Plus Two Hindi Previous Year Question Paper Say 2018

Kerala State Board New Syllabus Plus Two Hindi Previous Year Question Papers and Answers.

Kerala Plus Two Hindi Previous Year Question Paper Say 2018 with Answers

 

Board SCERT
Class Plus Two
Subject Hindi
Category Plus Two Previous Year Question Papers

Time: 21/2 Hours
Cool off time: 15 Minutes
Maximum: 80 Score

General Instructions Candidates:

  • There is a ‘Cool-off time’ of 15 minutes in addition to the writing time.
  • Use the ‘Cool-off time’ to get familiar with questions and to plan your answers.
  • Read questions carefully before answering.
  • Read the instructions carefully.
  • Calculations, figures and graphs should be shown in the answer sheet itself.
  • Give equations wherever necessary.
  • Electronic devices except non-programmable calculators are not allowed in the Examination Hall.

सूचना : कवितांश पढ़ें और 1 से 3 तक के प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखें।

हे मातृभूमि तू सत्य ही सगुण मूर्ति सर्वेश की ।।
जिसके रज में लोट-लोटकर बड़े हुए हैं।
घुटनों के बल सरक-सरक खड़े हुए हैं।
परमहंस सम बाल्यकाल में सब सुख पाए।
जिसके कारण धूल भरे हीरे कहलाए।।
हम खेले-कूदे हर्षयुत जिसकी प्यारी गोद में।

प्रशन 1.
कवि के अनुसार सर्वेश की सगुण मूर्ति कौन है? (1)
उत्तर:
सर्वेश की सगुण मूर्ति है मातृभूमि।

प्रशन 2.
“धूल” शब्द का समानार्थी शब्द चुनकर लिखें। (देह, रज, मेघ) (1)
उत्तर:
रज

प्रशन 3.
द्विवेदी युगीन काव्य-प्रवृत्तियों के आधार पर कवितांश की आस्वादन टिप्पणी लिखें। (6)
उत्तर:
श्री मैथिली शरण गुप्त द्विवेदी युग के प्रसिद्ध कवि हैं। गुप्तजी की प्रसिद्ध रचना है मातृभूमि। इसमें उन्होंने अपनी जन्मभूमि का गुणगान किया है। गुप्तजी की प्रमुख रचनाएँ हैं साकेत, यशोधरा, पंचवटी आदि।

कवि कह रहे हैं कि मातृभूमि ईश्वर का सगुण-साकार मूर्ति है। मातृभूमि की धूलि में लोट-लोटकर ही हम बड़े हुए हैं। इसी भूमि पर घुटनों के बल सरक-सरक कर हम खड़े हुए हैं। आज तक जो कुछ हमने पाया है सब मातृभूमि का ही देन है। इसी भूमि से ही हमने श्रीराम कृष्ण परमहंस के समान सभी आनंद की प्राप्ति की है। इस जन्मभूमि की गोदी में खेल-कूद करके हर्ष का अनुभव किया। ऐसी मातृभूमि को देखकर हम हर्ष और आनंद से मग्न हो जाते हैं।

सरल शब्दों द्वारा कवि ने मातृभूमि पर अपनी जान अर्पित करने की प्रेरणा दी है। भारतीय परंपरा के अनुसार माँ और मातृभूमि स्वर्ग से भी महान है।

सूचनाः 4 से 7 तक के प्रश्नों में से किन्हीं 3 के उत्तर एक या दो वाक्यों में लिखें। प्रत्येक प्रश्न के 2 अंक हैं। (3 × 2 = 6)

प्रशन 4.
चमकती मेज़- कुरसियाँ
टी.वी., होम थियेटर बैठक में भाते।
घर की बैठक में क्या-क्या चमकते हैं?
उत्तर:
घर की बैठक में मेज़-कुरसियाँ, टी.वी., होम थियेटर आदि चमकते हैं।

प्रशन 5.
‘मेरी जीत तेरी जीत
तेरी हार मेरी हार’ –
यहाँ गीतकार किसकी ओर इशारा करता है?
उत्तर:
यहाँ गीतकार मित्रता के महत्व की ओर इशारा करते हैं।

प्रशन 6.
“न कोई जन्मनेवाला और न कोई सहेजनेवाला” मुरकी के बारे में राजवंती ऐसा क्यों कहती है?
उत्तर:
मुरकी अनाथ है। उसका माँ-बाप भी नहीं और पति भी नहीं।

प्रशन 7.
मेरे सम्मुख आकर
बोली कोई लड़की
मुरझाए फूल की डंठल-ज्यों।
यहाँ कवि ने लड़की की तुलना किससे की है?
उत्तर:
यहाँ कवि ने लड़की की तुलना मुरझाए फूल की डंठल से की है।

प्रशन 8.
सूचनाः सही मिलान करें। (Scores : 8 × 1 = 8)
Atom – बनस्पति विज्ञान
Bacteria – प्रतिशत
Botany – जीवाणु
Commerce – परमाणु
Energy – भूगोल
Geography – ऊर्जा
Percent – उपग्रह
Satellite – वाणिज्य
उत्तर:
Atom – परमाणु
Bacteria – जीवाणु
Botany – बनस्पति विज्ञान
Commerce – वाणिज्य
Energy – ऊर्जा
Geography – भूगोल
Percent – प्रतिशत
Satellite – उपग्रह

सूचनाः 9 से 13 तक के प्रश्नों में से किन्हीं 4 के उत्तर पाँच या छः वाक्यों में लिखें। (4 × 4 = 16)

प्रशन 9.
तेरी ही यह देह, तुझी से बनी हुई है।
बस तेरे ही सुरस-सार से सनी हुई है।।
फिर अंत समय तू ही इसे अचल देख अपनाएगी।
हे मातृभूमि! यह अंत में तुझ में ही मिल जाएगा।
– मनुष्य और मातृभूमि का संबंध अटूट है। इस पर अपना विचार प्रकट करें।
उत्तर:
कवि के अनुसार जो कुछ हमने प्राप्त किया है सब मातृभूमि का ही देन है। यह देह तेरा है, तुझसे बनी हुई है। मृत्यु होने पर निर्जीव शरीर को भी तू ही अपनाएगा। अंत में हम सब तेरी ही मिट्टी में विलीन हो जाएँगे।

प्रशन 10.
यह कथन पढ़ें:

  • घर से जुदा और ऐसे जुदा कि अब जीतेजी किसी से मिलने की आस नहीं है।
  • दिल्लीवाले मुझको रोते होंगे।
    ………… मैं भी उनको रोता हूँ।
  • हमारी कब्र परदेस में बनेगी, तय है।
    बादशाह के चरित्र पर टिप्पणी लिखें।

उत्तर:
बादशाह सच्चा देश प्रेमी है। अंग्रेज़ों के कैद में रहने पर भी वह अपने देश और देशवासियों से प्यार करता है। उसके मन में अपने परिवारवालों के प्रति भी अगाध प्यार है। जनता के बारे में सोचकर वह रोता है। वह एक आदर्श देशप्रेमी एवं प्यारी पिता है। कोसों दूर रहने पर भी अपने परिवारवालों और दिल्लीवालों के प्रति उसके दिल में प्रेम और सहानुभूति है।

प्रशन 11.
सतमुख देख जसोदा फूली।
हरषित देखि दूध की द॑तियाँ प्रेम मगन-तनु की सुधि भूली।।
बाहिर ते तब नद बुलाए देखौ घौं सुन्दर सुखदाई।
-सूरदास का “बालकृष्ण-वर्णन” अनुपम है। पद्यांश के आधार पर समर्थन करें।
उत्तर:
सूरदास वात्सल्य वर्णन के राजा है। उनका वात्सल्य वर्णन अनुपम है। अपने बेटे का मुख देखकर माँ यशोदा जब खुश हो जाती है इसका सुंदर चित्रण सूरदास ने यों किया है – अपने बेटे का मुख देखकर माता यशोदा बहुत खुश हुई। हर्ष के साथ अपने बेटे के दूध की दाँत देखकर यशोदा का होश खो गया। वह बाहर से अपने पति को बुलाकर यह सुंदर दृश्य दिखाती है। उनके मुख और दृष्टि दोनों खुशी से भर गई। सूरदास कहते हैं कि किलकारी करनेवाले कृष्ण के दाँतों को देखकर ऐसा लगता है मानों कमल पर बिजली जम गई है। श्रीकृष्ण की बाल लीलाओं का अनुपम चित्रण सूरदास के पदों में मिलते हैं।

प्रशन 12.
जीवन-वृत्त पढ़ें, और अमृता प्रीतम के बारे में एक अनुत्छेद. तैयार करें।

जीवन-वृत्त

नाम : अमृता प्रीतम
जन्म : 1919
जन्म स्थान : पंजाब
विशेषता : 1982 में ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार
प्रमुख रचनाएँ : कहानियों के आँगन में,कहानियाँ जो कहानियाँ नहीं है।
निधन : 2005 में
उत्तर:
अमृता प्रीतम हिंदी के विख्यात लेखिका है। उनका जन्म पंजाब के गुजरावाला गाँव में 1919 को हुआ। कई भाषाओं में उनकी रचनाओं का अनुवाद हुआ था। 1982 में भारत सरकार ने ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार से उन्हें सम्मानित किया। ‘कहानियों के आँगन में’, ‘कहानियाँ जो कहानी नहीं है’ आदि उनकी प्रमुख एवं चर्चित कहानी-संग्रह हैं। 2005 में उनका निधन हुआ। हिंदी साहित्य जगत में अमृता प्रीतम का नाम सदा अमर रहेगा।

प्रशन 13.
“बेटी के विदा होने में अभी दो चार दिन वक्त था। मगर ज़मीन की विदाई आज ही हो रही थी।” ज़मीन और बेटी की विदाई पर पिताजी दुःखी है। पिताजी के आत्मसंघर्ष पर टिप्पणी लिखें।
उत्तर:
एकांत श्रीवास्तव की आत्मकथात्मक रचना है “जमीन एक स्लेट का नाम है”। इसमें श्रीवास्वजी ने अपने पिताजी का आत्मसंघर्ष को अत्यंत मार्मिक रूप में चित्रित किया है। बेटी की शादी की खर्चा के लिए पिताजी को अपना ज़मीन बेचना पड़ता है। एक ओर मिट्टी और दूसरी ओर पुत्री दोनों बूढ़े पिताजी से बिदाई ले रही थी। मिट्टी और बेटी की बिदाई से आहें भरते पिताजी का आत्मसंघर्ष का पता केवल लेखक को ही है। इसलिए ही अंत में लेखक यह प्रश्न उठाता है कि पिताजी के सूखे आँसुओं को और उनके निश्शब्द विलाप को कौन सुन सकता है?

