitalists. Soviet Union formed social-economic growth of the nations.

A result of cold war was the differences in the ideologies and diplomatic confrontation of two regions which were enemies

They planned to help their own regions. When the whole world decided to be a part of any powerful region the countries in Asia and Africa stayed free. They were called third world nations. They feared that the powerful regions may lead for threats and use of dangerous weapons may lead for a 3rd world war. Gradually non-alignment was formed.

Question 8.
Was cold war a threat for world peace? Explain the specialties of cold war.
Answer:
Cold war was the powerful competition between the socialists under Soviet Union and capitalists under the US, after II nd world war. The war was with words and ideologies. The US propagated that Soviet Union was trying to propagate communism. Soviet Union propagated that US was trying to gain mastery over the world. This resulted in cold war. Many nations joined with American and Russian sides. They came to be militant forces and this enhanced cold war.

Question 9.
Examine if the imperialist interests became a reason for the conflicts in west Asia.
Answer:
When Turkey surrendered in the first world war the countries including Palestine became under Britain. Israel was formed in 1948 when the need for a nation for Jews became strong. Arab countries were anxious when foreign countries tried to block the formation of Israel.

Question 10.
Results of 1st world war are known. Discuss how it became a reason for the IInd world war.
Answer:
Treaty of Versailles:
German colonies were divided among the victorious powers and Germany was forced to pay a huge amount as war indemnity. Hitler was against this and protested strongly which led to an outbreak of war.

Growth of Fascism & Nazism:
The fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany were the root cause of IInd World War. The competition between imperialist nations be¬came severe. Britain France and Holland captured majority of the colonies and markets in Asia & Africa. Germany, Italy & Japan had no colonies. This made them in misery. They planned to capture colonies and conquer the weakest nations.

Question 11.
Prepare a note on the lessons taught by war to mankind.
Answer:
Many lost their lives in 1st world war. They suffered from poverty and unemployment. The culture and development Ws lost in IInd world war. The dangers of nuclear explosion in Hiroshima and Nagazaki are still continuing. Every nation has developed in the field of science and technology. If a world war hap pens again the new weapons would bring an end to the whole mankind. So, let us dream for a world wide peace.

Question 12.
Explain the formation of the United Nations Organization.
Answer:

  • Although the League of Nations was established following the first world war, it failed to maintain world peace.
  • After the Second World War, efforts were taken to set up an organisation for preserving global peace.
  • This resulted in the establishment of the United Nations Organisation on 24 October, 1945.
  • The headquarters of the UN is in New York, United States of America.
  • Some of its objectives are to save the succeeding generations from the scourge of war, to protect international treaties and laws and to foster social and economic development of countries.

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science Solutions

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 2 Solutions Chapter 1 Seasons and Time

Seasons and Time Text Book Questions And Answers

Question 1.
You have learnt that there is periodic variation in the amount of sunshine over different places in both the hemispheres of the earth. Why?
Answer:
Variations in the amount of sunshine received are the basis for the occurrence of different seasons. The earth’s revolution and the tilt of the axis are the reasons for this variation.

Question 2.
How much time does the earth take to complete one revolution ?
Answer:
365 1/4 days

Question 3.
What is a leap year ?
Answer:
To complete one revolution, the earth takes 365 1/4 days. But a year normally has 365 days. The remaining 1/4 part of a day will be considered as a full day one in every fair year. Thus every fourth year has 366 days and is called a leap year. Thus in every fourth year February has 29 days.

Question 4.
Seasons are not distinctly felt in Kerala. Why?
Answer:
Kerala is a place located near the equator since Kerala receives high amount of sunlight in every year. In such regions seasons are not distinctly felt.

Question 5.
What is the peculiarity of the day and the night in the Southern Hemisphere on 21 June?
Answer:
On June 21 the Southern hemisphere experiences its longest night and shortest day.

Question 6.
What are the changes observed in nature during the summer season?
Answer:

  • The atmospheric temperature increases.
  • Rivers, ponds, springs and other water sources get dried up.
  • Availability of rain becomes reduced. As a result, land gets parched.
  • Shortage of food materials.
  • The grasslands dry up.

Question 7.
What is the peculiarity of the day and the night in the Southern Hemisphere on 22 December?
Answer:
Longest day and shortest night.

Question 8.
What is the season in the Southern Hemi-sphere, when it is autumn in the Northern Hemisphere?
Answer:
Spring

Question 9.
What are the peculiarities of winter season ?
Answer:
We feel many variations in the winter season than other seasons such as long nights, short days, cold weather, cold wind, snow fall, winter storms, cold rains, thick fog, frost, very low temperature, etc.

Question 10.
What is the change that occurs in the duration of day in the Southern Hemisphere during ‘Dakshinayanam’?
Answer:
The duration of day in the southern hemi-sphere gradually increases during this period.

Question 11.
What is the duration of day and night in the south polar regions, when the Sun is respectively over the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere?
Answer:
During the period from March to September, as the Sun is in the Northern Hemisphere, the south polar regions experience continuous night for six months.

During the remaining period, that is from September to March, as the Sun is in the Southern Hemisphere south polar regions experience continuous day light for six months.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 12.
Is the local time in all the Indian states the same ?
Answer:
No, The time estimated at each place based on the apex position of the sun is termed as the local time.

Question 13.
What will be the hardships if there are several local times in a country?
Answer:
Cannot prepare a railway time table applicable throughout the country.

  • Cannot give announcements about radio programs.
  • Peoples have to adjust their watches suitably.
  • Cannot organize a All India Exams.

Question 14.
The people of which Indian states sees the sun first ?
Answer:
Arunachal Pradesh.

Question 15.
What would be the longitudinal extent of each time zone ?
Answer:
15°

Question 16.
Find the difference between the Indian Standard Time and the Greenwich Mean Time.
Answer:
The 82 1/2 °E longitude which passes almost through the middle of these longitudes has been fixed as the standard meridian of India. The time difference between Indian Standard Time and Greenich Mean Time is 5 1/2 hours ahead.

Question 17.
Calculate the time at each 15° longitude east and west of the Greenwich Line up to 180° longitude and complete the table.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time 1
Question 18.
Which day would it be for those residing at place ‘A’ in given Fig.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time 2
Answer:
If 180° longitude passes through the country A, the places situated East and West of this line will be having two different days. Think about the practical difficulties caused by this. To avoid this, certain necessary adjustments have been effected in this line with the result that it doesn’t pass through the corresponding land areas. Note the longitude marked with broken lines.

The line is in such a way that it passes through Bering – strait in Pacific Ocean and avoid some of the inhabited islands. The travelers who cross this line from the West calculate the time by advancing it by one day and those who cross the line from the west deduct one day. This imaginary line is known as the International Date Line. A can cross this line from the West calculate the time by advancing it by one day, take it as Friday.

Question 19.
Note the International Date Line marked on the globe. Identify the continents situated to the east and the west of this line. The travelers to which of these continents will gain one day on crossing the International Date Line?
Answer:
The continents situated to the west of the international Date Line are Asia and Australia. North America and South America lie to, the east of the International Date Line. The travelers who cross International Date Line and go to North America and South America will gain one day.

Seasons and Time Let Us Assess

Question 1.
Identify the factor responsible for the occurrence of seasons from among the following.

a. Rotation of the Earth
b. Tilt of the Earth’s axis
c. Parallelism of the Earth’s axis
d. All the above.

Answer:
Tilt of the Earth’s axis.

Question 2.
The sun’s rays fall vertically between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. Why?
Answer:
Earth maintains its parallelism throughout the revolution, the position of the sun in relation to the earth varies. The sun shifts apparently between Tropic of Cancer (23 1/2 °N) and Tropic of Capricorn (23 1/2 °S).

Question 3.
Highlight the importance of March 21, June 21, September 23 and December 22.
Answer:
On 21st March, the sun rays are overhead the equator, 0°. So the days and nights are of equal duration, namely 12 hours at all places on the earth. This is called equinoxes. On June 21st, sun appears overhead at the tropic of cancer. This is called summer solstice, and it makes the summer season in the Northern Hemi-sphere.

On September 23rd, the sun is overhead at the equator and experiences equinoxes that means equal days and nights. On 22nd December, the sun continues its apparent movement from the equator to the Southern Hemisphere and reaches vertically above the tropic of capricon. This is called winter solstice.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 4.
Why there is an eastward increase and west-ward decrease in time?
Answer:
The earth rotates from west to east. So, the sun rise first in the Eastern longitude. We calculate time by considering the time when sun reaches the highest point in the sky as 12’0 clock. So when we consider Greenwich line as the base line for time, it becomes noon early in the Eastern longitudes.That is why eastern longitudes feel the time is getting increased. But in western longitudes noon will be after the noon in Greenwich.

