Plus Two History Notes Chapter 10 Colonialism and the Countryside Exploring Official Archives

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Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 10 Colonialism and the Countryside Exploring Official Archives

1. British colonialism was fist established in Bengal. Afterthe Battle of Buxarin 1764, the British became the real power in Bengal. Therefore the first efforts to organize village communities were first begun here.

The English East India Company enforced many new land-owning and land tax systems. The Permanent Settlement (Zamindari system), Ryotwari System,- Mahalwari system etc. were Some of them. The most important of these – the Permanent Settlement – was applied first in Bengal and Bihar. In the early years of the Company rule, it brought many changes in Bengal.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

2. In 1813, a report about the administration and activities of the East India Company was submitted to the British Parliament. This is known as the 5th Report. Before this, 4 such reports had already been submitted. Since it was the 5th of its kind, it was called the 5th Report.

3. British rule in India was started in Bengal. From there, it spread to the other parts of India. But the British had no interest in trying Permanent Settlement of the land tax in other parts of the country. Therefore outside Bengal Systems like Ryotwari and Mahalwari were enforced.

Time Line

  • 1765: English East India Company gains the right ‘ to collect taxes (diwani) in Bengal.
  • 1773: British Parliament passes Regulatory Act to y control the working of East India Company.
  • 1793: Permanent Settlement was introduced in Bengal.
  • 1000s: Santhals come to the Rajmahal Hills and live in the place.
  • 1818: In Bombay Deccan first land revenue system is introduced.
  • 1820s: Price of agricultural products comes down.
  • 1840-50: Agriculture develops in Bombay Deccan on a small scale.
  • 1855-56: Santhal Revolt
  • 1861: Rise in the cotton trade
  • 1875: Peasant revolts in Deccan villages

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 9 Vijayanagara: An Imperial Capital

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Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 9 Vijayanagara: An Imperial Capital

1. Vijayanagar means the city of triumph. This is the name of a city as well as of an Empire. The Vijaynagar Empire was founded in the 14th century. It extended from Krishna River in the North to the southern end of the subcontinent. In CE 1565, the city was looted.

In the 17th and 18th centuries the Empire collapsed completely. Still the memories of this Empire were rooted in the minds of the people who lived in the Krishna-Thungabhadra Basin. They called it Hampi.

2. The first dynasty that ruled Vijayanagar was Sangama Dynasty. They ruled until 1485. Then they were ousted from power and the Saluva Dynasty came to rule. They ruled until 1503. They were followed by Thuluva Dynasty. Krishna Devarayar was a member of this dynasty.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

3. In the Vijaynagar empire there was the system of “Amara Nayaka”. This system had much in common with the “Ikta System” of the Delhi Sultans.

4. By the 17th century the Amaranayakas became very powerful. They started challenging even the authority of the king. Some of them established their own kingdoms. This added to the fall of the Vijaynagar empire.

5. In the royal centre there are many temples. But most of the temples are seen in the ‘Holy centre’. The royal centre is also rich in temples.

6. The kings of Vijayanagar created new traditions. They started exhibiting statues of kings in temples. The visit of the king to a temple was treated as an official or formal occasion. At this time all the leading Nayakas also accompanied the king.

7. We have a lot of information about the Vijaynagar empire. They include photos, city plans, plans of buildings, and sculptures. The information that was got by Mackenzie, who made the first survey of Vijayanagar, collected it from the descriptions of travellers and from the stone inscriptions and it throws much light in the Vijaynagar empire.

This Site is protected by the Archaeological Survey of India and the Karnataka Department of Archaeology from the 20th century.

Time Line – 1
Important Political Developments

  • 1200-1300: Delhi Sultanate is established (1206).
  • 1300-1400: Founding of the Vijayanagara Empire (1336).
  • 1400-1500: Founding of the Sultanate in Gujarat and Malwa. Founding of the Sultanates in Ahmednagar, Bijapur&Birar. Portuguese attack Goa (1518).
  • 1500-1600: Destruction of Bahmini. The Coming of the Sultanate in Golkonda (1518) Babur founds the Mughal Empire (1518).