सूचना : गद्यांश पढ़ें और प्रश्न संख्या 14, 15 के उत्तर लिखें।

दिनांक 6 जून को प्रातः सम्मेलन का शुभारंभ करते हुए सूरीनाम के आफ्रीकी मूल के राष्ट्रपति रुनाल्डो वेनेत्सियायन ने अपने उद्बोधन में कहा था – सूरीनाम और भारत के बीच प्रगाढ़ आत्मीय संबंध है। दोनों देश अनेक अर्थों में एक दूसरे से गहरे जुड़े हैं। दोनों के बीच पुराने भाषाई संबंध है। भाषा भावों की अभिव्यक्ति का सश्क्त माध्यम होती है। हिंदी की जननी संस्कृत की अपनी विशेषताएँ हैं। उसके साथ-साथ आज विश्व की एक प्रमुख भाषा के रूप में हिंदी भी उभर रही है।

प्रशन 14.
सूरीनाम और भारत के बीच का संबंध किस प्रकार का है? (2)
उत्तर:
सूरीनाम और भारत के बीच प्रगाढ़ आत्मीय संबंध है। दोनों देश एक दूसरे से जुड़े हुए हैं।

प्रशन 15.
गद्यांश का संक्षेपण करें और शीर्षक दें। (6)
उत्तर:

अत्मीय संबंध

विश्वहिंदी सम्मेलन के शुभारंभ में राष्ट्रपति ने कहा कि सूरीनाम और भारत के बीच गहरी आत्मीय संबंध है। दोनों देशों के बीच पुरानी भाषाई संबंध है। आज विश्व की प्रमुख भाषा के रूप में हिंदी उभर आ रही है।

सूचना : 16 से 19 तक के प्रश्नों में से किन्हीं तीन के उत्तर लिखें। प्रत्येक प्रश्न के 3 अंक है। (3 × 6 = 18)

प्रशन 16.
‘बेटी के नामट पाठ का यह अंश पढ़ें:
“फिर वही हुआ, जिसका डर था । हमारा खर्चा आधा कर दिया गया।” – ब्रिटिश सरकार ने कैदियों को दिए गए खर्च में कटौती की। संकेतों के आधार पर समाचार तैयार करें।

  • मुसलमानों द्वारा तोहफा लाना।
  • मलिका का हार देना।
  • ब्रिटिशों का हुक्म आना।

उत्तर:

कैदियों के खर्चा में कटौती

रंगूनः ब्रिटीश सरकार की ओर से कैदियों पर खोर प्रहार। आज दिल्ली में हुए ब्रिटिश जेल अधिकारियों के सम्मेलन में कैदियों को दिया जानेवाला खर्चा को आधा करवाने का फैसला हुआ। पिछले दिन ईद के अवसर पर रंगून के जेल में कैदियों के पास बहुत सारे गहने रहने का खबर मिला था। अधिकारियों की जाँच में यह सच निकला था। बहादुरशाह ज़फर से मिलने आए लोगों को कैदी बादशाह ने इनाम के रूप में मलिका का हार दिया था। इस घटना के आधार पर ही जेल अधिकारियों ने कैदियों का खर्चा आधा करवाने का सुप्रधान फैसला बनाया। इसके आधार पर कैदियों को मिलने के लिए आनेवालों पर भी कठिन नियंत्रण लगाने की संभावना है।

प्रशन 17.
लड़के ने कमरे में घुसते ही देखा कि पिताजी कविता पढ़ रहे हैं और उनके मित्र मरे पड़े हैं। इस घटना का उल्लेख लड़का अपनी डायरी में करता है। वह डायरी 60 – 80 शब्दों में तैयार करें।

  • पिताजी से मिलने में आतुर
  • डॉक्टरों की चेतावनी
  • मित्र का निधन

उत्तर:

29
मार्च
2016

रविवार

अलहबाद।
रात दस बजे।

आज का दिन …….. मैं कभी भूल नहीं सकूँगा। मम्मी की फॉनकॉल के आधार पर ही मैं तुरंत अस्पताल आया, जहाँ पिताजी की भर्ती की गयी थी। मम्मी ने कहा था, पिताजी का तबियत एकदम खराब है। मगर यहाँ आकर जब मैं पिताजी के कमरे में घुसा, मुझे शाक सा लगा। पिताजी कविता पाठ कर रहे हैं और उनके मित्र मरे पड़े हैं ज़मीन पर! मुझे कुछ समझ में नहीं आया था। बाद में डॉक्टरों से बातें करने पर मुझे सब कुछ समझ में आया।
हे भगवान! आप कृपालु है।

प्रशन 18.
ग्यारहवाँ विश्व हिन्दी सम्मेलन मॉरीशस में होनेवाला है। सूचनाओं के आधार पर एक पोस्टर तैयार करें।

  • विश्व हिन्दी सम्मेलन – 2018
  • तीसरी बार मॉरीशस में
  • अनेक हिन्दी प्रेमियों की भागीदारी
  • विश्व-भाषा के रूप में हिन्दी

उत्तर:
Plus Two Hindi Previous Year Question Paper Say 2018, 1

प्रशन 19.
खंड का हिंदी में अनुवाद करें।
India became a free country on August 15, 1947. So August 15 is called the Independence day of India. The British rule came to an end on this day. On this day our first Prime Minister Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru unfurled the national flag at the Red Fort first time. It is a red letter day in the history of the country. It is celebrated all over the country with great enthusiasm.
(Rule – शासन, Unfurled – फहराया, red letter day – स्वर्णिम दिवस, Enthusiasm – उत्साह, Red Fort – लाल किला).
उत्तर:
15 अगस्त 1947 को भारत संवतंत्र हुआ। इसलिए 15 अगस्त को स्वाधीनता दिवस मनाया जाता है। भारत में अंग्रेज़ी राज का अंत इसी दिन में हुआ। इसी दिन में भारत के प्रथम प्रधानमंत्री जवाहरलाल नेहरुजी ने लाल किले में भारत का झंडा फहराया। भारत के इतिहास का यह स्वर्णिम दिन है। पूरे भारत में स्वतंत्रता दिवस बड़ी उत्साह और धूम-धाम से मनाया जाता है।

सूचनाः 20 से 22 तक के प्रश्नों में से किन्हीं दो के उत्तर लिखें। प्रत्येक प्रश्न के 8 अंक है। (2 × 8 = 16)

प्रशन 20.
‘मुरकी उर्फ बुलाकी’का अंश पढ़ें।
मुरकी शादी के बाद शहरी लडके के साथ किसी शहर में चार-छ: महीने रही। उसने घर बनाया। मुरकी ने भी जो कुछ अपने पास था, घर बनाने में लगा दिया। इस घटना का उल्लेख करते हुए मुरकी राजवंती को पत्र लिखती है। वह पत्र तैयार करें।

  • पति के साथ नई जिन्दगी।
  • सारे गहने बेचकर घर बनाना।
  • भविष्य के सपने

उत्तर:

पटना,
19.04.2019

प्रिय माँ,
सप्रेम नमस्ते।
मुझे विश्वास है कि ईश्वर की असीम कृपा से आप ठीक हैं। बेटा कुमार कैसे हैं? हम भी यहाँ खुश हैं।
एक खास बात बताने के लिए ही मैं यह पत्र लिख रहा हूँ। अब हम एक घर बना रहे हैं। मेरा पतिदेव मुझसे बहुत प्यार करता है। घर बनाने के लिए ही वह अब ज्यादा समय काम में लगाता है। मेरे पास जितने गहनेपैसे थे सब मैं ने घर बनाने में लगा दिया। एक छोटा सा घर है। पूरा होने पर आप को खबर करूँगी मैं । हमारे नए घर में कुछ दिन आपके साथ रहने की बहुत इच्छा है। मेरा विश्वास है कि ज़रूर आप मेरी प्रार्थना सुनेंगी। इतना लिखकर मैं यह पत्र यहाँ समाप्त करती हूँ। बहुत जल्दी ही आपसे मिलने की प्रतीक्षा में हूँ।

आपकी प्यारी,
मुरकी।

प्रशन 21.
पिताजी के आत्मसंघर्ष को देखकर बेटी दुःखी हुई। वह . अपने आप को परिवार के लिए बोझ समझने लगी। वह अपना दुःख आत्मकथा में सूचित् करती है। वह आत्मकथांश 100 – 120 शब्दों में तैयार करें।

  • भाई और पिता का प्यार
  • शादी की तैयारियाँ
  • ज़मीन के प्रति पिताजी का लगाव ।
  • परिवार के लिए बोझ बनने का अहसास।

उत्तर:

मेरा जीवन

खुशियों से भरी परिवार में ही मेरा जन्म हुआ था। माँबाप, भाई सब मुझसे बहुत प्यार करते हैं। अब भी खुशी का समय है। मगर घर में जो हो रहा है इस पर मैं खुश नहीं। मेरी शादी के लिए सभी लोग बहुत कष्ठ उठाते हैं। पिताजी को अपना ज़मीन बेचना पड़ रहा है। सभी के लिए मैं शायद बोझ बन गयी हूँ। इतना कष्ट उठाकर ससुराल भेजने पर क्या मुझे वहाँ खुशी मिलेगी? पता नहीं। सब कुछ देखकर मुझे डर भी हो रहा है। भगवान मेरी रक्षा करें।

प्रशन 22.
‘वह भटका हुआ पीर’ पाठ भाग का यह अंश पढ़ें:
‘गर्मी की एक साँझ में वह मेरे गेट के सामने खड़ा होकर मुझसे पूछ रहा था, पानी पिएँगी? अभी भरवाकर ला रहा हूँ।’ – संकेतों के आधार पर लेखिका एवं स्कूटरवाले के बाच का वार्तालाप तैयार करें।

  • स्कूटरवाले के साथ लेखिका की यात्रा
  • रास्ते में यात्रियों की पानी देना।
  • पैसा देकर मश्क भरवाना।
  • पुण्य काम करना।

उत्तर:
स्कूटरवाला : पानी पिएँगे? अभी भरवाकर ला रहा हूँ।
लेखिका : हाँ-हाँ। क्यों नहीं! तुम अंदर तो आओ।
स्कूटरवाला : जी। अंदर आया। आज कहीं नहीं जाना है क्या?
लेखिका : नहीं। उस दिन की यात्रा तो बड़ी अजीब लगा।
स्कूटरवाला : ऐसा क्यों?
लेखिका : तुम जैसे एक स्कूटरवाले को मैं पहली बार देख रहा हूँ।
स्कूटरवाला : मैं ने ऐसा क्या किया है जी?
लेखिका : कोई भी स्कूटरवाला रास्ते में यात्रियों को पानी नहीं पिलाता है और पैसा देकर मश्क भरवाता है।
स्कूटरवाला : जी मैं काम अपना फर्ज़ समझकर ही कर रहा है।
लेखिका : जो भी हो। बहुत अच्छा काम तुम कर रहे हो। भगवान तुम्हारी भलाई करेगा।
स्कूटरवाला : धन्यवाद जी। एक बार मेरी बेबे ने मुझसे कहा, “तू पानी पिलाया कर, पुण्य मिलता है।” उसी दिन से मैं यह कार्य कर रहा हूँ।

Plus Two Hindi Previous Year Question Paper March 2019

Kerala State Board New Syllabus Plus Two Hindi Previous Year Question Papers and Answers.