Seasons and Time Orukkam Questions And Answers

Question 1.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time 3
Observe the picture and complete the following table.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time 4
Answer:
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time 5
Question 2.
Complete the following table.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time 6
Answer:
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time 7

Question 3.
Answer the following Questions. World Time Calculation

1. The time required for the earth to complete one rotation

a. In Hours
b. In Minutes

Answer:
24 hours, 1440 minutes

2. What is angular distance of the earth when it complete one rotation ?
Answer:
360°

3. The time required for the earth to turn one degree is
Answer:
4 minutes

4. What is the change in time when we move towards west or east from a degree of longitude?
Answer:
More time is taken towards east and less time towards west.

5. a. Is there any particular longitude based on which the time is calculated world wide?
b. If yes, Name the longitude
c. By what name this longitude is known when it is used to calculate the time worldwide?
Answer:
a. Yes,
b. Greenwich longitude
c. Prime Meridian

6. What is meant by the standard meridian?
Answer:
Each country in the world considers the longitude that passes almost through its middle as the standard meridian.

7. Which is the standard meridian of India.
Answer:
83°30 E

8. What is the time difference between Indian Standard Time and Greenwich Mean Time?
Answer:
5 hours 30 minutes

9. The International Date Line is not a straight line Why.
Answer:
Other lines of longitudes are straight lines. But International Date line is not a straight line. The international dateline passes through the Pacific ocean. It deviates from the 180° longitudes where it crosses land in order to keep all the lands under one administration on one side of the dateline. The Dateline deviates. Eastwards in the Bering straits between Australia and Siberia. The line deviates west-wards of 180° longitude. Further south, the date line deviates eastwards of 180° around Fiji, Toga islands.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 4.
Complete the following Table.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time 8
Answer:
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time 9

Seasons and Time Evaluation Questions

Question 1.
Explain the reason for the occurrence of seasons.
Answer:
Variations in the amount of sunshine received are the basis for the occurrence of different seasons. The earths revolution and the tilt of the axis are the
reasons for this variation.

Question 2.
What is meant by the parallelism of axis?
Answer:
The axis of the earth is tilted at an angle of 66 1/2 from the orbital plane. If measured from the vertical plane this would be 23 1/2.The earth maintains this tilt throughout its revolution. This is known as parallelism of earth’s axis.

Question 3.
Define the term equinoxes.
Answer:
The apparent position of the sun during the earth’s revolution will be over the equator on March 21 and September 23. Hence the length of the day and night will be equal during these days on both the hemispheres.These days are called equinoxes.

Question 4.
What is leap year?
Answer:
To complete one revolution, the earth takes 365 1/4 days. But a year normally has 365 days. The remaining 1/4 part of a day will be considered as a full day one in every fair year. Thus every fourth year has 366 days and is called a leap year. Thus in every fourth year February has 29 days.

Question 5.
How is the duration of days and nights experienced at the places with in the Antarctic circle when the sun is in the southern hemisphere?
Answer:
lt will be six months of days throughout in the places within the Antarctic circle.

Question 6.
The local time is not same everywhere in India. Substantiate.
Answer:
In the ancient period, time was calculated based on the apex position of the sun and the length of the shadow cast by it. When the sun is vertically overhead, it is noon. The time estimated at each place, based on the position of the sun, is termed as the local time. In a vast country like India there are many longitudinal. Hence the standard time will be different. There is a difference of 2 hours in time between the states Arunachal Pradesh which is in the eastern part of India and Gujarat which is in the western part of India.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 7.
India has only one standard meridian but many other countries have more than one standard meridian. How do you interest this statement?
Answer:
It is not practical to follow only one standard time for the countries with wide longitudinal extent. So more than one longitudes are considered as standard meridians.
Eg: Russia, China, USA

Question 8.
What will be the time a New Delhi when it is noon at Greenwich?
Answer:
When it is 12 noon in Greenwich, it will be morning 6.30 in Delhi.

Question 9.
Distinguish between winter solstice and summer solstice.
Answer:
The apparent position of the sun shifts from the equator to the northern hemisphere from March 21 to June 21 .The sun will be vertically above the Tropic of Cancer on June 21. This day is known as summer solstice. The sun continues its apparent movement from the equator to the southern hemisphere and reaches vertically above the Tropic of Capricon on December 22. This day is known as Winter solstice.

Question 10.
Variation in the amount sunshine received is the basis of the occurrence of different sea¬son. Elucidate
Answer:
Variations in the amount of sunshine received are the basis for the occurrence of different seasons. The apparent position of the sun during the earth’s revolution will be over the equator on March 21 and September 23. Hence the length of day and night will be equal during these days on both the hemispheres. These days are called Equinoxes.

The apparent position of the sun shifts from the equator to the northern hemisphere from March 21 to June 21. The sun will be vertically above the tropic of cancer on June 21. This day is known as Summer solstice. lt has the longest day in northern hemisphere and the longest night in southern hemisphere. From June 21 onward, the sun shifts from the tropic of cancer towards the equator and reaches vertically over the equator on September 23.As the sun is in the northern hemisphere from March to September,it will be summer in the northern hemisphere.

The sun continues its apparent movement from the equator to the southern atmosphere and reaches vertically above the Tropic of Capricorn on December 22. This day is known as Winter solstice. During the period from September to March, it will be winter in the northern atmosphere and summer in the southern atmosphere.

Seasons and Time SCERT Questions And Answer

Question 1.
The earth travels around the sun along an elliptical orbit.

a. By what name is this movement known?
b. Mention the time taken by the earth to complete one turn round the sun?
c. The amount of solar energy received is not uniform at any place on the earth during this journey. Why?

Answer:
a. Revolution
b. 365 days and 6 hours
c. Change in the apparent position of the sun due to the inclination and parallelism of the earth’s axis.

Question 2.
A year generally comprises 365 days. But in certain occasions it consists of 366 days. Mention the name by which such years are known? Explain how 366 days are included in such years.
Answer:
Leap year:
The earth takes 365 days and 6 hours to complete one revolution. 365 days are included in a normal year and by adding the rest 6 hours together one additional day is included in the fourth year which is in February (29 days).

Question 3.
Observe the answers given by 2 students based on the inclination of eart’s axis and evaluate.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time 10
Answer:
The axis of the earth is inclined to 661/2° from the plane of the orbit and it is 23 1/2 ° from the vertical to the plane of orbit

Question 4.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time 11
the parallelism of earth’s axis. Identify the correct ones?

a. A and B
b. B only
c. C and D
d.A and D

Answer:
b. B only

HSSLive.Guru

Question 5.
One among the following statements is wrong. Identify the wrong answer and make necessary correction.

a. The duration of day in the northern hemisphere increases from 21 March to 21 June.
b. The duration of night in the northern hemisphere increases from 21 March to 21 June.
c. The duration of day decreases in the northern hemisphere from 21 June to 23 September.
d. The duration of night in the southern hemisphere increases from 21 June to 23 September.

Answer:

  • b is the wrong answer
  • The duration of night in the northern hemisphere decreases from 21 March to 21 June.

Question 6.
What is the peculiarity of the duration of day and night in both the hemispheres on 21 March, 21 June, 23 September and 22 December?
Hints:
‘Apparent position of the sun

(i) The duration of day and night in both the hemispheres
(ii) The names by which this days are known.

Answer:
21 March – The sun comes vertically over head at the Equator – The duration of day and night are equal on both the hemisph-eres- Equinox

21 June – The sun is vertically overhead at the Tropic of cancer – The longest day in the northern hemisphere and longest ni ght in the southern hemisphere – Summer solstice

23 September – The sun comes vertically overhead at the equator – The duration of day and night are equal on both the hem-ispheres- Equinox
22 December -The sun is vertically over head at the tropic of Capricorn – The long-est day in the southern hemisphere and longest night in the northern hemisphere – Winter solstice

Question 7.
Analyse the diagrams and complete the table below.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time 12
Answer:

a. Tropic of Capricorn
b. Tropic of cancer
c. Shortest night
d. Longest night
e. Longest night
f. Shortest night
g. Winter solstice
h. Summer solstice

HSSLive.Guru

Question 8.
The time of sunset varies over different months. Why?
Answer:
When the sun is over the northern hemisphere northern hemisphere, experiences longer days and shorter nights. When the sun is over, the southern hemisphere, the northern hemisphere experience shorter days and longer nights. This causes variations in the time of sunrise and sunset.

Question 9.
The seasons experiencing in the northern hemisphere are given in the table. Write do¬wn the corresponding seasons in the southern hemisphere.

Months Seasons
A. 22 December to 21 March Winter
B. 21 March to 21 June Spring
C. 21 June to 23 September Summer
D. 23 September to 22 December Autumn

Answer:

  • Summer
  • Autumn
  • Winter
  • Spring

Question 10.
The following are the hints related to certain seasons. Identify each season.

a. Transition season between winter and summer
b. Transition season between summer and winter

Answer:
a. Spring
b. Autumn

Question 11.
Following are a few natural phenomena occurring in different seasons in India. Identify the season represented by each.

a. Sprouting and blooming of plants and trees
b. Trees shed their leaves.
c. Drying of reservoirs.
d Dry atmosphere and low temperature.