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

Time Line – 2
Discovery of Viiavanaaara and its Protection

  • 1800: Colin Mackenzie visits Vijayanagara
  • 1856: Detailed photographs of the archaeological remains of Hampi are taken by Alexander Greenlow.
  • 1876: J.F. Fleet records the inscriptions on the temple walls of the sites.
  • 1902: Efforts are begun to protect Vijayanagara.
  • 1986: UNESCO declares Hampi as a World Heritage Site.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 8 Kings and Chronicles

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Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 8 Kings and Chronicles

1. The rulers of the Mughal Empire believed in the Divine Right of kings. They considered themselves as persons appointed by God to rule over the people. They continued stressing this aspect through histories of dynasties.

The Mughal rulers entrusted this job to the Palace Artists. Modem historians who write in English call these books Chronicles. This chapter tries to know more about the Mughal Empire by looking carefully into these chronicles.

2. The Mughal Empire was created by annexing many regional Princely States. It was done through conquests, and treaties between the Mughals and the local rulers. The first 6 rules of the Mughal Dynasty are called Great Mughals. Their rule lasted 200 years.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

3. The most important among the Chronicles are Akbar- nama and Badhsha-nama (A King’s Story). In each manuscript, there are roughly 150 pictures. They depict mostly wars, resistances, hunting, palace construction and scenes from the capital.

4. As the Mughals believed in the Divine Rights of Kings, they propagated the story of Alanqua, the Mongol Queen, to establish their theory.

5. The capital was the heart of the Mughal Empire. It was here that the Durbar was held. In the 16th and 17th centuries the Mughals changed their capitals often. The capital of Babur was Agra which he captured from the Lodhis.

6. The Chronicles show that the Mughal rule was entered on the emperor. He was the centre and focal point of all the administration. He had the supreme power in administration, judiciary and military matters. The others in the country simply followed disorders.

7. Another pillar of the Mughal Empire was it bureaucracy. Historians call them the ‘Nobles’. They were the backbone to the Mughal rule. Because of their influence in the administration some historians call the Mughal administration as “Administration by the Nobles”, which was another form of Oligarchy.

8. The Mughal Empire was divided into many provinces. They were known as Subas. The rule in the province was a miniature of the central administration. Just like the Centre, the Provinces too had ministers and lower officials to help them.

9. At the end of the 15th century, as a sea-route to India was discovered, Portuguese merchants came in large numbers and established a series of trade centres along the coast. The Christian groups that came to India in the 16th century had three main aims: trade, empire-building and propagation of their faith.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

Time Line
Some Important Memoirs

  • 1530: Manuscript of Babur-nama in Turkish.
  • 1587: Gulbadan Begum begins to write Humayun-nama.
  • 1589: Babumama is translated into Persian.
  • 1589-1602: AbulFazf writes Akbamama
  • 1605-1622: Jahangir writes his memoir Jahangimama
  • 1639-1647: Lahori prepares two volumes of Badshahnama
  • 1650: Mohammed Varis writes the Chronicles of the rule of Shah Jahan.
  • 1658: Muhammed Kasim writes the history of the first 10 years of the rule of Aurangzeb named Alamgirnama.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 7 Peasants, Zamindars and the State

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Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 7 Peasants, Zamindars and the State

1. In the 16th and 17th centuries, some 80% of the Indian population lived in villages. The landowners and agriculturists were engaged in the production of agricultural crops.

The landowners claimed a part of the produce. This caused cooperation as well as conflicts between them; The village society was formed by agricultural relations.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

2. The basic, factor of the agricultural society was villages. The activities of the farming community consisted mainly of preparing the farms for cultivation, sowing the seeds and harvesting. They also took part in the production of agriculture-related things like sugar and oil.

3. Agriculture was done in two seasons – Spring and Autumn. The Spring crops were called Kharif and the Autumn crops were called Rabi. In most areas, cultivation was done at least twice.