Kerala Plus Two Hindi Previous Year Question Paper March 2019 with Answers

Board SCERT
Class Plus Two
Subject Hindi
Category Plus Two Previous Year Question Papers

Time: 21/2 Hours
Cool off time: 15 Minutes
Maximum: 80 Score

General Instructions Candidates:

  • There is a ‘Cool-off time’ of 15 minutes in addition to the writing time.
  • Use the ‘Cool-off time’ to get familiar with questions and to plan your answers.
  • Read questions carefully before answering.
  • Read the instructions carefully.
  • Calculations, figures and graphs should be shown in the answer sheet itself.
  • Give equations wherever necessary.
  • Electronic devices except non-programmable calculators are not allowed in the Examination Hall.

सूचना : कवितांश पढ़ें और 1 से 3 तक के प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखें :

नीलांबर परिधान हरित तट पर सुंदर है।
सूर्य-चंद्र युग मुकुट, मेखला रलाकर है।।
नदियाँ प्रेम प्रवाह फूल तारे मंडन हैं।
बंदीजन खग-वृंद, शेषफन सिंहासन है।।
करते अभिषेक पयोद हैं, बलिहारी इस वेष की।
हे मातृभूमि! तू सत्य ही, सगुण मूर्ति सर्वेश की।।

प्रशन 1.
मातृभूमि की मेखला क्या है? (1)
उत्तर :
रत्नाकर

प्रशन 2.
कवि ने प्रकृति के किन-किन दृश्यों द्वारा मातृभूमि का वर्णन किया है? (2)
उत्तर :
नीलाकाश, हरियाली, सूर्य-चन्द्र, समुद्र, नदियाँ, पक्षियों का समूह आदि के द्वारा कवि ने मातृभूमि का गुणगान किया है।

प्रशन 3.
कवितांश की आस्वादन टिप्पणि लिखें। (5)
उत्तर :
द्विवेदीयुग के प्रसिद्ध कवि हैं श्री मैथिली शरण गुप्त । गुप्तजी की एक प्रसिद्ध कविता है मातृभूमि । इसमें उन्होंने अपने जन्मभूमि का गुणगान किया है। गुप्तजी की प्रमुख रचनाएँ हैं साकेत, यशोधरा, पंचवटी आदि।

नीलांबर रूपी वस्त्र पहनकर, हरियाली भरे तट पर, सूर्य-चंद्र का मुकुट धारण करके सागर रूपी मेखला पहनकर मातृभूमि शोभित है। नदियाँ यहाँ प्रेम-प्रवाह करती है। फूल और तारे इसके आभूषण हैं। पक्षियाँ इसके बंदीजन हैं। शेष नाग के फन रूपी सिंहासन पर विराजित है मातृभूमि। इसके ऊपर बादल प्रेम का अभिषेक कर रहे हैं। सर्वेश के सभी गुणों से युक्त मातृभूमि पर कवि आत्मसमर्पण कर रहे हैं।

सरल शब्दों द्वारा कवि ने मातृभूमि पर अपनी जान अर्पित करने की प्रेरणा दी है। भारतीय परंपरा के अनुसार माँ और मातृभूमि स्वर्ग से भी महान है।

सूचनाः सही मिलान करें। (8 × 1 = 8)

प्रशन 4.
Advance – पारिस्थितिकी
Virus – उपकर
Ecology – अनुपात
Copyright – भूगोल
Cess – पेशगी
Geography – विषाणु
Ratio – औसत
Average – सर्वाधिकार
उत्तर :
Advance – पेशगी
Virus – विषाणु
Ecology – पारिस्थितिकी
Copyright – सर्वाधिकार
Cess – उपकर
Geography – भूगोल
Ratio – अनुपात
Average – औसत

सूचना : 5 से 8 तक के प्रश्नों में से किन्हीं 3 के उत्तर एक या दो वाक्यों में लिखें। (3 × 2 = 6)

प्रशन 5.
‘ज़मीन एक स्लेट का नाम है’ नामक आत्मकथांश में दो विदाइयाँ हैं, वे कौन-कौन सी हैं?
उत्तर :
यहाँ दो बिदाइयाँ हो रही हैं। वे हैं बेटी की बिदाई और ज़मीन की बिदाई।

प्रशन 6.
मुरकी राजवंती के घर कैसे पहूँची?
उत्तर :
एक दयालु व्यक्ति से राह का भाडा लेकर मुरकी राजवंती के घर पहुँच गयी।

प्रशन 7.
‘हरषित देखि दूध की द॑तियाँ
प्रेम मगन तनु सुधि भूली’
यशोदा अपने आपको भूल गई। क्यों?
उत्तर :
अपने पुत्र के मुख पर दूध की दंतियाँ देखकर यशोदा अपने आपको भूल गई।

प्रशन 8.
‘लेकिन अभी तो हम लकड़ी की भीगी हुई कब्र में जिंदा ही दफ़न है’ – बादशाह ऐसे क्यों सोचते हैं?
उत्तर :
बादशाह को मालूम है कि उसका अंत भी अंग्रेज़ों के कैद में ही होगा। इसलिए बादशाह ऐसा सोचते हैं।

सूचना : 9 से 13 तक के प्रश्नों में से किन्हीं 4 के उत्तर पाँच या छः वाक्यों में लिखें। . (4 × 4 = 16)

प्रशन 9.
जीवन-वृत के आधार पर प्रसिद्ध कवि कुँवर नारायण के बारे में एक अनुच्छेद तैयार करें।
नाम : कुँवर नारायण
जन्म : 1927
जन्मस्थान : उत्तर प्रदेश के फैज़ाबाद
रचनाएँ : चक्रव्यूह, अपने सामने, कोई दूसरा नहीं, इन दिनों
पुरस्कार : ज्ञानपीठ
अन्य विधाएँ : कहानी, समीक्षा, सिनेमा
उत्तर :
कुंवर नारायण हिंदी के विख्यात समकालीन कवि है। उनका जन्म 1927 में उत्तरप्रदेश के फैज़ाबाद में हुआ। हिंदी साहित्य जगत के नई कविता आंदोलन के सशक्त हस्ताक्षर है श्री कुंवर नारायण। चक्रव्यूह, अपने सामने, कोई दूसरा नहीं आदि उनकी प्रमुख रचनाएँ हैं। कविता के अलावा कहानी, समीक्षा, सिनेमा आदि क्षेत्रों में भी उन्होंने अपनी प्रतिभा दिखायी है। देश के सर्वोच्च साहित्य पुरस्कार ज्ञानपीठ से 2005 में वे सम्मानित हुए।

प्रशन 10.
‘नभ गुंजाती
नीड़ गिरे शिशु पै
मँडराती माँ’ – ‘माँ की ममता अतुलनीय है’
हाइकू के आधार पर अपना विचार स्पष्ट करें।
उत्तर :
हिन्दी काव्य जगत में हाइकू को अलग पहचान दिलानेवाला कवि है श्री भगवत शरण अग्रवाल। मूल रूप से हाइकू जापानी कविता है। यह आज हिंदी में भी लिखी जाती है। प्रस्तुत हाइकू अग्रवालजी के इन्द्रधनुष नामक काव्य संग्रह से ली गई है। इसमें माँ की ममता का वर्णन करते हैं।

कवि कहते हैं, वर्षा होने पर पेड़ों से नीड़ नीचे गिरते हैं। ” परंतु नीचे गिरे बच्चों को छोड़कर उनकी माँ उड़ नहीं जाती हैं। माँ की ममता अतुलनीय है। कम शब्दों में बड़ी बातें कहने की क्षमता हाइकू में है। यह हाइकू इसका सफल उदाहरण है।

प्रशन 11.
‘भारत जीवन और स्वतंत्रता की नई सुबह के साथ उठेगा’ – नेहरूजी ऐसा क्यों कहते हैं?
उत्तर :
भारत सदियों से गुलाम था। गुलामी की अवस्था में एक देश की जनता अपनी प्रतिज्ञा के अनुसार देश की प्रगति में सहायता नहीं कर सकती। नेहरूजी का विश्वास है कि आज भारत स्वतंत्र हो रहा है। इसलिए स्वतंत्र भारत की जनता देश की प्रगति में खुद को अर्पित करेगी। नेहरूजी का विश्वास है प्रत्येक भारतीय स्वतंत्रता प्राप्ति के बाद कठिन परिश्रम द्वारा देश की प्रगति के लिए आगे आएगा।

प्रशन 12.
‘मन दीवार पर अपना विस्तृत घर खींचने लगी’
सपने के घर में कौन-कौन सी चीजें शोभा देती हैं?
उत्तर :
एक कमरेवाली झोंपड़ी में रहनेवाली स्त्री के सपने के घर में कई कमरे, रंग-बिरंगी दीवारें, संगमरमर की ज़मीन, ग्रानइट की रसोई एवं अन्य सारी सुख-सुविधाएँ हैं। घर में मेज़-कुर्सियाँ, टी.वी., होम थियेटर जैसी सारी चीजें हैं। सरोईघर की शान बढ़ाने के लिए फ्रिड्ज और माइक्रोवेव भी हैं। सपने के घर की शोभा बढ़ाने के लिए ये सब चीजें है।

प्रशन 13.
निम्नलिखित कथनों के आधार पर राजवंती के चरित्र पर टिप्पणी लिखें :
‘मैं प्यार से उसको मुरकी बुलाती थी कभी बुलाकी’
‘बड़ी मासूम-सी मातृहीन’
‘मरे जीते जी कभी कोई तुझसे यह चाबी नहीं छीनेगा’
उत्तर :
अमृता प्रीतम द्वारा रचित मुरकी उर्फ बुलाकी कहानी का प्रमुख पात्र है राजवंती। राजवंती मुरकी को एक नौकरानी के रूप में नहीं बल्कि अपनी बेटी के रूप में मानती थी। इसलिए ही वह मुरकी को दो नाम – मुरकी और बुलाकी – पुकारती है। उसकी भविष्य के बारे में भी राजवंती चिंतित थी। राजवंती दयालू और परोपकारी भी थी। दूसरों के प्रति उसके दिल में सच्ची सहानुभूति है। इसलिए ही वह कुमार द्वारा प्रण भी करवाती है कि कुमार मुरकी को उसकी कोठरी से कभी नहीं निकालेगा।

सूचना : गद्यांश पढ़ें और प्रश्न संख्या 14, 15 के उत्तर लिखें।

जब-जब मेरे घर-आँगन में ‘गुलमोहर’ खिलता है, तो मुझे भटके हुए पीर की याद आ जाती है, जो पग-पग पर खड़ा होकर प्यासों को पानी पिलाता है। चटख गुलमोहर की तरह चटख गर्मी की उस दोपहर में आँचल का छाता लिए जब मैं एक पटरी पर खड़ी होकर स्कूटर का इंतज़ार कर रही थी, तो मेरे पास एक स्कूटरवाला आकर खड़ा हो गया, मेरे कानों में एक आवाज़ गूंजी, ‘कहाँ जाइएगा’। पहले तो मुझे विश्वास ही नहीं हुआ कि किसी चालक की आवाज़ इतनी मधुर भी हो सकती है? मुझे जिस दिशा की ओर जाना था, उसे बताया तो उसने ‘हाँ’ की मुद्रा में सिर हिलाकर कहा ‘बैठिएगा’। इस करख्ती भरी दुनिया में जब करख्त आवाजें ही सुनाई देती हों, और एक ही आवाज़ मिश्री घुली हो, तो अचरज तो होता ही है।