Answer:

a. Spring
b. Autumn
c. Summer
d. Winter

Question 12.
Each degree of longitude corresponds to four minutes of time. How can we arrive at this fact?
Answer:

  • Earth takes 24 hours to complete one rotation, i.e., 360° or 1440 minutes
  • In other words it takes 1440 minutes to complete one rotation.
  • Hence 1 ° of longitude corresponds to 4 minutes (1440 ÷ 360 = 4 min)

HSSLive.Guru

Question 13.
The world is divided in to 24 time zones.

a. What is the longitudinal extent of each of these time zone?
b. What is the time difference within a time zone?

Answer:

a. 15°
b. 1 hour

Question 14.
There is an increase in time towards the east and decrease in time towards the west of ail the longitudes other than 180° longitude. Why?
Answer:

  • The earth rotates from west to east
  • So the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
  • He nee these are increase in time towards the east and decrease in time towards the west

Question 15.
Explain the significance of Greenwich meridian and International date line in determining time.
Answer:

  • Greenwich meridian – 0° longitude. It is based on this longitude that the time is calculated worldwide.
  • International date line – 180°longitude. There is a difference of 24 hours on either side of this line of longitude. So it is drawn deviated to avoid the land areas and to pass entirely through the ocean.

Question 16.
Every country considers a particular longitude as their standard meridian for determining time. Why?
Answer:
The local time is different at different longitudes. If the same country follows different time, this may create a lot of confusions and problems. So the longitude passing almost through the middle of the country is considered as the standard meridian. The local time at this longitude is considered as the standard Time.

Question 17.
Why do certain countries consider more than one longitude as their standard meridians? Give an example for such a country.
Answer:
It is not practical to follow only one standard time for the countries with wide longitudinal extent. So more than one longitudes are considered as standard meridians.
Eg: Russia, China, USA

Question 18.
What is the standard meridian of India?
Answer:
8214° East longitude

Question 19.
The standard meridian of India is 82‘/2° East longitude. Why do India consider this longitude as the standard meridian?
Answer:
82 1/2 ° East longitude passes almost through the middle of the country.

Question 20.
Which among the following longitudes is drawn deviated to avoid the land areas?

a. Equator
b. Greenwich meridian
c. International date line d 82/2° East longitude

Answer:

c. International date line

Question 21.
Why is International date line drawn deviated from the land areas?
Answer:

  • There is a difference of 24 hours on either side of this longitude.
  • If this line passes through land areas, the same inhabited areas may have different days.

Question 22.
What is the Greenwich Mean Time when the Indian Standard time is 2 pm on Mon¬day?
Answer:
8.30 am on Monday (2 pm – 5 hrs. 30 min = 8.30 am)

Question 23.
Determine the local time at 45° East and at 45° West longitude when the Greenwich Mean Time is 10 am Wednesday.
Answer:
45° East- 1 pm Wednesday
\(\left(\frac{45}{15}=3 \text { hrs, } 10 \mathrm{am}+3 \mathrm{hr}=1 \mathrm{pm}\right)\)
45° West- 7 am Wednesday
\(\left(\frac{45}{15}=3 \text { hrs, } 10 a m-3 h r=7 a m\right)\)

Seasons and Time Exam Oriented Questions And Answers

Question 1.
What is revolution?
Answer:
The earth revolves around the sun in elliptical orbit. This motion is known as revolution.

Question 2.
What is rotation ?
Answer:
The earth rotates its own axis is known as rotation.

Question 3.
What is the tilt of the earth?
Answer:
23 1/2°

Question 4.
How much time does the earth take to complete one rotation ?
Answer:
24 hrs.

Question 5.
Why the amount of solar energy received on earth is different ?
Answer:
Due to the apparent movement of the sun.

Question 6.
What is the amount of sunlight received in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere when the sun is vertically over the equator ?
Answer:
Equal amount of sunlight.

Question 7.
What is parallelism of the earth’s axis ?
Answer:
The axis of the earth is tilled at an angle of 66 1/2 from the orbital plane. If measured from the vertical plane this would be 23 1/2°The earth maintains this tilt throughout its revolution. This is known as the parallelism of the earth’s axis.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 8.
What do you mean by apparent movement of the sun ?
Answer:
Since the earth maintains its parallelism throughout the revolution, the position of the sun is in relation to the earth varies. The sum shifts apparently between Tropic of Cancer (23 1/2 °North) and Tropic of Capricorn (23 1/2 °South). This is known as the apparent movement of the sun.

Question 9.
What is the main reason for the occurrence of seasons ?
Answer:
The apparent movement of the sun due to the inclination of axis is the main reason for the occurrence of seasons.

Question 10.
How did the term equinoxes and solstices derived ?
Answer:
The word equinox is derived from the Greek words equi and noxe. ‘Equi’ means equal and ‘noxe’ means night. The word solstices derived from the Greek words sol and stic. Sol means sun and stic means stationary state.

Question 11.
What is equinoxes?
Answer:
When sum is over head over the equator on March 21 and September 23, the length of the day and night will be equal on both the hemisphere. These days are called equinoxes.

Question 12.
What do you mean by Summer solstice? How does it affect Northern and Southern Hemisphere?
Answer:
The apparent position of the sun shifts from the equator to the Northern Hemisphere from March 21 to June 21. The sun will be vertically above the Tropic of Cancer on June 21. This day, known as summer solstice. As a result of summer solstice, Northern hemisphere will have longest day and longest night in the Southern hemisphere.

Question 13.
Name the parallels marked in the following diagram.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time 13
0° — Equator
23 1/2 °N — Tropic of Cancer
23 1/2 °S — Tropic of Capricorn
66 1/2°N — Arctic circle
66 1/2 °S — Antarctic circle
90°N — North pole
90° S — South pole

Question 14.
What will be season in Northern and Southern hemisphere from September to March ?
Answer:

  • In Northern hemisphere — Winter
  • In Southern hemisphere — Summer

Question 15.
The seasons are not same in the two hemisphere. What are the reasons for this ?
Answer:
Revolution of the earth, rotation of the earth, tilt of the axis and inclination of the axis in the same direction.

Question 16.
Compare Rotation and Revolution, equinoxes and solstice ?

Rotation Revolution
Movement of the earth on it’s own axis. Movement of the earth around the sun.
It takes 24 hrs to complete one rotation It takes 365 days and 6 hrs to complete one revolution
It causes day and night It causes changes in seasons.
Equinox Solstice
Sum comes vertically over the equator. Sum comes vertically over the Tropic of Cancer or Tropic of Capricorn.
It occurs on March 21 and September 23 It occurs on June 21 and December 22
It results in equal days and nights. Leads in differences of the duration of day and night.

Question 17.
What will happen if the earth stops rotation?
Answer:
The regular occurrence of day and night will | not be possible. The side of the earth which j for as the sun always feel day and the other | side always will have night. If the earth stops j rotation, it will become an unsuitable planet j to sustain life.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 18.
What will happen if the axis of the earth be-comes vertically ?
Answer:
The length of the days and night all over the earth would be equal.

Question 19.
What will be the complications if there are several local times in a country ?
Answer:

  • Cannot prepare a railway time table applicable throughout the country.
  • Cannot give information on radio programmes
  • People have to adjust their watches suitably.

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science Solutions

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science 1 Solutions Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World

Revolutions That Influenced The World Text Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Renaissance made significant changes in human thought, views, and life. Let us examine them.
Answer:

  • Humanism
  • Scientific temper
  • Growth of Literature
  • Rational thinking
  • Spirit of Criticism
  • Spirit of Inquiry

Question 2.
“No taxation without representation” This was a slogan that thundered along different parts of North America in the second half of the 18th century. What did people demand through this slogan, framed by James Ottis?
Answer:

  • Representation in government
  • It is anti-people if no representation
  • No taxation without representation

Question 3.
Observe the map and list out the 13 British
colonies in North America.
Answer:

  • Georgia
  • Maryland
  • Delaware
  • Pennsylvania
  • Newyork
  • Massachusetts
  • South Carolina
  • Virginia
  • New Jersey
  • Connecticut
  • Rhode Island
  • New Hampshire

Question 4.
“The mercantilist laws turned the American colonial people against their mother land”. Assess the statement.
Answer:

  • Restrictions & Taxes in TradeSpoiled Domestic Trade in Colonies
  • Restrictions in Export
  • Meeting the Expense of British Troops
  • British Stamps for all Legal Papers Restrictions in Export, Increase in Tax, Stamp Duty, Meeting the Expense of British Troops
  • Mercantilist Law was against the Rights & Liberty of the People
  • Increase in Tax, Stamp Duty

Those reasons make mercantilist laws turned the American colonial people against their mother land.

Question 5.
Regarding human rights and freedom, what all can you find in this American Independence declaration?
Answer:

  • All are equal
  • Everyone has certain rights
  • Rights should be secured
  • Govt, with the consent of governed
  • Right of the people to abolish govt.