4. In the agricultural society of the middle period, women played a significant role. They worked along with men in the fields. The men ploughed the land and made it ready for planting. Women sowed seeds, weeded the farm, harvested crops, threshed and separated the grain from the chaff.

5. In the middle ages, there were dense forests in East India, Central India and North India, Jharkhand, Western Ghats and the Deccan Plateau.

6. Forests were considered as a haven for criminal activities. They were shelters for criminals and outlaws.

7. The economic base of the Mughal Empire was land. The biggest income for the government was land tax. Therefore the Mughal Empire formed an extensive system of administration for the efficient collection of taxes from different areas of the nation. The head of the Revenue department was called diwan whereas the department was known as daftar.

8. A main feature of the Mughal Rule was Mansabdari system. It was Akbar who formulated this policy. This is a system where civil and military positions and responsibilities were combined

9. In the 16th and 17th centuries the Mughal Empire unified its powers and resources. Soon it became a big power like the Ming (China), Safavid (Iran) and Ottoman (Turkey).

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

Time Line

  • 1526: Babardefeats Ibrahim Lodhi, Suttan of Delhi and becomes the 1st Mughal Emperor.
  • 1530-40: First stage of the rule of Humayun
  • 1540-55: Shershah defeats Humayun. Humayun seeks shelter in the Safavid Empire of Persia.
  • 1555-56: Humayun returns to India and recaptures the lost regions
  • 1556-1605: The rule of Akbar
  • 1605-1627: Jehangir’s rule
  • 1628-1658: Shah Jahan rules
  • 1658-1707: Aurangazeb’s rule
  • 1739: Nadir Shah attacks India. He loots Delhi.
  • 1761: Ahmed Shah Abdali defeats Marathas in the Panipat Battle.
  • 1765: East India Company gets the right to collect taxes in Bengal.
  • 1857: The British oust the last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah and exile him to Rangoon.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 6 Bhakti-Sufi Traditions

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Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 6 Bhakti-Sufi Traditions

1. The period from the 8th century to the 18th century is an important era in Indian History. It was at this time some significant changes occurred in the religious faiths and traditions of the people.

A number of Hindu reformers and ascetics started experimental movements. They are called ‘Bhakti Movements’. They all tried to get salvation (Moksha) through piety and devotion.

There were also reform movements in Islam which are called Sufism. Sufism also became popular in India. Both Sufism and Bhakti Movements influenced the life of the people deeply.

2. The leaders of the early Bhakti Movements were pious acetic poets. Around them there were communities of their devotees.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

3. The early Bhakti Movements challenged the conservative Brahmin traditions which considered women and backward classes unfit for moksha. But the Bhakti Movements supported women and backward classes: An important feature of the Bhakti Movements was their diversity. Bhakti Movements are divided into 2 – Saguna and Nirguna.

4. Islam reached India through the Arabs. In CE711, under the leadership of Muhammed Kasim, the Arabs conquered Sindh and it became part of the empire of the Khalifa. The Sindh conquest by Arabs paved the way for the establishment of Delhi Sultanate.

It was established in 1206 jointly by Turks and Afghans. Later, in Deccan and in other parts of the country Sultanates were formed. Islam became the official religion of many rulers in different regions of India. The influence of Islam did not limit itself to the ruling class. It spread widely among farmers, artisans, warriors and traders.

5. Sufism is a mystic movement that developed in Islam. It was a reform movement. In the first centuries of Islam, some thinkers known as Sufis started this Movement.

6. In the Sufi Movement there were 12 Sufi groups or Silsilas. The silsilas were led by a famous mystic, who lived in the Dinashram with his followers. By the end of the 12th century, most of the Sufi Silsilas came to India.