प्रशन 14.
लेखिका को क्यों अचरज हुआ? (2)
उत्तर :
करख्ती भरी दुनिया में करख्त आवाज़ों के बीच जब स्कूटरवाले का मधुर शब्द सुना तो लेखिका को अचरज ‘हुआ।

प्रशन 15.
गद्यांश का संक्षेपण करें और शीर्षक लिखें। (6)
उत्तर :
अजब स्कूटरवाला

घर के आँगन में गुलमोहर देखने पर मुझको स्कूटरवाले की याद आती है। एक दोपहर में जब मैं स्कूटर का इंतजार कर रही थी तब वह मेरे सामने आया था। उसका मधुर आवाज़ और सुंदर व्यवहार मुझे चकित कर दिया।

सूचना : 16 से 19 तक के प्रश्नों में से किन्हीं 3 के उत्तर लिखें। (3 × 6 = 18)

प्रशन 16.
मुरली की ध्वनि में लीन दो गोपिकाओं के बीच होने वाली संभावित बातचीत तैयार करें।
– सब कामकाज भूल गई
. लोक-लाज की परवाह नहीं किया
– अनुशासन से डरी नहीं
उत्तर :
पहली गोपिका : हाय री, क्या तू ने कृष्ण की मुरली सुनी?
दूसरी गोपिका : हाँ, हाँ। कब से सुन रही हूँ! कितना मधुर है यह धुन।
पहली गोपिका : ठीक है री। मन को मोहित कर लेती है वह आवाज़।
दूसरी गोपिका : उससे मिलने के लिए तरस रही है।
पहली गोपिका : तो चल, हम अभी जाएंगी।
दूसरी गोपिका : अरे कैसे जाएँगे हम। घर में माँ जी है। उनसे कहे बिना हम नहीं जाएँगे।
पहली गोपिका : पर मैं अपने को रोक नहीं पा रही हूँ। उनसे मिले बिना कैसे जाएँगे हम!
दूसरी गोपिका : ठीक है। ठीक है। तो हमें कुछ न कुछ झूठ बोलना ही पड़ेगा।
पहली गोपिका : अच्छा! तो हम चलते हैं।
दूसरी गोपिका : जल्दी चल। पहले हम कालिन्दी तट पर जाएँगे।

प्रशन 17.
विश्व हिंदी सम्मेलन में भाग लेने के लिए सूरीनाम पहँचे लेखक उस दिन की डायरी लिखता है। लेखक की डायरी 60-80 शब्दों में तैयार करें।

  • उद्घाटन समारोह ।
  • हिंदी का प्रचार-प्रसार
  • प्रकृति वर्णन

उत्तर :

14
सितंबर
2019

बुधवार

पारामारिबो’
रात नौ बजे।
सफलता का दिन……

एक सपना आज साकार हो रहा है…….. विश्व हिंदी सम्मेलन में भाग लेने की इच्छा आज साकार हुआ। पारामारिबो शहर की पुण्यभूमि में सम्मेलन का शुभारंभ हुआ। राष्ट्रपति का उद्घाटन भाषण में हिंदी और उसकी गरिमा के बारे में उन्होंने खूब कहा। भारत और सूरीनाम के बीच पुराना भाषाई संबंध है। हिंदी के प्रचार-प्रसार में हिंदी फिल्मी गीतों और संगीत की बड़ी भूमिका है। हरियाली से आच्छादित यह भूमि के साथ-साथ हमारी हिंदी भाषा भी ‘अमर रही है।

प्रशन 18.
‘ये दोस्ती…
हम नहीं तोड़ेंगे
तोड़ेंगे दम मगर
तेरा साथ ना छोड़ेंगे’
दोस्ती के महत्व के बारे में 60-80 शब्दों में टिप्पणी तैयार करें।
उत्तर :
दोस्ती जीवन की कसौटी है। शोले फिल्म के दोस्ती नामक गीत में दोस्ती का ही गुणगान किया है। कवि के शब्दों में, मृत्यु के सामने दोस्ती के विजय होती है। दोस्ती में सुख-दुख, विजय-पराजय सब एक जैसा है। एक दूसरे के लिए जीने और मरने के लिए सच्चे दोस्त तैयार हो जाते हैं। देखने में अलग होते हुए भी दोस्त एक ही है। शरीर अलग है, मगर दिल से दोस्त एक ही है। सच्ची दोस्ती ऐसी ही है।

प्रशन 19.
खंड का हिंदी में अनुवाद करें।
Hindi is very important for our country. It is our National language. Hindi is life for us because it is that language by which we can express our feelings. It is a very easy language which can be spoken by everyone.
(important – महत्वपूर्ण, express – अभिव्यक्त करना)
उत्तर :
हिंदी देश के लिए अत्यंत महत्वपूर्ण है। यह हमारी राष्ट्रभाषा है। इसके द्वारा हम अपने विचारों को अभिव्यक्त कर सकते हैं। इसीलिए यह हमारी जीवन ही है। यह बहुत अच्छी और आसान भाषा है जिसका सभी लोग आसानी से प्रयोग कर सकते हैं।

सूचना : 20 से 22 तक के प्रश्नों में से किन्हीं 2 के उत्तर लिखें। (2 × 8 = 16)

प्रशन 20.
नये मॉडल का स्कूटर बाजार में आया है। बिक्री बढ़ाने के लिए उचित विज्ञापन तैयार करें।

  • आकर्षक रंग
  • नया मॉडल
  • कम दाम
  • मैलेज ज्यादा

उत्तर :
Plus Two Hindi Previous Year Question Paper March 2019, 1

प्रशन 21.
पति द्वारा उपेक्षित बुलाकी को राजवंती अपने यहाँ आश्रय देती है – इसके बारे में राजवंती अपनी सहेली को एक पत्र लिखती है। वह पत्र तैयार करें।

  • राजवंती के यहाँ आश्रय मिलना
  • पति द्वारा उपेक्षित मुरकी
  • जीवन भर चाबीं न छीनने का वादा मिलना

उत्तर :

मुंबई,
16.04.2016

प्रिय वाणि,
मेरा विश्वास है कि भगवान की कृपा से तुम ठीक हैं। घरवाले सब कुशल तो हैं न? मैं यहाँ खुश तो हूँ मगर एक खास बात दिल को घेर रही है………

बुलाकी को तुम जानती हो न? उसकी ब्याह के बारे में एक बार मैं ने तुम्हें पत्र लिखा था। अब वह संकट में पड़ गयी है। अब वह उपेक्षित है। उसका पति किसी और स्त्री के साथ गया। बेचारी मुरकी को मैं ने यहाँ आश्रय दिया है। मेरे घर में एक कोठरी मैं ने उसको दिया और घर की चाबी भी। जब स्त्री के पास रहने को घर न हो…. आखिर, औरत की जात न जाने कैसी होती है। जो मुझसे हो सका मैं ने किया। ईश्वर उसकी रक्षा करें। हाँ, वीणा, अब मैं आश्वस्त हूँ। सब कुछ तुम्हें भी बता दिया। अब मैं यह पत्र समाप्त करती हूँ।

दो महीने बाद मैं दिल्ली आ रही हूँ। तब ज़रूर तुमसे मिलूँगा। माँ जी को मेरा प्यार और प्रणाम कहना। जवाबी पत्र की प्रतीक्षा में।

तुम्हारी,
राजवंती
हस्ताक्षर

प्रशन 22.
‘नशीली चीज़ों का उपयोग’ विषय पर 100 – 120 शब्दों में एक भाषण तैयार करें।
– नशीली चीज़ों का बढ़ता उपयोग
– युवा पीढ़ी पर प्रभाव
. स्वास्थ्य पर हानि
. निवारण के उपाय ।
उत्तर :
मेरे प्रिय छात्रों…….
आज मैं आप सबके सम्मुख खड़ा हूँ। आप लोगों को एकसाथ देखकर मैं अत्यंत खुश भी हूँ। आज एक खास विषय पर आपसे कुछ कहने के लिए ही मैं यहाँ खड़ा हूँ। यह अत्यंत दुःख की बात है कि आजकल युवा पीढ़ी में नशीली चीज़ों का उपयोग बढ़ता आ रहा है। नशीली चीज़ों का प्रभाव इतना बढ़ गया है कि नशा मिलने के लिए युवा पीढ़ी कुछ भी करने के लिए तैयार हो रहा है। हमें यह पहचानना चाहिए कि इसका बुरा असर आदमी को समाज और परिवार से दूर कर रहे हैं। इसके उपयोग से स्वास्थ्य पर भी बुरा प्रभाव पड़ता है। परिवार की आर्थिक स्थिति भी अत्यंत बुरा बन जाता है। इसके फलस्वरूप लोग कुछ भी करने के लिए तैयार हो जाते हैं। आज के समाज और नयी पीढ़ी को नशीली चीज़ों के उपयोग से अपने आपको दूर रखना चाहिए।

जय हिंद।

Plus Two English Previous Year Question Paper March 2016

Kerala State Board New Syllabus Plus Two English Previous Year Question Papers and Answers.

Kerala Plus Two English Previous Year Question Paper March 2016 with Answers

Board SCERT
Class Plus Two
Subject English
Category Plus Two Previous Year Question Papers

Time: 21/2 Hours
Cool off time: 15 Minutes
Maximum: 80 Score

General Instructions to candidates:

  • There is a ‘cool off time’ of 15 minutes in addition to the writing time of 21/2 hours.
  • You are not allowed to write your answers or to discuss anything with others during the cool off time’.
  • Read questions carefully before answering.
  • All questions are compulsory and the only internal choice is allowed.
  • When you select a question, all the sub-questions must be answered from the same question itself.
  • Electronic devices except non-programmable calculators are not allowed in the Examina­tion Hall.

(Question Nos. (1 – 3): Read the passage and answer the questions:

“Yes”, he said, “yes” and shipped his oars without bumbing the boat. He reached out for the line and held it softly between the bumb and forefinger of his right hand. He felt no strain nor weight and he held the line lightly. Then it came again. This time it was a tentative pull, not solid nor heavy, and he knew exactly what it was.

Question 1.
What is ‘he’ engaged in? (1)
Answer:
He is engaged in fishing.

Question 2.
What is the ‘line’ referred to in the passage? (1)
Answer:
The ‘line’ is the thread on which the hook is tied, in fishing.