Question 6.
Prepare a flow chart illustrating the various events that led to the formation of the USA?
Answer:
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science-I Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 1

Question 7.
Prepare a note on the ideologies of the American War of Independence that are reflected in the constitution of India.
Answer:
Various ideologies could be seen in the constitution of India put forward by American War of In dependance. The concept of a republican form of government is the prominent one. Also, the first written constitution, the concept of federal system that ensured freedom and authority of states in the Union too are important.

Question 8.
Analyse the chart and give answers for the foil owing questions.
(French society textbook page no:15)
Question 1.
Which estate enjoyed higher social privilege and status and led a luxurious life in France?
Answer:
First estate and second estate.
Question 2.
To which estate did the majority of the people belong?
Answer:
Third estate
Question 3.
Which estate exploited the common people and accumulated wealth?
Answer:
Clergy and Nobles
Question 4.
Which estate desired a change in the system? Why?
Answer:
Third estate. Because they paid taxes and had low social status.

Question 9.
Examine the membership strength of each Estate given in the table below. Relate it with their demand regarding the voting system.
Answer:
State General
The First Estate  –  285
The Second Estate  –  308
The Third Estate  –  621
One vote for 1st and second estate. In the third a vote for each member
Vote for first estate – 285
Vote for second estate – 308
Vote for third estate – 621
If one vote is given for each member of each estate the third estate will have the majority of one vote is given for each estate, when they stay united the first and second can easily beat the third.

Question 10.
Analyse the events related to French Revolution and evaluate how far it could attain the goals of liberty, equality, and fraternity.
Answer:
In 1789, Louis XVI summoned the French parliament. Instead of one vote for an estate, the concept of individual vote was overruled by 2 estates.
Third estate declared themselves as National Assembly of France which assembled in a Tennis Court nearby on 20th June 1789 and swore not to leave until they had framed a constitution of France. This event is known as Tennis Court Oath, probably, the begining of French Revolution.

France turned into blood shed and captured the food products and sources. On 14th July 1789, the Bastile prison of Paris wars demolished.

Question 11.
A part of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen passed by the French National Assembly is given below. Discuss how far the aims and slogans of the French Revolution are reflected in it.
Answer:
Human rights declaration is a document that ensures equality and freedom to an individual. Some parts of the Human rights declaration passed by the National assembly of trance are given in the textbook. It is the ideology of Rousseau that is reflected in the Declaration of the Rights of Man. The national assembly put forward many rules for the welfare of the people during the time period. Many modifications were introduced in France through these laws.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 12.
Analyse the aims and influence of the French Revolution.
Answer:
To put an end to autocracy was the main aim of French Revolution. Also to ensure liberty, equality, and fraternity and to protect the human rights was an aim with the powerful struggle of French Revolution. All these aims were fulfilled.

Question 13.
Examine the reforms and policies of Napoleon and identify the ideologies of French Revolution reflected in them, (table)
Answer:
The concepts of French Revolution:

  • Rise of the Middle Class
  • End of feudalism
  • Nationalism

Policies & Reforms of Napoleon:

  • Constructed Roads
  • New Code ofLaw
  • Established Bank of France
  • Sinking Fund
  • Farmers were made the owners of land
  • Exercised control over the clergy

Question 14.
These are the words of one of the characters in ‘The mother’, the novel written by world famous Russian writer Maxim Gorky. The plight of workers and farmers in Russia and their aims are reflected in them(Textbook Page no. 21). What else can you make out from these words about the then Russian society?
Answer:

  • Workers are the basis of Production
  • Workers have no Rights
  • Workers were Exploited by Capitalists

What were the demands of the workers?
Answer:

  • Abolish the private property system
  • Everyone has to work
  • Authority to People & Workers
  • Production Control by People

Question 15.
Russian revolution was greatly motivated by the despotic rule of tzar” Discuss.
Answer:
Workers and farmers led a miserable life under the autocratic rule of the Tsar emperors who ruled over Russia. The low production on the agricultural field seriously affected the income of the farmers. Besides, the land less farmers were burdened with heavy taxes. Although Russia was rich in natural resources, but its industrial productiom was very low.

Most of the exisiting industries were controlled by the foriengers. The Marxist ideologies formulated by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels stirred the workers. They called for establishing the supremacy of the workers instead of that by the capitalists. Trade unions were formed to find remedies for the plight of the workers. Based on the Marxist ideologies, the Social Democratic Workers Party was formed. On behalf of this trade unions workers organized protest marches.

Question 16.
Analyse the circumstances that led to form a provisional government in Russia.
Answer:
In 1914, many Russian soldiers were killed in the first world war and in 191 7, food shortage became severe and thousands of women marched along the streets on March 8 clamoring for bread. The workers organised a protest march in Petrograd, the soldiers clashed with the demonstrators in the beginning but later joined the workers.

It was the tragic experience during the First World War that induced them to do so. The workers captured Petrograd and Nicholas II was thrown out of power. A provisional government was formed under Alexander Kerensky, the Menshevik leader.

Question 17.
Discuss the role of the October Revolution in establishing the proletariat government in Russia.
Answer.
A part of soviets in Russia was against the provisional government under the relationship of Alexander Kerensky, the Mensherivik leader. Vladimer Lenin who was in Switzerland also critizized the provisional government of Russia. If the revolt has to the fruitful the authority must be completely transferred to the soviets was his dicussion. The Bolshevicks and the soviets welcomed the discussion. Bolshevik propagated the inequalities and the miseries could be eradicated only be the socialist. They put forward a few needs.

  1. Russia must stay away from the First World War.
  2. To distribute the land captured by the kings to the farmers.
  3. Factories must be kept as the public prosperity.

Question 18.
Compare the strategies of colonial powers in China with the strategies that they adopted in other colonies.
Answer:
The colonial powers exported raw materials from other colonies and imported products to the colonies. China gained profit through import to European countries. China dominated over colonies through wars. The people were financially exploited. As a remedy, the British traders imported Opium, an intoxicant to China which effected the Chinese trade and made them mentally imbalanced.

Question 19.
“Chinese Revolution of 1911 led to the liberation ofChina from foreign powers and monarchy” Examine the statement
Answer:

Idea Thinkers
Ridiculed the exploitation of clergy Voltaire
Man is born free but every where he is in chains Rousseau
Division of powers of its government into legislature Executive and indicinary Montesquieu
Freedom to a property should be given. Physiocrats
Complied encyclopedia to make scientific though popular Philospher

Question 20.
Prepare a note on the role played by Mao Zedong to make China a peoples republic.
Answer:
Chiang Kai-Shek ascertained military autocracy in China. He gave opportunity for foreign powers including America to freely interfere in China and did not co-operate with the Communists. Coal and iron industries, banking, and foreign trade were all controlled by foreign countries. The Communists protested against the policy of Chiang Kai-Shek. They were brutally suppressed.

At that time Mao Zedong rose to the leadership of the Communist party. In 1934, under the leadership of Mao Zedong, a journey started from Kiangsi in South China. The adventurous trip ended at Yanan in North-Western China. Throughout the journey, they seized out agricultural land and villages from lords and distributed them among the farmers.

The journey covered around 12000 kms. So it is known as the ‘Long March’. Hence Mao Zedong and the Communist Party became the symbol of struggle of the Chinese against foreign power. Chiang Kai-Shek had to seek political asylum in Taiwan, when the Red Army ofMao Zedong captured the centre of Kuomintang rule. China became the People’s Republic ofChina on 1st October 1949 under the leadership of Mao Zedong.

Question 21.
Compare the revolutions that took place in America, Europe and Asia and complete the table.
Answer:
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science-I Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 2

Revolutions That Influenced The World Let’s Assess

Question 1.
‘American War of Independence was a movement of the English against England.’ Substantiate the statement
Answer:
From the 16th century onwards the Europeans began to migrate to North America. The major aim of the migration was to exploit the resources.

By the 18th century, England had established 13 colonies in the eastern coast of North America. The British treated these colonies as centers for collecting raw materials for their industry and as market for selling their products. People of the colonies protested against the policies and rules of the British, submitted petition to the King of England. They demanded the revocation of the regulation enforced on industry and commerce.

This led to the war between England and the colonies. The second Continental Congress held at Philadelphia in 1775 elected George Washington as the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. During this time, through the pamphlet titled “common sense”, Thomas Paine declared that it was wise for the Americans to break the ties with Britain. The American Continental Congress issued the famous Declaration ofIndependence on 4th July 1776.