7. We especially study about three famous people of this time – Kabir, Guru Nanak and Mira Bai.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

Time Line
Some Important Religious Thinkers

  • 500-800: Appar, Sanbandhar, Sundaramurthy (Tamil Nadu)
  • 800-900: Nammazhvar, Manikyavachakar, Aandal, Thondaripodi (Tamil Nadu)
  • 1000-1100: Ali Hajveri, Data Ganj Bakhsh (Punjab), Ramanucharya (Tamil Nadu)
  • 1100-1200: Basavanna (Karnataka)
  • 1200-1300: Jnanadevan, Mukhtabai (Maharashtra), Kwaja Moinuddin Chishti (Rajasthan), Fariudin Masood Ganjshakar (Punjab), Qutbdin Bhaktiar Kaki (Delhi)
  • 1300-1400: Lai Ded (Kashmir), Lai Shabas Khalandar (Sindh), Nizamuddin Auliya (Delhi), Ramanandan (Uttar Pradesh), Chokamela (Maharashtra), Sharafuddin Yahya Maneri (Bihar)
  • 1400-1500: Kabir, Raidas, Surdas (UP), Baba Guru Nanak (Punjab), Vallabhacharya (Gujarat), Abdullah Shatari (Gwalior), Muhammad Shah Alam (Gujarat), Mir Sayyed Muhammed Geshu Dara’nj (Gulbarga), Shankara Deva (Assam), Tukaram (Maharashtra).
  • 1500-1600: Srichaitanya (Bengal), Mirabai (Rajasthan), Shaikh Abdul Khudas Gangohi, Malik Mohamed Jaisi, Tulsidas (UP).
  • 1600-1700: Shaikh Ahmed Sirhindi (Haryana), Mian Mir (Punjab).

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 6 Bhakti-Sufi Traditions 1

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 5 Through the Eyes of Travellers

Students can Download Chapter 5 Through the Eyes of Travellers Notes, Plus Two History Notes helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 5 Through the Eyes of Travellers

1. The notes of the travellers are an important source for studying the history of middle ages. Many travellers visited different parts of India, They had various goals.

2. In the notes of these travellers there are decriptions about Indian social life. These notes have enriched our knowledge of the past. In this chapter we are trying to learn more about the middle period from the writings of the travellers.

We are especially considering the writing of three. One is Al-Biruni, who came to India from Uzbekistan in the 11th century. The 2nd is Ibn Battuta who came from Morocco in North Western Africa in the 14th century. The 3rd one is Francois Bernier, a French traveller who came here in the 17th century.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

3. Al-Biruni was born at Khwarism in Uzbekistan. Khwarism was an important centre of knowledge and so he got the best education possible. He was a linguist – a scholar in many languages. He knew Syriac, Arabic, Persian, Hebrew and Sanskrit. He was not familiar with Greek. But he had read the books of Plato and Other Geek philosophers through Arabic translations.

4. Ibn Battuta was an Arab traveller. He was born in Tangier in Morocco in 1304 and he died in 1368. His travelogue ‘Rihla’is written in Arabic. This book gives very interesting and extensive descriptions of the social and cultural life in India in the 14th century.

5. Francois Bernier was a French traveller. He was a doctor, political thinker and historian. He came to the Mughal Empire seeking opportunities. He stayed in India for 12 years, from 1656 to 1668.

He was closely associated with the Mughal capital. He was the physician of Dara Shuko who was the eldest son of Shahjahan. He also worked with a wealthy American named Danishmand Khan when he was in the capital.

6. Ibn Battuta and Bernier wrote their notes with different viewpoints. Ibn Battuta was attracted by the novelty of everything he saw. He wrote about all those things that interested him. But Bernier was quite different. He tried to compare India with France and look for any contradictions.

7. The travelogues of these people give us very interesting and enthusiastic views about the life of the people at that time. They are very precious. But, at the same time, their descriptions had their limitations.

Their views were formulated by their attitudes which developed from the circumstances from which they came. They had failed to notice .some aspects of social life.