Question 3.
What does the word ‘tentative’ mean here?
(i) Strong
(ii) Weak
(iii) Final (1)
Answer:
(ii) weak

Question 4.
After reading Christine Lagarde’s speech, a social worker is speaking to the people of your locality about the need for educating women. Fill in the blanks choosing the appropriate adjectives/adjectival clauses:
Education helps women to be (seriously/financially/sustainably) independent and to break
the shackles of exclusion. Women who ……….. (look good/look after children/study) actually help themselves and their community. If learning is the first step, labour is the second. Women who ……….. (procure labour/suffer discrimination/challenge the social norms) are able to flourish and achieve their true potential. They contribute to the development and well-being of the community. So it is ……….. (clear/essential/favourable) that women equip themselves with education. (4)
Answer:
financially, study, challenge the social norms, essential

(Question Nos. 5 & 6) Answer the questions after reading the passage from the play “The Hour of Truth”.

“I’ve got only a few years to live but I’ll live those as I’ve lived the rest of my life. I’ll go to my grave clean”.

Question 5.
Who speaks these words? (1)
Answer:
Baldwin

Question 6.
Why does he say so? (2)
Answer:
He says that because he was offered a bribe by his friend John Gresham for not telling the truth in the court. But Baldwin says he had always lived a clean life and he would never lie for money.

Question 7.
Irfan Alam comes to your school to inaugurate the Youth Club. Prepare a script for announcement introducing him (Young Entrepreneur – founder and chairman of SammaaN Foundation – recognized as one of the top thirty Youth Icons of India by the Times of India). (4)
Answer:
I am very happy to introduce Irfan Alam, who is here to inaugurate our Youth Club. You may have already heard about him. He is a young and energetic entrepreneur. He is the founder and chairman of SammaaN Foundation. Irfan was the one who suggested that rickshaws should be redesigned so that the spaces in the vehicles could be sold for brand promotion. He also suggested that additional incomes could be got by selling water, juice, biscuits, mobile cards, and newspapers to the passengers in the rickshaws. This is his prize-winning proposal.

SammaaN Foundation runs free evening classes called SammaaN Gyaan which is attended by the rickshaw pullers. Society needs more people like Irfan Alam with innovative ideas. The Times of India has said that Irfan Alam is one of the top thirty Youth icons of India. We are lucky to have such a great person in our midst. I am sure he will be an inspiration to all of us.

Question 8.
Edit the passage correcting the mistakes:
Excitement over what drugs can do have led people to believe that any ailments, infective or psychic, can be relieved by taking a pill. Medical journals now advertises tranquilizers, amphetamines and other mood-altering drugs; doctors prescribe them, and the public expect miracles from them (4)
Answer:
Excitement over what drugs can do have(has) led people to believe that any ailments(ailment), infective or psychic, can be relieved by taking a pill. Medical journals now advertises(advertise) tranquilizers, amphetamines and other mood-altering drugs; doctors prescribe them, and the public expect miracles from them.

Question 9.
After reading Sudha Murty’s “Horegallu”, you realize that it would be worth setting up horegallus on the pavements to help citizens to take a break and ease themselves. Write a letter to the Mayor of your city putting forth the suggestion and explaining the reasons. (5)
Answer:
Honourable Mayor,
I am writing this letter to request you to do something – to make travels easier for the people of this city. I happened to read a story called Horegallu by Sudha Murty. It impressed me greatly and I thought we too could do something to help our travellers.

A horegallu is a stone bench. It helps a person to sit down and rest for some time so that he can regain his energy. Horegallus are essential in a journey. Every now and then we need to sit down and refresh ourselves. So I request you to place horegallus at convenient venues for the use of tired travellers.

Horegallu also has another meaning. Horegallu also can be a person who can listen sympathetically to the problem of others. We all have problems. Life is a journey and we all need horegallus every now and then to regain our strength. We ourselves should be like a horegallu. We may not be in a position to help everybody, to solve his problems but at least we can give people a sympathetic hearing and it will help them. So, as the Mayor of this great city you can think how such horegallus could be provided at regular intervals.

I am sure you will give due consideration to my humble request.

Yours respectfully,
Natasha Joseph

Question 10.
You are a friend of the Amigo brothers and you witnessed the contest between them with great excitement. Prepare a blog entry describing the contest. (5)
Answer:
Felix Vargas weighed 144 pounds and his rival Antonio 133 pounds. The winner was to represent the Boy’s Club in the tournament of champions, The Golden Gloves. There would be no draw in the fight.

The referee gave instructions telling them that it should be a clean fight. In the first round, both the contestants did their best to outwit the other. Both were equally strong, in the second round also the same thing happened. Punches flew back and forth. But none was floored. Each punch was applauded thunderously by the crowd.

The third round came, each wanted to win. They punched each other very hard. Nobody fell to the canvas. The final bell rang but the fight continued. The bell rang again and again. But there was no stop to the fighting. People got worried. It looked as if they were witnessing a do or die fight and not a contest. Then the referee and the trainers separated the contestants. Now the contestants embrace. They were fighting like bulls a moment ago. Now both were winners. Let their tribes increase!

Question 11.
“Each time we stammer
we are offering a sacrifice
to the God of meanings”.
Why does the poet think so? (2)
Answer:
The poet thinks so because each time we stammer we cannot bring out our meanings properly and also it gives a wrong impression to our listeners. That is why the poet says when we stammer we are offering a sacrifice to the God of meanings.

Question 12.
“O train, will yoy run a little faster-
let me get home quickly and eat my fill”.
What does the poet want to eat? (1)
Answer:
The poet wants to eat his mother’s well-cooked rice.

Question 13.
Imagine you are the poet’s neighbour in “The Mending Wall”. You want to justify your viewpoint that “Good fences make good neighbors”. Present your reasons in the form of two arguments. (2)
Answer:
I strongly think good fences make good neighbours. It is because when there are good fences, it prevents trespassing. If there are no fences the cats, dogs and chickens from one home will encroach into the territory of another. Such trespasses create unnecessary disputes between neighbours.

Question 14.
Do you think that Nomita, the character in Ashapurna Debi’s story “Matchbox” acted impulsively without thinking about the consequense? Or is she a brave woman who questions her husband’s selfish ways? Prepare a character sketch of Nomita. (5)
Answer:
Nomita is the wife of Ajit. She lives in a joint family with 26 members. She comes from a poor family. She got married into a rich family. Her mother is a widow. Nomita has no brothers or sisters. She is called queen by her mother.

Nomita’s mother often requests for money. Ajit is not too happy because of the financial demands from his mother-in-law. Letters requesting for money come to Ajit and sometimes he doesn’t even show them to Nomita. One day while collecting the soiled clothes forgiving the washerwoman, Nomita sees a letter in the pocket of Ajit. It is torn and crumbled. It is addressed to her and from the postmark she knows it came some three days ago. Nomita is very unhappy that Ajit reads all her letters. He says he reads them to ensure that she has no secret lovers. Nomita calls him a common vulgar man and he calls her the daughter of a dung picker. Nomita is enraged at this insult and she sets fire to her sari. Ajit soon comes and puts out the fire.

Nomita often makes faces. She can tell lies, she can forget things fast. She is a snob, and she has forgotten where she came from. Her action of trying to bum herself was impulsive behaviour. She did that without thinking of the consequences. Fora married woman like her such behaviour is bad. I do not think she is a brave woman but an impulsive and thoughtless woman.

Question 15.
Bring out the humour in the title “This is Going to Hurt Just a Little Bit” by Ogden Nash. (3)
Answer:
There is lot of humour in the title “This is Going to Hurt Just a Little Bit”. It describes the feeling of a person going to the dentist. Going to the dentist is really an unpleasant experience. Sitting in a chair with one’s mouth wide open is not something anybody likes. Some tortures are physical and some are mental. But the dental torture is both. In fact even the most courageous people feel nervous to go to a dentist. When sitting in the dental chair you feel like you are sitting before your slaughterer. All your senses seem to feel the pain. The title is actually just the opposite of exaggeration or hyperbole. Even when the dentist is drilling into you he goes on saying “This is going to hurt just a little bit” but actually it is hurting a lot.

Question 16.
A seminar on “Mangroves: A Rich Source of Bio-diversity” was conducted in your school. Read the programme schedule of the seminar and prepare a report.

“Mangroves : A Rich Source of Bio-diversity”
Venue : School Auditorium
Time : 10 a.m
Date : 20-07-2015

Programme
Prayer : School Choir
Welcome speech : Mrs. Suseela Kumari, Principal
Presidential Address : Dr. Satheesh Chandran, Environmental Activist
Felicitation : Santhi, Ward Councillor

Paper Presentations:
1. Mangroves: A Source of Bio-diversity – Athira M.
2. Pokkudan – The Legend of Mangroves – Noufiya
3. Ways to preserve Mangroves – Syam Gopal
4. Mangroves in Kerala – Vaisakh
Vote of Thanks – Divya Krishna, School Leader National Anthem (4)
Answer:
A REPORT
A seminarwas conducted in the school auditorium on 27th July 2015 on the topic “Mangroves: A Rich source of Biodiversity”. The seminar began at 10 am with a prayer by the school choir. It was followed by a welcome speech by Mrs. Suseela Kumari, the Principal. Then came the presidential address by Dr. Satheesh Chandran, a renowned environmental activist. He stressed the need to preserve our environment. He showed how we human beings are destroying nature by cutting down trees, filling up ponds and waterways and using insecticides everywhere and throwing garbage wherever we please. He said that unless we change, nature will destroy us through earthquakes, droughts, tsunamis and the like.

There was felicitation by Ms. Santhi, the Ward Counsellor, who said that the Ward was doing all its best to preserve the environment.

Then came Paper Presentations. There were four Papers by the following people: “Mangroves: ASource of Biodiversity” by Athira M„ “Pokkudan-The Legend of Mangroves” by Noufiya, “ Ways to Preserve Mangroves” by Syam Gopal, and “Mangroves in Kerala” by Vaishakh.

A discussion followed in which members of the audience clarified their doubts. This was followed by a Vote of thanks by Divya Krishna, the school leader. She said all the participants were immensely benefitted by the seminar. More seminars would be conducted in the immediate future. The seminar came to a close at 1 o’clock with the National Anthem.

Question 17.
A panel discussion on corporal punishment “ Corporal; punishment: Is it Justifiable?” was conducted in your school. The panel list who spoke first remarked, “Corporal punishment is not altogether bad. Children need some negative reinforcement when they behave in an undesirable way, Spare the rod and spoil the child is the dictum”.
Now prepare a brief script for the next panel list who wants to counter this argument and highlight the ill- effects of corporal punishment. (5)
Answer:
The previous speaker said that corporal punishment is not altogether bad. He said that children need some negative reinforcement when they behave in an undesirable way. To add some authority to his statement he even quoted the English proverb “Spare the rod and spoil the child”.

I completely disagree with the arguments put forward by the previous speaker. Corporal punishment is the meanest way to discipline or educate a child. You cannot teach a child by beating him blue. The child should be encouraged to learn things by positive and not negative reinforcement. By punishing the child you instil fear into him and he will develop distaste for learning and discipline. The trouble with discipline enforced by the rod is that when the rod is absent the child will tend to misbehave because he is not trained in self control.