The war between En-gland and the colonies in North America that began with the declaration of freedom, ended in 1781. According to the Treaty of Paris in 1783, England ratified the freedom of 13 colonies. The constitution convention held at Philadelphia under the leadership of James Madison, framed the American constitution. Geor-ge Washington became the first president of the United States of America, formed in accordance with the new constitution. Since American War of Independence transformed the system existed there, it is known as American Revolution. It greatly influenced the later history of the world in different ways.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 2.
How did the resentment of the middle class lead to the French Revolution?
Answer:
The Revolution that took place in 1789 was against the Autocratic rule and feudal system is known as French Revolution. The middle class of the society consisted of traders, writers, lawyers, offici-als, teachers, and bankers. These middle class people were known as bourgeoisie meaning city dewellers. They did not enjoy any representation in administration. They realised that according to the constitution it is impossible to retain their rights and this led to French Revolution.

Question 3.
Arrange the following events in chronological order.

  • February Revolution
  • Long March
  • American Declaration of Indepen¬dence
  • Tennis Court Oath

Answer:
American Declaration of independence

  • Tennis Court Oath
  • February Revolution
  • Long March

Question 4.
How did the French Revolution influence the reforms of Napoleon?
Answer:
The French who revolted for noble aims had to survive under the autocratic rule of Napoleon Bonaparte for a short period. Napoleon played a crucial role in defeating the European alliance which was formed under the leaderhsip of Britain against France in the post revolution period. He seized the power in France in 1799. Though an autocrat, he instituted several reforms in France. Those reforms were stimulated by the ideas and aims of the French Revolution. They are given below.

  • Farmers were made the owners of land.
  • Formed sinking fund with the aim to avoid public debt.
  • Constructed several roads for transportation.
  • Excercised states control over the clergy.
  • Established Bank of France to centralize finance.
  • Prepared a new code of law by codifying the existing laws.

Through the strong revolution, the dreams of the French people were satisfied by the rise of the middle class and end of fuedalism.

Question 5.
How did the colonial rule influence the Latin American countries?
Answer:
The Europeans looted the wealth and resources of Latin American countries and even erased their traditional culture. The official language of most of the Latin American countries is Spanish.

After colonizing the entire Latin America, the Spanish, and the Portuguese propagated their language, religion, and customs there. They built houses and churches in Spanish style. Several schools were established for imparting Spanish system of education. The Spanish fanning methods and crops were adopted. New diseases spread from the Europeans to the Latin American people. Racial discrimination towards the people of the colonies was enforced in all walks of life.

  • Took away gold, silver, etc. from the Latin American mines.
  • Never allowed the people of the colonies to engage in trade with countries other than Spain.
  • The things produced in Spain were not permitted to be produced in the colonies.
  • People had to work in hazardous environment in mines without any safety measures.
  • Enslaved the natives to work in plantations.

Question 6.
Russian Revolution helped the progress of the working class. Do you agree with this
statement? Why?
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement.

  • Farmers and factory workers in Russia led a tragic life under the autocracy of the Tsarist emperors, who ruled Russia.
  • The low agricultural production affected farmer’s income. Moreover, the landless farmers had to pay huge tax.
  • Though Russia was rich in natural resources, their industrial production was meagre.

It was the foreigners who controlled majority of the industries that existed there.

The Marxist ideologies formulated by Karl Marx and Frederick Englles stirred the workers. They called for estrfl&shing the supremacy of the workers in stead of that by capitalists.

Trade unions were formed to find remedies for the plight of the workers. Based on the Marxist ideologies the social Democratic Workers Party was formed. Later, this party was split into the Men-sheviks (minority) and the Bolsheviks (majority). The main leaders of the Bolsheviks were Lenin and Trotsty. Alexander Kerensky led the Mensheviks. The crisis reached its worst when Russia was defeated in the Russia-Japan war in 1905. The workers organised a huge march at Petrograd on 9th January 1905 demanding political rights and economic reforms. The march was fired by the soldiers and hundreds of demonstrators were massacred. This event is known as Bloody Sunday.

Workers organisation called the Soviets’ was formed all oyer Russia to conduct strikes. When the strikes gained massive strength, the emperor was compelled to form a legislative assembly called Duma. Ignoring the protest from Duma, Nicholas II, the then Tsar decided to participate in the First World War that started in 1914. A lot of Russian soldiers were killed in this war. Food shortage became severe by 1917. Thousands of women marched along the streets of Petrograd on 8 March 1917 clamouring for bread. The workers organized protest march in petrograd.

Though the soldiers clashed with the demonstrators in the beginning, later they joined the workers. It was the tragic experience during the first World War that induced them to do so. The workers captured Petrograd and Nicholas II was thrown out of power. A provisional government was formed under Alexander Kerensley, the Menshevik leader. This is known as February Revolution.

The main aim of this revolution was the growth of proletarians, and that vision had been acheived. So I totally agree with this statement that this Revolution helped the development of proletarians or workers class.

Question 7.
How did China become a people’s Republic? Analyse.
Answer:
In the 20th century, China witnessed revolutions against the foreign rule monarchy. The colonial powers of Europe and America adopted policies in China, different from the ones they had implemented in the colonies of other parts of the world. These policies are known as opium trade and open door policies. The Manchu dynasty in China favoured the foreign interference and domination in 1911, another revolution took place under the leadership of Dr. Sunyatsen against the Manchu Dynasty.

This ended monarchy in China. After the revolution, Kuomintang party established a Republican government in Southern China under the leadership of Sun Yat-Sen. He gave importance to idealogies like nationalism, democracy, and socialism.

He decided to nullify the unjust treaties signed with the foreign countries and wanted to maintain equality with western countries. The Kuomintang republic adopted measures for the progress of agriculture and industry. China received assistance from Russia in various fields and the Chinese Communist Party was formed.

In the beginning the Kuomintang and the communist cooperated with each other. But this cooperation was disturbed when Chiang Kai-Shek became the head of the republic following the death of Sun Yat-Sen.

Chiang Kai-Shek as certained military autocracy in China. He gave opportunity for foreign powers including America to freely interfere in China and did not cooperate with the communists. Coal and iron industries, banking and foreign trade were all controlled by foreign countries. The communists protested against the policy of Chiang Kai-Shek.

They were brutally suppressed. At that time Mao Zedong rose to the leadership of the Communist Party. In 1 934 under the leadership of Mao, a journey started from Kiangsi in South China.

The adventurous trip ended at Yanam in North-Western China. Through out the journey, they seized out agricultural land and villages from lords and distributed among the farmers. The journey covered around 12000 kms. So it is known as the “long March.” Hence Mao Zedong and Communist Party became the symbol of struggle of the Chinese against foreign power.

Chiang Kai-Shek had to seek political asylum in Taiwan, when the Red Army of Mao Zedong ca ptured the centre of Kuomintang rule. China became the people’s Republic ofChina on 1st October 1949 under the leadership of Mao Zedong.

Revolutions That Influenced The World Orukkam Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Identify and write the ideas speed by the Enlightened thinkers.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science-I Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 3
Answer:

a. Democracy,
b. Freedom,
c. Nationalism.

Question 2.
Lists out the mercantilist laws.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science-I Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 4
Answer:

a. Products of the colonies like sugar, wool, cotton, tobacco etc could only be exported to England.
b. British stamp must be affixed on all the legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, license, etc.
c. Colonies must provide food and quarters for the British troops which were maintained in the colonies.

Question 3.
The names of some leaders and clinkers who have influenced certain revolutions in this world are given below. Complete the table by writing the names of revolutions related to items.

George Washington American war of independence
Voltaire (a)
Rousseao (b)
Jose De San mertin (c)
Thomas Paine (d)
Simon Bolivar (e)
Dr. Sun Yatsen (f)
Montesquie (g)
Maxim Gorky Russian Revolution
Mao Zedong (h)
John Locke (i)
Lenin (j)

Answer:

a. French Revolution,
b. French Revolution,
c. Latin American Revolution,
d. American War of Independence,
e. Latin American Revolution,
f. Chinese Revolution,
g. French Revolution,
h. Chinese Revolution,
i. American War of Independence,
J. Russian Revolution

Question 4.
Complete the Time Line related to its American War of Independence.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science-I Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 5
Answer:
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science-I Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 6
Question 5.
Complete the following.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science-I Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 7
Answer:

a. Contributed to the concept of federal system
b. Gave direction and motivation to the later freedom struggles and revolutions all over the world
c. Prepared the first written constitution
d. Put forward the concept of republican form of government.

Question 6.
Lists out the factors led to French Revolution.

  • The autocracy that existed in France.

Answer:

  • Rulers were squanders.
  • Starvation and proverty.

Question 7.
Complete the table given related to the French society.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science-I Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 8
Answer:

a. Clergy
b. Controlled higher positions in administrative and military service
c. Held vast land
d. Collected the tax called ‘Tithe’ from farmers
e. Second Estate
f. Led luxurious life
g. Held vast lands
h. Engaged in military service
i. Collected various taxes from farmers
j. Made farmers work without wages
k. The middle class including traders, writers, lawyers, officials, teachers, and bankers. Farmers and craftsmen
l. Paid taxes to clergy and nobles, m. No role in administration
n. Paid land tax namely ‘Taille’ to the government.