8. Many Indians also were adventurous enough to visit other countries grossing the seas and the mountains. But their writings have not been preserved for posterity.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

Time Line
Some Travellers and their Writings

  • 973-1048: Al-Biruni from Uzbekistan
  • 1254-1323: Marco Polo from Italy
  • 1304-1377: Ibn Battuta from Morocco
  • 1413-1482: Abdul Razak Samarkhandi, from Samarkhand
  • 1466-1472: Afanasy Nikitic Nikitin from Russia
  • 1518: Barbosa from Portugal visited India
  • 1562: Said Ali Riz from Turkey. He died that year.
  • 1563-1600: Antonio Moriserrate from Spain
  • 1616-31: Mahmud Vali Balki

Lived In India

  • 1600-67: Peter Moonly from England
  • 1605-89: Jean-Baptist Tavernier from France
  • 1620-88: Francois Bernier from France

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 4 Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings

Students can Download Chapter 4 Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Notes, Plus Two History Notes helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 4 Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings

1. In this chapter we discuss some cultural developments that took place during the period between BCE 600 to CE 600. The philosophers and thinkers of that period made great contributions to the cultural development of India.

They tried to understand the circumstances in which they lived and came forward with revolutionary principles and philosophies. Their ideas were collected orally and also in written form. Their ideas were depicted in the architectural ‘vastu’ and art of sculpture. It shows that these thinkers had exerted great influence among the people.

2. This chapter mainly talks about Buddhism. Buddhist tradition did not develop in isolation. Therefore it is necessary to know about other traditions which also grew along with Buddhism.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 4 Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings

3. There was also the spread of Jainism in many parts of India. It spread mostly to Rajasthan, Gujarat, Malwa, Kalinga, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Simple principles, the use of Prakrit language, encouragement from the Kings, the energy of the Jain Sangha and Jain Ascetics helped its growth and spread.

4. The basis of Buddhist principles is the 4 ‘Arya Satyas’ and ‘Ashtanga Marga’.

(a) Buddha taught 4 fundamental truths. They are known as the 4 Arya Satyas or Noble Truths. These are the 4 Arya Satyas: The world is a sorrowful place. The reason for sorrow is desires. If one can deny his desires, he can overcome his sorrows.

By employing the Ashtanga Marga sorrows can be resisted. The ashtanga margas are: right word, right deed, right life, right efforts, right memory, right view, right decision and right meditation.

5. When Buddha was alive and even after his death, Buddhism began to spread widely. It spread abroad to China, Japan, Burma, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Mongolia and Tibet.

6. With the 1st century, many changes happened in Buddhism and its practice. Among the Buddha Bikshus themselves, there were different interpretations regarding the tenets of Buddhism.

During the reign of Kanishka, there was the 4th Buddhist meeting in Kashmir and in this meeting the differences became intense. It led to a split in Buddhism. One group was Hinayana and other was Mahayana.

7. In the Hindu tradition also a messiah concept developed. The ancient Hindu religion originated from this concept. There were two traditions in the ancient Hinduism: Vaishnava and Saiva.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 4 Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings

Time Line – 1
Important Religious Happenings

  • 1500-1000BC: Early Veda Traditions
  • 1000-500 BC: Later Veda Traditions.
  • 6th century BC: Early Upanishads, Jainism, Buddhism
  • 3rd century BC: The first Stupas
  • From 2nd CBC: The development of Mahayana Buddhism, Vaishnava Religion, Saiva Religion and Adoration of goddesses
  • 3rd century AD: Early Temples.

Time Line – 2

  • 1814: The founding of Indian Museum in Calcutta
  • 1834: Ram Raja publishes his Essay on the Architecture of the Hindus. Cunningham makes excavations in Sanchi.
  • 1835-42: James Fargunan makes researches in the main archaeological sites.
  • 1851: Establishment of the Government museum at Madras.
  • 1854: Alexander Cunningham publishes one of his early books on Sanchi entitled “Bhilsa Topes”.
  • 1878: Rajendra Lai Mitra publishes “Buddha Gaya – The Heritage of Sakya Muni”.
  • 1880: H.H. Kaul is appointed as the Curator of ancient monuments.
  • 1888: The Treasure Trove Act is passed. This authorizes the government to acquire all ancient archaeological properties.
  • 1914: John Marshal and Alfred Foucher jointly publish “The Monuments of Sanchi”.
  • 1923: John Marshal publishes. ‘Conservation Manual’.
  • 1955: Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru lays the foundation stone for the Delhi National Museum.
  • 1989: Sanchi is declared a World Heritage Site.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 3 Kinship, Caste and Class

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Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 3 Kinship, Caste and Class

1. Family is the basic unit of society. But all families are not alike. There are differences in the number of members, their mutual relationships and the activities they do.