We also know violence breeds violence. When children are beaten up, either to discipline them or to make them learn, they too will use violence on others to make them do what they want. I know many children who refuse to go to schools because they are afraid of the teachers who punish them severely. In all civilised societies, corporal punishment to children is banned.

Question 18.
a) “ The Hour of Truth” shows how an upright man resists the temptation of bride. Prepare a speech to be delivered in the school assembly about the topic “Honesty in Public Life”.
OR
b) Just like a traffic jam slows down the traffic, corruption slows down a country’s development. Prepare the script for a speech to be delivered on Gandhi Jayanthi on the topic “Corruption: Ways to counter it ” (6)
Answer:
a) HONESTY IN PUBLIC LIFE
In the story “The Hour of Truth” by Percival Wilde, we learned how Baldwin refused to take a bribe and tell a lie in the court. Gresham and Baldwin worked together in a bank of which Gresham was the governor and Baldwin was just a worker. Things were going smooth between them but Gresham misappropriates the bank money and the bank is closed. Gresham is in jail. Only Baldwin knows that it was Gresham who took the money. Therefore Gresham offers Baldwin a huge amount of $100,000 as a bribe just to say “I don’t remember” in the court when incriminating questions are asked. But Baldwin, in spite of his poverty, refuses to take the bribe. He says that he lived all his life in a clean fashion and he would like to die with his clean image intact.

Today we see corruption is rampant everywhere. In the newspapers, on radio, on TV, we always read, hear and watch stories of corruption and nepotism. Recently in Kerala we had so many cases of corruption. We don’t Know the truth about the allegations in the “Solar” case and the Gifting of lands to individuals and organisations. We also had the “Bar” issue which even forced a minister to resign.

Corruption is like a cancer that is eating into our society. All religions teach people to be honest but the followers refuse to be honest and they take bribes and show nepotism. If India is to progress, its citizens must be honest and this is especially so about people in public life who control our destinies.

b) Corruption – Ways to Counter it Today we see corruption everywhere. In the newspapers, on radio, on TV, we always read, hear and watch stories of corruption and nepotism. Recently in Kerala we had so many cases of corruption. We don’t know the truth about the allegations in the “Solar” case and the ‘Gifting of lands” to individuals and organisations. We also had the “Bar” issue which even forced a minister to resign.

Corruption is like a cancer that is eating into our society. All religions teach people to be honest but the followers refuse to be honest and they take bribes and show nepotism. If India is to progress, its citizens must be honest and this is especially so about people in public life who control our destinies.

There are ways to counter corruption. The first way is to give decent salaries to people in authority. If the police are not given salaries good enough to live decent lives, they will try to earn money in corrupt ways. The same is the case with doctors in government hospitals and workers in government offices.

Another method is creating awareness among people. Only if people give, officers will take bribes. So don’t give bribes. Insist on getting your work done without any bribes.

A third way is a moral education. Give people moral education. Spread the message that giving and taking bribes is immoral.

Another way is to punish the offenders very severely. Send those who take bribes into jails and confiscate their property. This will prevent others from indulging in corrupt practices.

Question 19.
a) ‘Damage to the brain is the most subtle, most often unrecognized and least understood consequence of drug abuse.” Prepare an eassy on the topic “The Hazards of drug abuse.”
OR
b) Dr. Hardin B. Jones gives a comprehensive idea about the effect of harmful sensual drugs on the human body. Write an essay enlisting the con¬sequences of drug addiction. (8)
Answer:
a) The Hazards of Drug Abuse
Drug abuse has both mental and physical impacts. The drug addict experiences sensory deprivation. He has a general feeling of physical discomfort and there are personality changes in him. The addict feels depressed. He fails to respond either to his environment or to other people. His mental disturbance can be like paranoia. The addict knows he has a problem. But he does not know the source of his problem and he looks for its cause in everything but himself.

He looks upon external objects with suspicion. Anything outside scares him and he withdraws further and further into himself. There are also drug-related physical disorders. Dirty needles and solutions used for injecting drugs can cause abscesses in the arms and veins. They can cause liver disease, venereal disease and infection of the kidney and brain. Sniffing cocaine and amphetamines can damage the tissue of the nose. Marijuana and tobacco smoking can cause lung diseases. Babies of women addicted to opiates are likely to be born addicted and to suffer from withdrawal symptoms.

Cocaine and amphetamines cause hair fall. Marijuana can damage cells. A drug addict can easily get pneumonia, tuberculosis, malnutrition and weight loss. An overdose of any sensual drug can cause respiratory or cardiac failure and death.

b) The same as above.

Question 20.
Inspired by Shaheen Mistri, you want to join the Akanksha Foundation as a teacher volunteer. You are Megha, a postgraduate in English Literature with good commandTwterthe language, Being a socially responsible person, you are willing to share your knowledge and skills for the benefit of the underprivileged. Prepare a letter of application and a resume to be sent to the Foundation (8)
Answer:
The Chairman
Akanksha Foundation
New Delhi

Dear Sir,
I have seen your poster asking for people to work in your Enterprise. I would be glad to offer my services as a teacher at the secondary level.

I have a Master’s Degree in English from Ravishanker University, Raipur. I have worked as a teacher in HSS Irinjalakuda for 10 years, teaching English. I would like to utilize my talents for the betterment of the underprivileged.

I shall be pleased if my application is given due consideration. Although I am willing to come at any time, anywhere, for an interview I would prefer any day between 20 June and 20 July, preferably in Thrissur district, of Kerala.

I had been dreaming of helping my countrymen in my own way and I look forward to this opportunity.

Thanking you cordially,

Yours faithfully
(Megha)

RESUME OF MEGHA:
Objective : To work in an organization that works for the welfare of the underprivileged
Plus Two English Previous Year Question Paper March 2016, 1

Education:

Degree Class/Grade Institution Year of passing
M.A. (Eng.Litt.) II Durga Mahavidyalaya, Raipur 1997
B.A. (English) II Christ College, Irinjalakuda 1995
+2 A Don Bosco HSS, Irijalakuda 1991
SSLC A+ Don Bosco HSS, Irijalakuda 1989

Experience :
i) Teacher (HSS Irinjalakuda Teacher – 1998 – 2008)
ii) Lecturer in English (Students PG Centre Irinjalakuda 2009 – 2015)

Activities: I am a member of the YWCA, irinjalakuda Branch. I have organized blood-donation campaigns.

Achievements: I have published many journal articles on the teaching of English.

Skills: Conversant with a computer, Word. I have been the volleyball captain while at College. I play the guitar.

Languages: Malayalam, Hindi, English

Interests: Reading, travel, Western music

Megha

Question 21.
Read the following poem and compare it with “ Any Women” by Katharine Tynan.

Rock Me To Sleep

Backward, turn backward, O time, in your flight
Make me a child again, just for tonight!
Mother, come back from that echoless chore;
Take me again in your heart as of yore –
Kiss from my forehead the furrows of care;
Smooth the few silver threads out of my hair,
Over my slumbers your loving watch keep –
Rock me to sleep, mother – rock me to sleep !

Mother, dear mother! the years have been long
Since I last listened to your lullaby song;
Sing, then and unto my soul it shall seem
Womanhood’s years have been only a dream;
With your light lashes just sweeping my face,
Never hereafter to wake or to weep –
Rock me to sleep, mother – rock me to sleep!
Elizabeth Akers Allen
(Yore – bygone days, furrows – lines or wrinkles) (8)
Answer:

ROCK ME TO SLEEP

This is an exquisite poem of nostalgia. The speaker in the poem is an old woman who is remembering her infancy and childhood. She is requesting Time to make her a child again. She also wants her dead mother to come back and sing a lullaby to her to make her sleep as she used to do when the speaker was a small child.

The mother of the speaker was a very loving mother. She used to kiss her forehead and smooth her hair. She used to rock her and sing lullabies for her to sleep. While sleeping, her mother’s eyelashes touched her face. Her mother kept watch over her. It has been many years since she heard the voice of her mother as she is dead. Now she thinks her womanhood years have been just a dream.

The speaker herself is old and she feels she is nearing her death. Her hair is grey and her face is wrinkled with long years of worries. She is now ready for the final sleep. She wants her mother to come and sing her a lullaby once more so that she can go to sleep from which she will not wake up.

There are some figures of speech in the poem. Time is personified and she wants time to turn back and make her a child once again. There is alliteration: ‘last listened’ and light lashes’. There is repetition. The word mother is repeated. The phrase ‘Rock to me sleep’ is repeated. We see some exquisite phrases like ‘echoless shore’ which means death, and ‘furrows of care’ which are wrinkles brought onto the face by anxiety and worry. The rhythm of the poem is excellent. The rhyming scheme of the poem is aa bb.

The poem ‘Any Woman’ by Katharine Tynan speaks of the importance of the woman in the family. She is the pillar of the house. She is the keystone of the arch. She is the roof and the walls. She is the fire upon the hearth. Without her, the home would be colder than a stone. The children come to her for love and affection. She is the light of their love. The children could hardly thrive without her support. She is the one who holds the family together. No child wants to get away from the close-knit family group. She is all over the house, from the floor to the roof. Nothing happens without her knowledge. She decorates the house and makes the children’s bed cosy and warm. She protects the children from all dangers. At the end of the poem, the woman prays to Jesus to spare her life till her children are properly grown-up.

The poem has simple language. The entire poem is an exquisite metaphor. The imagery is great. The poem is in rhyme. Except in the first stanza, the rhyme scheme is abab.

Between the two poems I like “Rock Me To Sleep”.

Plus Two English Previous Year Question Paper Say 2018

Kerala State Board New Syllabus Plus Two English Previous Year Question Papers and Answers.

Kerala Plus Two English Previous Year Question Paper Say 2018 with Answers

Board SCERT
Class Plus Two
Subject English
Category Plus Two Previous Year Question Papers

Time: 2 1/2 Hours
Cool off time: 15 Minutes
Maximum: 80 Score

General Instructions to candidates:

  • There is a cool off time’ of 15 minutes in addition to the writing time of 21/2 hours.
  • You are not allowed to write your answers or to discuss anything with others during the cool off time’.
  • Read questions carefully before answering.
  • All questions are compulsory and only internal choice is allowed.
  • When you select a question, all the sub-questions must be answered from the same question itself.
  • Electronic devices except non-programmable calculators are not allowed in the Examina­tion Hall.

(Question Nos. 1 – 6): Answer all the questions as directed (Total Scores: 14)

Read the excerpt and answer the questions that follow.

The program developed very organically, over years. Like a soup made by chefs tossing in what’s needed, after each tasting. A blend all its own. The stock ingredients were basic English and Maths – to that, a dash of values, self-esteem and confidence.

Question 1.
Which program is referred to here? (1)
Answer:
Akanksha

Question 2.
Who are referred to as the ‘chefs’? (1)
Answer:
The chefs referred to here are the instructors or volunteers who supported Shaheen Mistri.