Question 8.
Some ideas that influenced its French Revolution are given below. Name the thinkers related to these ideas.

Idea Thinkers
Ridiculed the exploitation of clergy Voltaire
Man is born free but every where he is in chains a
Division of powers of its government into legislature Executive and indicinary b
Freedom to a property should be given. Physiocrats
Complied encyclopedia to make scientific though popular c

Answer:

a. Rousseau
b. Montesquieu
c. Philospher

Question 9.
Arrange the following events in chronological order.

  • Declaration of its Rights of men and its citizen was passed in France.
  • Destruction of Bastille prison.
  • France become a republic
  • Tennis court Oath.
  • Battle of Waterloo.

Answer:

  • Tennis court Oath- 1789 June.
  • Destruction of Bastille Prison – 1789 July
  • Declaration of the Right of man and the citizen was passed in France – 1789 August
  • France became a republic – 1792
  • Battle of Waterloo – 1815

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Question 10.
Complete the sun diagram given below.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science-I Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 9
Answer.
Helped the growth of the middle class, Contributed the concept of people’s sovereignty, Procliamed that nation in not merely a religion but the people.

Question 11.
Complete the table given below.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science-I Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 10
Answer:
Formed sinking fund with the aim to avoid public debt, Constructed several roads for transportation, Exercised state’s control over the clergy, Prepared a new code of law by codifying the existing laws.

Question 12.
Write the causes of the Latin American Revolution.

  • European cultural domination.
  • Exploitation

Answer:

  • Racial discrimination towards the people of colonies.
  • The people of colonies were made enslaved.

Question 13.
Lists out the factors that led to the Russian Revolution.

  • Autocracy of its Traist Emperors.
  • Meagre industrial production
  • Defeat of Russia in its Russia-Japan War

Answer:

  • Meagre Industrial Production
  • Autocracy of Traist Emperors.
  • The landless farmers had to pay huge tax.
  • Influence of Marxist ideologies.
  • Mensheviks and Bolsheviks
  • Defeat of Russia in the Russia – Japan War
  • Defeat in the first world war.

Question 14.
Complete its time line given below.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science-I Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 11
Answer:

  • 1900 – Boxer Rebellion
  • 1905 – Petrograd March, Formed Duma
  • 1911- Revolution under leadership of Dr. Sun Yad – Sen
  • 1917 March 15 – The February Revolution
  • 1917 November 17 – The October Revolution
  • 1924 Formation of USSR
  • 1934 – Long March
  • 1949 – Formation of the people’s Republic of China.

Question 15.
Complete the comparison table given below.

The February Revolution The October Revolution
1917 b
a The Bolsheviks
Alexander Kerensky c
Formation of the provisional Government d

Answer:

a. Menshevik
b. 1917
c. Lenin
d. Cabinet Formation.

Question 16.
Lists out the results of the Russian Revolution.

  • Meagre industrial production
  • Withdrew from the First World War.
  • Economic and scientific progress of Russia.
  • Expansion of socialism.

Answer:

  • Sieze the lands owned by the lords and distributed them among the farmers.
  • Made factories public property.

Question 17.
Identify its ideas emphesised by Sun yat-sen.

  • Nationalism

Answer:

  • Nationalism – To expel the Manchu Dynasty and the imperial powers.
  • Democracy – To establish democratic rule.
  • Socialism – To control capital and distribute land equally.

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Question 18.
Complete the comparison table given below.

Revolution of Sun-yat-sen Revolution of Mao zedong
1911 (a)
(b) Chinese Communist Party
Against foreign domination and its rule of the Manchu Dynasty. (c)
(d) People’s Republic of China

Answer:

a. 1934,
b. Kuomintang Party,
c. Against the foreign power,
d. Republican Government.

Revolutions That Influenced The World Evaluation Questions

Question 1.
Arrange into following events in chronological order

  • Latin American Revolution
  • French Revolution
  • October Revolution
  • American war ofIndependence

Answer:

  • American War ofIndependence – 1775
  • French Revolution – 1789
  • Latin American Revolution – 1800
  • October Revolution – 1917

Question 2.
What do you mean by Revolution?
Answer:
A peace conference was convemed at Paris in 1919 to discuss post war situation under the leadership of the winning allies, Britain and France. They signed different treaties with the defeated nations. The treaty of Versailles, the important one was signed with Germany in 1919. German colonies were divided among the victorious powers and Germany was forced to pay a huge amount as war internity. Germany had to accept the whole. Austria, Hungary, Salgaria, Turkey also signed treaties. Treaty of Versailles stood only for the interests of winning allies.

Question 3.
Analyse the background of the French Revolution.
Answer:
The French Society was divided into three strata and they were known as estates. The first estate included clergy and the second estate included nobility. Those who belonged to the first and second estates had vast land. They led a luxurious life and were exempted from all taxes. The third estate were the middle class including traders, writers, lawyers, officials, teachers, and bankers.

They had no role in the administration and had low social status. The luxurious life and squander of the Bourbon kings, clergy and lords and the frequent wars they waged, along with the frequent spells of drought and crop failure, brought trance to the brink of bankruptcy. Thinkers like voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu etc played an important role in making the people aware of the inequalities and exploitation. Among the three estates, the third estate had to face a horrible life. So they desired to change in the system and gave leadership to the French Revolution in 1789.

Question 4.
Explain how its mercantilist policies caused its out break of its American war of Independence.
Answer:
Domestic trade in Colonies: According to the Navigation Act in 1651 the goods to and from the colonies must be carried only in British ship or ships built in the British Colonies. According to another act in 1660 products of the colonies like sugar, wool, cotton, tobacco, etc. could be exported to England.

Inflation: England decided to levy tax for importing sugar in 1 764. This led to inflation which resulted in protest among the people.

Exploitation: The wealth of the colonies were used for the upliftment of the motherland. For eg. The Navigation Acts passed by the England Government(1650, 1660, 1699). Products of colonies like sugar, wool, cotton, tobacco, etc. could only be exported to England.

Denial of Rights: In 1 765 the Stamp Act was passed the British which stated that British stamp must be affixed on all the legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, licence, etc. The slogan ‘No taxation without representation.’ Thundered along the people in the colonies.

Autocracy: The colonial rule was undertaken by the Governors sent from England. The Governors were not responsible to obey the decisions of the assembly. The people in the colonies were not given much importance in the rule.

Question 5.
Arrange its following table appropriately.

A B
Thomas Jefferson Russian Revolution
Francisco Miranda Chinese Revolution
Trotsky Latin American Revolution
Mao zedong American war of Independence

Answer:

A B
Thomas Jefferson American war of Independence
Francisco Miranda Latin American Revolution
Trotsky Russian Revolution
Mao zedong Chinese Revolution

Question 6.
How much it’s French Revolution influenced the reforms of Napoleon? Evaluate.
Answer:
Napoleon played a crucial role in defeating the European alliance which was formed under the leadership of Britain against France in the post-revolution period. He siezed the power in France in 1 799. Though an autocrat he instituted several reforms in France. He established the Bank of France to centralize finance. In France, nationalism strengthened
during the reign of Napolean. Napolean prepared a simple and uniform code of law for France.

Question 7.
Identify the fields in which the Latin American people faced discrimation from the Europeans? Explain.
Answer:
After colonizing the entire Latin America the Spanish and Portugese propogated their language, religions, and customs there. The Spanish farming methods and crops were adopted Racial discrimination towards the people of colonies were enforced in all walks of life. Took away gold, silver, etc. from the Latin American mines.

  • Never allowed the people of the colonies to engage in trade with countries other than spain.
  • The things produced in Spain were not permitted to be produced in the colonies.
  • People had to work in hazardous environment in mines without any safety measures.
  • Enslaved the natives to work in plantations.

Question 8.
The Russian Revolution greatly influenced the subsequent history of Russia.
Answer:
During the begining of the twentieth century, the workers and farmers in Russia led a tragic life. The traist emperors ruled India. Though Russia was rich in natural resources, their industrial production was meagre. It was the foreigners who controlled majority of the industries that existed there. Writers like Maxim Gorky, Leo Tolstoy, Ivan Turgenve and Anton Chekov depicted the plight of workers and farmers in their works.
The Marxist ideologies formulated by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels stirred the workers. They called for establishing the supremacy of workers instead of that by the capitalists.

The defeat of Russia in the first world war was the reason for a sudden war. A lot of Russian soldiers were killed in this war. Food shortage became severe in 1917. Thousands of women marched along the streets of Petrograd on 8th March 1917 clamouring for bread. Lack of food and financial crisis made the life of the common people horrible. Hence revolutions took place in some parts of Russia.