2. From BCE 6th century, most families in India followed the patriarchal system. This was a male-dominant system. After the death of the father, only the sons were entitled to his property. If the father was a king, the right to the crown belonged to the sons. This patriarchal system played a big role in marriage.

3. Since sons were the heirs to the authority and paternal property, they had much importance in this system. Daughters were not entitled to family property. It was considered best to marry them to homes which were not connected with them in any blood relationship.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

4. The Dharmasutras and Dharmasastrds acknowledged 8 kinds of marriages.

5. The first 4 kinds were considered good. The remaining four were ridiculed and rejected. It is believed that these ridiculed types were practised by those who did not follow the Brahmin laws.

6. Caste or Jati shows a group in the social hierarchy. It was during the end of the Rigveda period that social divisions based on Caste distinctions came into existence.

7. There were many people in the society that did not approve the caste ideas of the Brahmins. Sanskrit Books of those times call these people, who were outside the influence Brahmin laws, uncivilized, ugly and animal-like.

8. In different parts of the subcontinent, many kinds of social classes came up at this time. There were slaves, landless agricultural workers, hunters, fishermen, shepherds, farmers, village heads, artisans, traders and royal people. Their status was determined or based on their resources.

9. Buddhists were aware of the social inequalities. Brahmins saw inequality as something divinely ordained. This.theory was rejected by the Buddhists. They believed that social inequalities were neither by birth nor ordained by God. It is possible to overcome them. Therefore Buddhists developed institutions that were capable of controlling social conflicts.

10. “Mahabharat” is considered as an “Ithihas” (Classic)of early Sanskrit literature. The literal meaning of ‘Ithihas ‘ is “Thus it was”.

11. The real writing of Mahabharata started in BCE 5th century. It is the Brahmins who took the initiative to do it. The Mahabharata story which was in oral tradition was collected by them and it was written down.

12. The most important feature of Mahabharata is its energy. Even with the Sanskrit edition its growth did not end. Different editions of the “Ithihas” continued to be written in different languages for centuries. So many stories which were popular in certain areas or among certain sections of the people became part of the Ithihas.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

Time Line – 1
Important Books

  • Around 500 BC: Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, a book on grammar
  • Around 500 BC: Important Dharma Sutras (Sanskrit)
  • Around 500-200 BC: Tripitaka (Pali) and other early Buddhist books. Around.
  • Around 500 BC to-400 AD: Ramayana and Mahabharata (Sanskrit)
  • Around 500 BC to 200 AD: The writings and collection of books by Tamil Sangham’; Manusmriti (Sanskrit)
  • Around 100 AD: Charakasamhita and Susruthasamhita (medical books)
  • Around 300 AD: Bharata’s Natyasastra (Sanskrit), about performing arts.
  • Around 300 to 6Q0 AD: Other Book on Dharmasastra (Sanskrit)
  • Around 400-500AD: Sanskrit Plays including those of Kalidas; Books on Astrology and Mathematics (Sanskrit) by Varahamihira and Aryabhatta; Jain Writings in Prakrit.

Time Line – 2
Milestones in the Study of Mahabharata

  • 1919-1966: Critical Studies on Mahabharata
  • 1973: J.A.B. van Buitenen started the English translation of the Critical Judies of Mahabharata. But he died prematurely and the translation is incomplete.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns

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Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns

600 BC to 600 CE

1. The long period of 1500 years after the end of the Harappan Civilization was an important period in Indian history. During this period many important things happened in different parts of the Indian subcontinent. Rigveda was written.