Question 3.
Pick out the word from the excerpt that means ‘naturally’. (1)
Answer:
Organically

Question 4.
Drug abuse is a great threat to our society. Many youngsters get addicted to drugs. The authorities of your school have decided to collect suggestions from students to create a school campus that is free from this menace. As a higher secondary student, what suggestions would you give? Draft 3 suggestions using expression like The authorities should ………., It would be better ………, We could, etc. (3)
Answer:
a) The authorities must ensure that sensual drugs are not easily available to students or young people.
b) It would be better if parents are asked to monitor their children to prevent them from getting addicted to drugs.
c) We could conduct awareness programmes to inform the public and especially the youth about the dangers of drug abuse.

Question 5.
Your class is conducting a debate on the topic ‘Is entrepreneurship the best way to tackle unemployment?’
Write four arguments either in favour of, or against the topic. (4)
Answer:
Entrepreneurship is the best way to tackle unemployment because:

  1. The government can’t provide jobs for everyone.
  2. There will be more job opportunities if there are more entrepreneurs.
  3. Being entrepreneurs, one can reach greater heights.
  4. By being an entrepreneur, one can contribute significantly to the growth of the national economy.

Question 6.
Edit the passage given below for errors: (4)
A beggar had been sitting by the side of a road for over thirty years. One day a stranger walked on. “Spare some change ?” mumbled the beggar, mechanical holding out his baseball cap. “I have nothing to give you,” said the stranger. Then he asked: “What’s that you are sitting on ?” “Nothing”, replied the beggar. “Just an old box.” “Ever look inside ?” asked the stranger. “No”, said the beggar. “Have a look inside”, insisted the stranger. The beggar was astonished to see that the box was fill with gold.
Answer:
i) walked on – walked by
ii) mechanical – mechanically
iii) Ever look inside? – Ever looked inside?
iv) fill with gold. – filled with gold.

(Question Nos. 7 – 12): Answer any 5 questions. Each question carries 4 scores. (5 × 4 = 20)

Question 7.
The postal assistant in ‘Post Early for Christmas’ quits her job commenting, “I am going down the road to work at the animal dispensary. Animals don’t do such silly things.” Do you think it was an appropriate remark on the part of a responsible official like the postal assistant? Express your opinion in a paragraph.
Answer:
The remark made by the postal assistant is not all appropriate. People are of different kinds and they don’t behave in a uniform manner. When one works in a public place like the post office, he/she may meet so many different kinds of people – people who are deaf, blind, stammering, or unable to express themselves properly. You have to be patient with all such people. Such workers must learn to cope with different situations and do their best to serve people. They are paid for that.

Question 8.
Robert Baldwin accepts the job offered by Mr. Marshall in the Third National Bank. When Baldwin comes to report for work, Mr. Marshall introduces him to the other colleagues. What would Mr. Marshall say about Mr. Baldwin? Draft the introductory speech for Mr. Marshall.
Answer:
Dear Colleagues, let me introduce to you Robert Baldwin who is joining us at the Third National Bank. He was previously working for Mr. Gresham. You all know that Gresham is currently in jail for misappropriation of a huge amount of money. Mr. Gresham promised Mr. Baldwin 100,000 dollars just to say “I don’t remember” in the court. Such a statement by Mr. Baldwin would save Mr. Gresham from getting punished. But Baldwin refused the offer because he is such an honest man and he values his principle more than 100,000 dollars. It was Gresham himself who told me about it. We all should be like Robert. We are proud to have him in our midst as our colleague.

Question 9.
The story ‘Matchbox’ begins like this: “I always comapre women to matchboxes.” What qualities of a woman are highlighted byAshapurna Debi in this comparison? Attempt the answer in a paragraph.
Answer:
In the story “Matchbox”, Ashapurna Debi compares women to matchboxes. Matchboxes contain enough gunpowder to make a hundred Lankas burn. But these matchboxes, these women, sit around meek and innocent in the kitchen, in the pantry and in the bedroom or any other place at home. They have fire inside but they don’t burn or explode. They are compassionate and loving by nature. See how mothers love their children and wives love their husbands. They are patient and are willing to wait endlessly for their rewards. They are hard-working and that is why homes become such a pleasant and comfortable place. We should remember that “Without a woman a man is nothing”.

Question 10.
Your class is doing a project on ‘Social Entrepreneurship’. As the leader of the class, you are given the opportunity to interview Shaheen Mistri. What would you ask her? Frame four relevant questions for the interview.
Answer:
1. Madam, what kind of problems did you face when you decided to settle in India?
2. According to you, what is the biggest problem that India faces?
3. In your view why did many Principals refuse to give you a place to teach the slum children?
4. You said Indian education is ‘bookish’. What are your suggestions to change it?

Question 11.
Ratna’s patience and empathy left a lasting impression on Sudha Murthy’s heart. What are her other notable qualities? Attempt a character sketch of Ratna in about 60 words.
Answer:
When Sudha Murty was working in Mumbai, one of her colleagues was Ratna. She was a senior clerk, middle aged and always smiling. She is a graduate and she had been working in that company for nearly 25 years. Every day during lunch hour she would sit with some person in one of the rooms, chatting with him/her. When Sudha asked Ratna what she talked about she said people shared her troubles with her. Ratna knows she can’t solve the problems of the people who talk to her. She hears people with sympathy and no judgement.

When somebody talks about his worries it relieves him a lot. Ratna never reveals the things she has heard from people. Ratna is like the grandfather of Sudha sitting on the stone listening to the people. Both her grandfather and Ratna are “horegallus” or “bench stones” where people can unburden themselves by talking about them and their worries to others. Ratna is not a counsellor but her willingness to listen to the problems of people definitely relieves them.

Question 12.
Elaborate the idea in the line given below:
“And this, O Fate, is I think the most vicious circle that thou ever sentest”.
Answer:
This line is taken from the poem “This is Going to Hurt Just a Little Bit” by Ogden Nash. The poet says that before the dentist your mouth is like a section of the road on which repair work is going on. The dentist coats your mouth with something very harsh. You see the dentist with different tools like drills for polishing your teeth. You are worried if he will make a mistake. Then finally it is over and you think you can go. But then the dentist says you should go back to him before the end of three months.

The poet thinks that Fate sends this most vicious circle to man. Man has to go to the dentist continually to keep his teeth in good condition. The man wants his teeth in good condition because he does not want to go to the dentist. It is a real paradox.

(Question Nos. 13 – 18): Answer any 5 questions. Each question carries 6 scores. (5 × 6 = 30)

Question 13.
Wangari Maathai’s speech has motivated you to take up the challenge of preserving nature for future generations. You have decided to share your ideas on nature conservation with your friend in an e-mail, Draft the e-mail.
Answer:
rajm@amail.com
Dearest Raj,

Got your letter. Thanks for letting me know of your vacation plans.

Today I want to tell you something about the challenge of preserving nature for future generations. In August 2018, we had the horrible flood and now in April, as I write this letter, we are getting baked by heat with temperatures going higher than 40°C. Why do these things happen? They happen because we fail to conserve our environment. Commercial farming has destroyed the local bio diversity. The forests are cleared for cultivation. Trees are cut down for buildings and furniture. So the soil can’t hold the moisture and even the underground water level is dangerously going down. We quarry in the most unscientific manner and the mines spoil our landscape.

We collect a lot of sand from the rivers, causing them to dry up. We pollute the land, air and water in all possible ways. You know what happened in Kasargod where they sprayed a lot of Endosulfan. It is a poisonous chemical and when people inhale it they become sick. Children are born with all kinds of deformities. So we are destroying nature. We should conserve our earth by mining less, allowing rivers to run their course naturally and by planting trees wherever possible as they provide us with shade, oxygen, flowers and fruits. They also help in soil conservation. So plant a tree today and ask your friends to do the same!

Say Hi to your parents. Bye for now!
Ali

Question 14.
Christine Lagarde emphasizes the importance of learning, labour and leadership in Women Empowerment. Draft a speech to be delivered in the school assembly on the topic ‘Educated women lead the nation to progress and prosperity’, based on your reading of the speech. The 3Ls of Empowerment’.
Answer:
Respected principal, teachers and my dear students,

Today I am asked to speak about “Educated women lead the nation to progress and prosperity.” It is very true that educated women can lead the nation to progress and prosperity. We should know that roughly half of the population is women. Naturally, they can’t remain idle in the march towards progress. Gone are the days when women stayed within the four walls of the home controlled by a patriarchal society. Today, women are equal to men in all respects. Today she drives buses and trucks, pilots airplanes, fights battles and goes to the space.

Progress and Prosperity for the nation can be achieved by women through 3 Ls – Learning, Labour and Leadership. Learning helps the woman to know about her rights and duties. Labour or employment gives her the economic power to assert herself. A woman without any income has to depend on her father, husband or son for her needs. Leadership makes woman powerful. She should be able to lead so that the world becomes a better place to live in.

Women make better leaders than men. They tend to make decisions based on consensus building, inclusion, compassion and sustainability.

Women have to change their mindset and should be ready to “dare the difference”, to take risk and step outside their comfort zones. Indira Gandhi and Kalpana Chawla came out of their comfort zones and that is why we respect them and remember .them even today.

I ask the girls present here to take charge of their lives. You have a lot to gain and nothing to lose by trying to make yourself equal or even better than a man!
I wish you success in your endeavors!

Question 15.
Your class has decided to visit an organic farm named ‘Samrudhi’ to know more about the production of pesticide-free vegetables, cattle rearing and the cultivation of indigenous crops. Write a letter to the owner of the farm enquiring about the practices in the farm and seeking permission to visit it.
Answer:

GOVERNMENT HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL,
IRINJALAKUDA
ENVIRONMENTAL CLUB

4 February 2019

Ref. No. GSSI/XII/4
Mr. Kumaran Thazhath
Samrudhi Farm Irinjalakuda

Dear Sir,
Sub: Permission to visit your Farm.

First of all the Environment Club of this school says to you a big “Thank you!” for giving the people of this town pesticide free vegetables and good milk. We have heard a lot about your farm where you grow pesticide free vegetables and rear cattle without any use of unnecessary hormones and other artificial growing techniques. We also are happy to learn that you grow a lot of indigenous crops which are most important for a healthy diet.

We have many doubts in our minds. How is that you can grow vegetables free from pesticides? We hear that in the vegetables brought from outside the State, there are a lot of pesticides which poison our bodies. We also hear that the milk we get from outside the State is often mixed with dangerous liquids that can destroy our health. We want to come and meet you in person to clarify our doubts and to see for ourselves how things are done in your farm.

If it is okay with you our club members would like to visit the place on the, 10th of February. If the date is not suitable for you, you may suggest an alternative date. We will come by 10 ‘o’clock and will spend the whole day there. We are bringing along our lunch.

We are sure you will grant us our request. Please give us a reply at your earliest convenience or call on our phone No. 2828805.
Thank you once again,

Yours sincerely,
(NishadAli)
Secretary

Question 16.
Prepare a write-up on the socio-cultural changes satirised by Chemmanam Chacko in the poem ‘Rice’.
Answer:
In his poem “Rice”, Chemmanam Chacko has vehemently satirised the socio-cultural changes especially among the farmers. The poem is laced with scorn and sarcasm. The son of a farmer goes to North India to do a research on making toys with rice husk. He works hard for four years, eating chapati day after day. Finally at the end of four years he succeeds in getting a doctorate. He must have thought of doing research on the possibilities of husk because as the son of a rice farmer, he had plenty of husk at home and also in the homes nearby. By using husk for toy making, a lot of people could find employment in a State notorious for unemployment.