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Question 9.
Evaluate the importance of the French Revolution.
Answer:
The message of liberty, equality and fraternity of French Revolution during the 19th and 20th Century greatly influenced other revolutions. French Revolution stimulated all the later revolutions in the world. French Revolution proclaimed that nation is not merely a region but the people. The Austrian Chancellor Mettemich had made a remark on the impact of French Revolution ‘when France sneezes the rest of Europe catches cold.’
The other impacts of French Revolutions are

  • Contributed the concept of people’s sovereignty.
  • Led to the emergence of nationalism.
  • Threatened the autocratic rulers in Europe.
  • Helped the growth of middle class.

Question 10.
How much was Chinese Revolution helpful for the liberation of peasants and workers? Explain.
Answer:
In 1921 Communist party of China was formed Mao Zedong rose to the leadership of communist party. Chiang kai-shek who became the head of the Kuomintang party following the death of Sun- Yat-Sen asertained military autocracy in China. He gave opportunity for foreign powers including America to freely interfere in China and did not co-operate with the communists. Coal and iron industries, banking and foreign trade were all controlled by foreign countries. The communists protested against the policy of Chiang kai-shek but they were brutally suppressed.

In 1934, under the leadership ofMao Zedong, a journey started from Kiangsi in South China. The adventurous trip ended at Yanan in North-Western China. Throught the journey they siezed out agricultural land and villages from lords and distributed the among the farmers. The journey covered around 12000 kms. So it is known as the Long March. Hence Mao Ze dong and the communist party became the symbol of struggle of the Chinese ag ainst foreign power Chiang Kaishek had to seek political asylum in Taiwan when the red army of Mao zedong captured the centre of kuomi-ntang rule. China became the people’s Republic of China on 1st October 1949 under the leadership of Mao Zedong.

Revolutions That Influenced The World Text SCERT Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain, how did the Mercantilist Laws implemented by Britain in the American colonies becomes a cause for the American War of Independence.
Answer:

  • Restrictions on the cargo ships
  • Control over export
  • Stamp duty
  • Colonies should support the British troops
  • Import duty.

Question 2.
Arrange the foliowing in chronological order.

  • Second Continental Congress
  • Paris Treaty
  • First Continental Congress
  • Declaration ofIndependence

Answer:
First Continental Congress, Second Continental Congress, Declaration of Independence, Paris Treaty.

Question 3.
Complete the following table.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science-I Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 12
Answer:

  • Farmers- Third Estate
  • Nobles – Second Estate

Question 4.
Explain, how various thinkers and ideologies paved the way for the French Revolution.
Answer:

  • Ideologies of Voltaire
  • Rousseau
  • Montesquieu
  • Physiocrats
  • Philosophes.

Question 5.
‘The inequalities and exploitation suffered by the Third estate was the basic reason for the French Revolution.” Substantiate this statement
Answer:

  • No right in administration
  • Paid land tax to the government
  • Low social status
  • Paid taxes to the clergy and nobles.

Question 6.
Evaluate the significance of the ‘Tennis Court Oath’ in the history of France.
Answer:
Became the National Assembly and prepared the constitution

Question 7.
Match the following.

A B
Thomas Paine Bourbon rule
Thomas Jefferson Encyclopedia
Louis XVI Common Sense
Philosphes Declaration of Independence

Answer:
Thomas Paine – Common Sense
Thomas Jefferson – Declaration of Independence
Louis XVI – Bourbon rule
Philosphes – Encyclopaedia

Question 8.
Explain, how the French revolution influenced the later history of the world.
Answer:
Stimulated the later revolutions of the world, Paved the way for the end of feudal system in Europe, People’s sovereignty, Emergence of Nationalism, Growth of the middle class, Threatened autocracy

Question 9.
Evaluate how French revolution influenced the reforms of Napoleon.
Answer:
Farmers were made owners of the land, Began sinking fund, Constructed roads, Control over clergy, Bank of France was established, New code of law was implemented

Question 10.
How did the exploitation and discrimination of the people of Latin America lead to revolution.
Answer:

  • Exploitation and discrimination in language, religion, customs, architecture,education, agriculture.
  • Looting of wealth, control of trade, slavery.

Question 11.
Identify the correlation between the two items in section A and Similarly complete Section B.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science-I Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 13
Answer.

i. Russian revolution,
ii. Latin American revolution,
iii. Mao Zedong,
iv. Russia.

Question 12.
Why the Bolsheviks under the leadership of Lenin did not approve the provincial government?
Answer:
Power should be handed over to the Soviets They propagated that only Proletarian’s government can eradicate economic back wardness and inequality, Withdraw from the First World War, Factories should be made public property, Land should be distributed among farmers.

Question 13.
Explain the significance of the October revolution in the history of Russia.
Answer:

  • Land was distributed to the farmers
  • Public ownership
  • Withdrew from the First World War
  • Became a super power
  • Soviet Union

Question 14.
Why is Boxer rebellion considered as anticolonial struggle of the people of China?
Answer:
Rebellion against foreign dominance and the Manchu dynasty- Boxers

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Question 15.
Explain the role played by Mao Zedong in making China a People’s Republic.
Answer:
Communist policies – Protest against the autocracy of Chiang – Kai-Shek. Long march Red volunteers – People‘s Republic.

Question 16.
Complete the following table.
Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science-I Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 14
Answer:

  • French Revolution
  • American War of Independence

Question 17.
“Liberty, equality and fraternity were the ideas given by the French Revolution to the world”. Evaluate this statement on the basis of the changes that occurred in the admini strative structure of France.
Answer:
• Uniform system of administration in France.
• Church was brought under the control of the state.
• Equal taxation over all sections of people.
• Abolished the special privileges enjoyed by the nobility
• End of Feudalism.

Question 18.
Analyse the circumstances which led to the transition of the Third estate of the French parliament called ‘Commons’ into National Assembly.
Answer:

  • The status of one vote for each estate was against the interests of the ‘Commons’.
  • The commons wanted one vote for each person instead of one vote for each estate
  • It was opposed by other two estates.
  • The commons declared themselves as the National Assembly of France and assembled in the nearby tennis court.

Question 19.
Write the following events in chronological order.

  • The army of Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo.
  • The French people captured and demolished the Bastille prison, the symbol of Bourbon monarchy.
  • France was declared a republic.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte captured power.

Answer:

  • The French people captured and demolished the Bastille prison, the symbol of Bourbon monarchy.
  • France was declared a republic
  • Napoleon Bonaparte captured power.
  • The army of Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo.

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Question 20.
What was the social background that forced the Third estate to struggle against the First and Second estates of the French Society?
Answer:

  • The nobility lived by exploiting the peasants
  • The King, nobles, and clergy occupied majority of the cultivable land
  • The luxurious life led by higher priests.

Question 21.
Evaluate the economic background that influenced the French Revolution.
Answer.

  • The rulers of France who occupied all powers were extravagant and pleasure seeking.
  • Louis XVI summoned the French parliament Estate General in 1789 to overcome the economic crisis.

Question 22.
What were the changes brought about in the social, economic and political fields of France during the time of Napoleon?
Answer.

  • Clergy became under the control of the state
  • Farmers were made the owners of land
  • Bank of France was established to centralise finance
  • A new code of law was prepared by codifying the existing laws.

Revolutions That Influenced The World Exam Oriented Questions and Answers

Question 1.
The first written rigid constitution ever framed in history.
Answer:
American Constitution

Question 2.
The incident that took place on 14th July 1789 in France.
Answer:
The Fall ofBastille.

Question 3.
The slogan, “No taxation without representation” was raised in connection with the:
Answer:
American Revolution.

Question 4.
In 1789 members of the Third Estate declared themselves the:
Answer:
National Assembly

Question 5.
Write the following events in the chronological order

  • George Washington was made the Commander – in – Chief of the colonial army.
  • Treaty of Paris.
  • Formation of the United States of America.
  • Olive Branch Petition.

Answer:

  • Olive Branch Petition.
  • George Washington was made the Commander – in – Chief of the colonial army
  • Treaty of Paris
  • Formation of the United States of America.

Question 6.
Prepare a report on Boxer Rebellion.
Answer:
The foreign supremacy in China made people to protest and they formed revolutionary movements. Youth were tibined for musti yuddham. As the foreigners in the China were tried to conquer through boxing the westerners redicated and named it Boxer Rebellion. The foreigners conquered with modem tricks and weapons.

Question 7.
What were the ideologies of Sun Yat-Sen in China?
Answer:
Nationalism: Drive away the Manchu Dynasty and imperialist powers.
Democracy: To establish democratic rule.
Socialism: To bring about equitable distribution of land.

Question 8.
When France sneezes all Europeans catches a called on the basis of statement by Metternich. Evaluate how French revolt influenced Europe.
Answer:
French revolution is a memorable one it was a success of democracy. It was reached in the western nations of the world in the 19th centuary revolution was epidimic all over Europe. The revolution was in Spain, Italy,
Poland between 1820 and 1821 and that which happened in European in 1848 got influenced from French Revolution. The progress seen in Europe from 1815 was the reflection of French Revolution.

Question 9.
Prepare a note on Enlightenment?
Answer:
Enlightenment was an advancement in the intellectual activities of man which tried to explain the natural world and the role of man in it in the light of rationalism. The enlightenment thinkers tried to understand and explain things in the light of reason based on facts and evidences.