Agricultural settlements came up in places like North India, Deccan Plateau and parts of Karnataka. There were new burial systems in Deccan and South India. Huge stone constructions were made. “Mahasiia’was one of them. Along with dead bodies many iron tools and weapons were also buried.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

2. The Dawn of Early Nations:
Big nations known as ‘Mahajanapadas’ came into existence during this period.

3. The Coming of Cities and Towns:
This was the period of the 2nd Urbanization in Indian history.

4. Increased use of Iron:
As the use of iron increased, forests were cleared. It led to the spread of agriculture. The iron weapons increased the importance of warriors.

5. Spread of Coin (Currency) system:
The use of metal coins helped the development of trade and commerce.

6. The political history of India from BCE 600 is also the history of fights between the Mahajanapadas for power and sovereignty. The final victory in these fights was Magadha’s. Magadha became the number one among 16 Mahajanapadas. Magadha included the present Patna and Gaya districts in Bihar.

7. With the advent of the Maurya Empire, the growth of Magadha reached its peak. The period of the Maurya Empire can be considered as a new era in Indian history. It was one of the most powerful and extensive empires in ancient India.

8. Asoka was the greatest among the Maurya Emperors. The main event during his reign was the Kalinga War and his conversion to Buddhism. It was after a bloody war in 261 BCE that he conquered Kalinga, which is known as Orissa today.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

9. The Mauryas organized an extensive administration. The Mauryan Empire was quite large with extensive areas. There were different regions like mountainous areas, deserts, boundary regions and extensive shores.

10. Following the collapse of the Mauryan Empire, some political instability took place in North India. The North Eastern Region of India was occupied by the Greeks, Sakas, Parthians and Kushanas.

The administration in the Ganges Plain was captured by the Sungans. Kalinga (Orissa) came under the power of Chedi dynasty. The rule of Western Deccan went to the Satavahanas.

11. After the fall of the Mauryan Empire, many small States came into existence. By the 4thh Century CE, some big nations also began to appear. The most important of them was the Gupta Empire. Many of these nations depended on the feudal lords, called Deputies, for administering their territories.

These feudal lords lived by controlling the land and collecting produce from the people. They gave the kings loyalty and also military support. Sometimes some powerful Lords conquered the weaker ones and themselves became kings.

Time Line – 1
The important political and economic events.

  • BC 600-500: Urbanization of the Ganges Plain, Mahajanapadas (Settlements), Sealed Coins.
  • BC 500-400: The Magadh rulers unify their administration.
  • BC 327-325: Alexander from Macedonia attacks.
  • BC 321: Chandragupta Maurya comes to power.
  • BC 273-232: The rule of Emperor Asoka.
  • BC 185: The end of Mauryan Dynasty.
  • BC 200-100: Indo-Greek rule in the North-Western Region; In South India Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas; in Deccan Satavahanas.
  • BC 100: Sakas from Central India come to power.
  • AD 78: Kanishka comes to power.
  • AD 100-200: The earliest inscriptions of Satavahanas and Sakas making land- gifts.
  • AD 320: The beginning of Gupta Dynasty
  • AD 335-375: The Reign of Samudragupta
  • AD 375-415: Chandragupta II; in the Deccan Vakatakas
  • AD 500-600: The rise of Chalukyas in Karnataka and Pallavas in Tamil Nadu.
  • AD 606-647: Reign ofHarshavajdhana in Kanuj; the Chinese Pilgrim Huantsang comes to India seeking Chinese Religious Books.
  • AD 712: Arabs conquer Sindh