Question 10.
What is French revolution?
Answer:
The rulers of France were Autocratic and squanders. The majority in France lived in misery and the minority, including the rulers, led a life of luxuary and extravagance. This situation gave a clean picture of the social-economic inequality existed in France. This led to French Revolution.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 11.
Explain “American War ofIndependence”.
Answer:
“No taxation without representation” is the slogan that thundered in North America during 18<sup>th</sup> century. This slogan was raised by the people of America as a part of a powerful agitation. Various circumstances that led to the agitation are as follows:

  • 16th century onwards the Europeans began to migrate to North America mainly to exploit the natural resources.
  • By the 18th– centrury England had established 13 colonies in the Eastern coast of North America.
  • The British treated these colonies as centers for collecting raw materials for their industry and as market for selling their products.

Question 12.
What do you mean by Revolution?
Answer:
In several places the common people did not have as much freedom as we have today. The people who were deprived of freedom had a fight for it. Some adopted peacful means, whereas others preferred armed rebellion. All these struggles tried to change the system that denied freedom and rights and to establish a new one. Therefore they are known as revolutions.

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science Solutions

Kerala SSLC Class 10 English Solutions

Kerala SSLC Class 10 English Solutions Guide Pdf Free Download of Chapter wise Questions and Answers, Notes in both English Medium and Malayalam Medium are part of Kerala SSLC Class 10 Solutions. Here HSSLive.Guru has given SCERT Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard English Textbook Solutions Pdf.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard English Guide

Unit 1 The Glimpses of Green

  • Chapter 1 Adventures in a Banyan Tree (Short Story)
  • Chapter 2 The Snake and the Mirror (Short Story)
  • Chapter 3 Lines Written in Early Spring (Poem)

Unit 2 The Frames

  • Chapter 1 Project Tiger (Memoir)
  • Chapter 2 My Sister’s Shoes (Screenplay)
  • Chapter 3 Blowin’ in the Wind (Song)

Unit 3 Lore of Values

  • Chapter 1 The Best Investment I Ever Made (Anecdote)
  • Chapter 2 The Ballad of Father Gilligan (Poem)
  • Chapter 3 The Danger of a Single Story (Speech)

Unit 4 Flights of Fancy

  • Chapter 1 The Scholarship Jacket (Short Story)
  • Chapter 2 Poetry (Poem)
  • Chapter 3 The Book that Saved the Earth (One-Act Play)

Unit 5 Down Memory Lane

  • Chapter 1 Adolf (Short Story)
  • Chapter 2 The School Boy (Poem)
  • Chapter 3 My Childhood Days (Autobiography)

Unit 6 Hues of Life

  • Chapter 1 Vanka (Short Story)
  • Chapter 2 The Snake and the Mirror (Short Story)
  • Chapter 3 A Girl’s Garden (Poem)
  • Chapter 4 Mother to Son (Poem)

Kerala SSLC Class 10 English Chapters Summary

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Kerala SSLC Class 10 Hindi Solutions

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Hindi Solutions Guide Pdf Free Download of Chapter wise Questions and Answers, Notes in both English Medium and Malayalam Medium are part of Kerala SSLC Class 10 Solutions. Here HSSLive.Guru has given SCERT Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Hindi Textbook Solutions Pdf.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Hindi Guide

इकाई – 1

  • Chapter 1 बीरबहूटी (कहानी)
  • Chapter 2 हताशा से एक व्यक्ति बैठ गया था (टिप्पणी)
  • Chapter 3 टूटा पहिया (कविता)
  • Chapter 4 बंटी (उपन्यास (अंश))

इकाई – 2

  • Chapter 1 आई एम कलाम के बहाने (फ़िल्मी लेख)
  • Chapter 2 सबसे बड़ा शो मैन (जीवनी (अंश))
  • Chapter 3 नीली आसमानी छतरी (फिल्मी गीत)

इकाई – 3

  • Chapter 1 अकाल और उसके बाद (कविता)
  • Chapter 2 ठाकुर का कुआँ (कहानी)
  • Chapter 3 एक थाल चाँद भरा (कहानी)

इकाई – 4

  • Chapter 1 बसंत मेरे गाँव का (लेख)
  • Chapter 2 दिशाहीन दिशा (यात्रावृत्त)
  • Chapter 3 जगहों के नाम (कविता)

इकाई – 5

  • Chapter 1 बच्चे काम पर जा रहे हैं (कविता)
  • Chapter 2 गुठली तो पराई है (कहानी)
  • Chapter 3 तुम लड़की हो तुम्हें क्यों पढ़ना है? (कविता)

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Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science Solutions

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science Solutions Guide Pdf Free Download of Chapter wise Questions and Answers, Notes in both English Medium and Malayalam Medium are part of Kerala SSLC Class 10 Solutions. Here HSSLive.Guru has given SCERT Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Textbook Solutions Pdf.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Guide

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science Solutions – I

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Social Science Solutions – II

  • Chapter 1 Seasons and Time
  • Chapter 2 In search of the Source of Wind
  • Chapter 3 Human Resource Development in India
  • Chapter 4 Terrain Analysis Through Maps
  • Chapter 5 Public Expenditure and Public Revenue
  • Chapter 6 Eyes in the Sky and Data Analysis
  • Chapter 7 India: The Land of Diversities
  • Chapter 8 Resource Wealth of India
  • Chapter 9 Financial Institutions and Services
  • Chapter 10 Consumer: Satisfaction and Protection

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Kerala SSLC Class 10 Chemistry Solutions

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Chemistry Solutions Guide Pdf Free Download of Chapter wise Questions and Answers, Notes in both English Medium and Malayalam Medium are part of Kerala SSLC Class 10 Solutions. Here HSSLive.Guru has given SCERT Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Chemistry Textbook Solutions Pdf.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Chemistry Guide

  • Chapter 1 Periodic Table and Electronic Configuration
  • Chapter 2 Gas Laws Mole Concept
  • Chapter 3 Reactivity Series and Electrochemistry
  • Chapter 4 Production of Metals
  • Chapter 5 Rate of Chemical Reaction and Chemical Equilibrium
  • Chapter 6 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds
  • Chapter 7 Chemical Reaction of Organic Compounds
  • Chapter 8 Chemistry in Progress of Mankind

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Kerala SSLC Class 10 Physics Solutions

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Physics Solutions Guide Pdf Free Download of Chapter wise Questions and Answers, Notes in both English Medium and Malayalam Medium are part of Kerala SSLC Class 10 Solutions. Here HSSLive.Guru has given SCERT Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Physics Textbook Solutions Pdf.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Physics Guide

  • Chapter 1 Effects of Electric Current
  • Chapter 2 Magnetic Effect of Electric Current
  • Chapter 3 Electromagnetic Induction
  • Chapter 4 Reflection of Light
  • Chapter 5 Wave Motion
  • Chapter 6 Power Transmission and Distribution
  • Chapter 7 Heat
  • Chapter 8 Electronics and Modern Technology
  • Chapter 9 Energy Management

We hope the given Kerala SSLC Class 10 Physics Solutions Guide Pdf Free Download of Chapter wise Questions and Answers, Notes in both English Medium and Malayalam Medium will help you. If you have any query regarding SCERT Kerala State Board Syllabus 10th Standard Physics Textbook Answers Pdf, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Biology Solutions

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Biology Solutions Guide Pdf Free Download of Chapter wise Questions and Answers, Notes in both English Medium and Malayalam Medium are part of Kerala SSLC Class 10 Solutions. Here HSSLive.Guru has given SCERT Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Textbook Solutions Pdf.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Guide

  • Chapter 1 Sensations and Responses
  • Chapter 2 Windows of Knowledge
  • Chapter 3 Chemical Messages for Homeostasis
  • Chapter 4 Keeping Diseases Away
  • Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense
  • Chapter 6 Unravelling Genetic Mysteries
  • Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future
  • Chapter 8 The Paths Traversed by Life

We hope the given Kerala SSLC Class 10 Biology Solutions Guide Pdf Free Download of Chapter wise Questions and Answers, Notes in both English Medium and Malayalam Medium will help you. If you have any query regarding SCERT Kerala State Board Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Textbook Answers Pdf, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Solutions

Kerala SSLC Class 10 Physics Solutions Guide Pdf Free Download of Chapter wise Questions and Answers, Notes in both English Medium and Malayalam Medium are part of Kerala SSLC Class 10 Solutions. Here HSSLive.Guru has given SCERT Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Physics Textbook Solutions Pdf.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Textbooks Solutions

We hope the given Kerala SSLC Class 10 TextBook Solutions Guide Pdf Free Download of all Subjects Chapter wise Questions and Answers, Notes in both English Medium and Malayalam Medium will help you. If you have any query regarding SCERT Kerala State Board Syllabus 10th Standard Textbooks Answers Pdf, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.