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

Time Line – 2
Developments in ancient epigraphy

  • AD 1784: Asiatic Society is established in Bengal.
  • AD 1810: Colin Mackenzie collected more than 8000 inscriptions in Sanskrit and Dravidian languages.
  • AD 1838: James Prinsep reads Asoka’s inscriptions in Brahmi language.
  • AD 1877: Alexander Cunningham published some of the inscriptions of Asoka.
  • AD 1886: The first Issue of the Journal called ‘Epigraphia Karnatica’, which discussed things about the South Indian inscriptions on lithic surfaces and copper plates, was published.
  • AD 1888: The First Issue of “Epigrapia Indika” was published.
  • AD 1965-66: D.C. Sircar published Indian Epigraphy and Indian Epigraphical Glossary.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

Students can Download Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones Notes, Plus Two History Notes helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

1. 4500 years ago, in the North-West region of the Indian Sub-Continent there existed a great culture. In 1921, at Harappan site, this culture was first discovered. It was known as the “Sindhu River Basin Culture”.

2. Before the coming of the Harappan Culture, there had been many other cultures. They are collectively known as Early Harappan Culture. This was the formulation of the Harappan Culture. Harappan Culture begins from here.

3. The most important feature of the Harappan Culture is the development of Urban Centres. It was during the time of the Harappan Culture that the First Urbanization began. Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Chanhudaro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Banwali, and Dholavira were some of the important cities of those times.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

4. The most important site in Harappan Civilization is Mohenjo-Daro. This was discovered After Harappa. It was from Mohenjo-Daro most information regarding urban planning, houses, seals etc. of the Harappan Civilization were obtained. This big city was situated in the Larkana district of Sindh, on the banks of the Sindhu River. The word Mohenjo-Daro means The Mound of the Dead’. The excavations made here revealed the remains of a planned urban centre.

This city was divided into two parts:

  • The Citadel, and
  • The Lower Town.

5. A significant feature of the Harappan Civilization is the drainage system found in the cities.

6. The Harappan people earned their livelihood through agriculture and animal husbandry.

7. Archaeologists point out that there were social and economic inequalities among the Harappan society. It is all clear from the way they buried their dead, luxury items, and different types of residences.

8. The Harappans collected raw materials for their manufactured goods (artefacts) from faraway places. This was done mainly through commerce. The Harappan people had commercial ties with Oman, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan and Persia.

9. Seals were great artistic creations of the Harappan people. It is from these seals that we learn about their agriculture, animals, birds, trees, dress, ornaments, religious faiths, arts and foreign trade.

10. Seals are the sources from which we get information from the Harappan Script.

11. By BCE 1800, the Harappan Culture began to crumble. Most developed sites like Kolistan were abandoned. People began to migrate to new habitats in Gujarat, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh. The remaining habitations were subjected to great changes. The main symbols of the Harappan Civilization like the weights, seals and special beads began to disappear.

Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

Writing, Long-distance trade, specially hand-crafted goods, etc. also disappeared. The technical skills in the building of houses also deteriorated. Construction of huge building came to a complete stop. Urban life also changed.

A rural kind of life came in its place. The goods made and the habitations give indications of this rural life. The civilizations that came up after the min of the Harappan Civilization are called “Late Harappan” or “Successor Cultures” by scholars.

12. The first person to observe things about the Harappan Civilization was Charles Masson, who was an English official. He happened to visit the Harappan village in 1826. There he observed the remains of an ancient city.

In 1856, when the railway line was being built between Karachi and Lahore, the Railway Engineers also found the remains of some ruined cities of the Harappan Civilization.

Time Line Harappan Archaeological Studies
Important Events
19th Century:
1875: Report of Cunningham regarding the Harappan Seals.

20th Century:

  • 1921: M.S. Vats starts excavating (digging) in Harappa
  • 1925: Digging starts at Mohenjo Daro
  • 1946: Digging in, Harappa under the leadership of Mortimer Wheeler
  • 1955: S.R. Rao starts digging at Lothal
  • 1960: B.Bv Lai and B.K. Thapar begin digging at Kalibengan
  • 1974: M.R. Mughal starts digging at Bahavalpur
  • 1980: A group of German and Italian archaeologists start research in and around Mohenjo Daro.
  • 1986: An American team begins digging at Harappa
  • 1990: R.S. Bisht starts digging in Dhotaveera
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