But then there is an anticlimax. When the son returns home with his hard-earned doctorate on making toys with husk, there is no husk at all in his house or in the houses around. The farmers there had shifted to cash crops like rubber as they found rice cultivation inconvenient and non-profitable. Moreover a lot of incentives were given by the promoters to cultivate cash crops. The son finds his father watching people setting up a machine for making rubber sheets. All the paddy fields are gone and in their places what he sees are the rubber trees and deal-wood trees.

There is biting sarcasm in the description of the Chief Minister flying to the Centre to request for more food grains to feed the people here. The son comes home to eat rice after getting fed up with chapatis made of wheat flour. But his wish can’t be fulfilled because here also he has to eat things made of wheat flour as there is no rice. His doctoral degree is now useless as there is no husk to make toys.

Question 17.
You are the reporter of a local daily in Manhattan. You visited the place a week before the fight between the Amigo brothers. You could find matters of new interest in the preparations for the fight. Draft a news-paper report.
(Hints : Large posters on the walls – heated discussions in cafes – specially designed caps and t-shirts – betting by the fans – housewives and small children too involved.)
Answer:
Manhattan is in a great frenzy. There is still another week to the much publicised fight between Antonio Cruz and Felix Vargas. The venue of the fight is Tompkins Square Park. The large posters on the walls show the pictures of Antonio Cruz and Felix Vargas punching at each other. The biggest boxing match of the 20th century was between Muhammad AN and Joe Frazier held on Monday, March 8, 1971, at Madison Square Garden in New York City. The people of Manhattan say this fight would be nothing less than that fight.

People all over Manhattan had only one thing to talk – the fight coming after a week. In the cafes, in the buses and trains people go on arguing as to who will win. Some say it would be Antonio while others say it would be Felix. The strangest thing is that people are betting heavily on both sides. Everywhere the talk is about the Fight. Some even say it would be a bigger fight than the Muhammed Ali Vs. Joe Frazier fight. Not only men, but even the women and children are discussing the course and the possible outcome of the fight. The entire Manhattan is in the grip of the Fight and Antonio and Felix are the heroes.

Question 18.
Effective use of humour in depicting ordinary situations is what makes ‘Crime and Punishment’ an interesting story. Prepare a write-up on the element of humour in ‘Crime and Punishment’.
Answer:
In his story “Crime and Punishment”, R.K. Narayan has brought humour in ordinary situations. In the story we see the parents of a boy want him to get double promotion and so they have engaged a tuition master to coach him in Mathematics. The teacher does his best but the boy is bored with the lessons and he wants to get away. So when the teacher asks him for the result of 16 multiplied by 3, the boy answered 24. There was a wicked smile on the lips of the boy.

The teacher again asks him and the boy repeats the wrong answer not because he does not know the right answer but because he wants to provoke his teacher. Then the teacher slapped him on the cheek. The boy burst into tears. The teacher asked the boy not to tell his parents about the slapping. To the parents the boy was an angel, all dimples, smiles and sweetness. He was their only child and they loved him dearly. The parents gave the boy all the things he wanted and they did not want to restrict him in anything.

The teacher wanted the money the parents gave him as the tuition fee. So he asked the boy not to tell about the beating to his parents. If he tells them, they will surely dismiss the teacher. The boy wants the lessons to stop for the day and the teacher says no. The boy then blackmails his teacher. The teacher then allows him to play with his toy train. The teacher acts as the station master. When the train reaches the station, the teacher should whistle. After sometime the train would not move.

The boy asks the teacher to repair it, but the teacher does not know anything about repairing a toy train. Then the boy wanted the teacher to tell him a story. When the teacher refused he again blackmailed him. So the teacher had to tell the story of a bison and a tiger and then he said the story of Ali Baba and the 40 thieves. Then he told the story of Aladdin’s Lamp. The boy wanted to hear the story of the bison again. When the teacher refused, the boy runs home and the teacher runs behind him.

Then the parents of the boy came out of the house and saw the chase. They were surprised. When they asked the teacher about the boy’s studies he said he was doing fine. The boy was grateful to the teacher and did not tell his parents about the slap he got. The teacher told the parents that they had finished the lesson earlier and so they were just playing to keep up the spirit of the boy.

(Question Nos. 19 – 21): Answer any 2 questions. Each question carries 8 scores. (2 × 8 = 16)

Question 19.
Ratna and Sudha Murthy’s grandfather served the society by devoting their precious time to listen to others. These living examples have inspired you to contribute an essay to the newsletter of your school. Write the essay on the topic ‘Role of good listeners in creating healthy minds’.
Answer:

ROLE OF GOOD LISTENERS IN CREATING HEALTHY MINDS

Recently I read a story titled “Horegallu” by Sudha Murty. In that story she talks about two people who helped others in their own particular ways. One was her grandfather and the other was her colleague Ratna. The story did inspire me and I feel there should be more people like the grandfather and Ratna in our world to reduce the problems people face in this world.

As a child Sudha Murty spent her days in a small village. There was large banyan tree right in the middle of the village. The tree was like a big umbrella. It gave much needed shade and comfort. Travellers spent some time sitting under it, taking some rest, before they continued the journey. To make them comfortable, there was a ‘horegallu’ under the tree. Horegallu means ‘a stone that can bear weight’. It was a flat stone placed horizontally over two vertical stones. It was a stone bench.

People could sit on it, chat with a fellow traveller and exchange news of the road. Cool water was kept in earthen pots and travellers could drink the water. Sudha’s grandfather was a retired school teacher. He would spend hours sitting under the banyan tree talking to those resting there. They would tell him about their lives and worries. Her grandfather told Sudha that a horegallu is essential in any journey. We all carry burdens in our different ways. Once in a while we need to stop, put down that burden and rest. Only then we will be refreshed to carry the load again.

Later Sudha met Ratna in her work place. Ratna was a senior clerk, middle aged and always smiling. She is a graduate and she had been working in that company for nearly 25 years. Every day during lunch hour she would sit with some person in one of the rooms, chatting with him/her. When Sudha asked Ratna what she talked about she said people shared her troubles with her. Ratna knows she can’t solve the problems of the people who talk to her. She hears people with sympathy and no judgement.

When somebody talks about his worries it relieves him a lot. Ratna never reveals the things she has heard from people. Ratna is like the grandfather of Sudha sitting on the stone listening to the people. Both her grandfather and Ratna are “horegallus” or “bench stones” where people can unburden themselves by talking about them to others. Ratna is not a counsellor but her willingness to listen to the problems of people definitely relieves them. Good listeners create healthy and peaceful minds.

Question 20.
The pie-diagram given below shows the changing mindset of youth in the selection of their careers and fields of study.
Plus Two English Previous Year Question Paper Say 2018, 1
(Hints: Chefs – hospitality management, creative artists – dancers, musicians, painters, etc.)
What helps you decide your choice of a career? What are the reasons for these varied preferences? Prepare a write-up on the career choices of the present generation.
Answer:
The pie-diagram very clearly shows the changing mindset of the youth in the selection of their careers and fields of study. In the past the two areas of concentration were medicine and engineering. But now the choice has become much wider and diversified. New career openings are in place and students have a much wider choice today.

The pie-diagram shows that the favourite fields of career and fields of study remain Medicine, Engineering and MBA which attract nearly 45% of the youths. Each of the three has 15% youth opting for it. The next segment is Defence personnel with 11%-youths choosing it. Teaching is the next field, with 10% opting it. 8% like skilled jobs whereas 7% each go for Journalism and Animation. Creative arts and hospitality management get 5% each. Only 2% opt for photography. Thus the chart shows the preferred choices of the youths remain Medicine, Engineering and MBA, followed by Defence Personnel and Teaching.

Youths choose their careers mainly for success in life, status in the society and to live a comfortable life. In fact these desires are instilled into them by their parents, teachers and the society at large. Parents feel proud to say that their children are doctors, engineers of business managers. But the trend is changing with more options available to the youth in their careers and fields of study.

Question 21.
Read the poem given below. Compare the poem with ‘Mending Wall’.

Quiet Morning

Stone walls seem gathered not by men
But by some older force,
As if the hills had driven them
In slow flocks from the grass.

And since the heavy boulders come
of low and ancient birth
They never learn the will of men
To stand aloof from earth
But peacefully disintegrate
Under the orchard boughs
And up and down the pastures
Beside the dozing cows.
– Elizabeth Bohm
Answer:
“Mending Wall” by Robert Frost is a delightful poem. He once said: “A poem begins in delight and ends in wisdom.” He starts the poem in a delightful way saying that there is something that does not like a wall. That something makes the ground under the wall swell which results in cracks in the wall. Gradually the stones that make the wall fall to either side.

The fallen stones have lost their shapes. It is not easy to keep them back in their place. The gaps are so big that even two people can walk abreast through them. The poet strongly feels there is no need for a wall between him and his neighbour because he grows apple trees and the neighbour grows pine.

Apple trees won’t go and eat the pine and pines won’t come to eat the apples. A wall was fine if they had cows as they could get mixed up without a wall. When the poet says there is no need for a wall between them, the neighbour tells him “Good fences make good neighbours.” Thus the poem ends in wisdom.

In “Mending Wall”, the poet has used many poetic devices such a metaphor, simile, personification and repetition. The language is simple and the imagery is exquisite. It gives a fine message, a priceless truth.

The Poem “Quiet Morning” by Elizabeth Bohm also speaks about walls. The poet says that stone walls seem to be gathered not by men but by some older force. It looks as if the hills had driven them in flocks into the grass. The stones have low and ancient birth and they will never learn the will of man. Man wants them to stand aloof from the earth but they fall on to it. These stones peacefully disintegrate under the branches of trees or in the pastures as they lie beside the grazing cattle.

“Quiet Morning” is a fine lyric poem of just 12 lines. It is in rhyme and the rhyming scheme is abcb. There is personification in the poem when the poets says the “hills had driven them in slow flocks”. The hills are shepherds and the stones are sheep. The stones came from earth and they want to return to the earth. Man tries to build walls with it and separate them from the earth. In spite of the efforts of man to keep the stones away from the earth, they somehow find their way back to their source of origin.

The poem reminds us of our destiny in a symbolic way. “You are made of earth and to earth you shall return.” Here also we find the poem begins in delight and ends in wisdom. Between the two poems I prefer “Mending Walls” as it is more humorous and dramatic.

Plus Two English Previous Year Question Paper March 2019

Kerala State Board New Syllabus Plus Two English Previous Year Question Papers and Answers.

Kerala Plus Two English Previous Year Question Paper March 2019 with Answers

Board SCERT
Class Plus Two
Subject English
Category Plus Two Previous Year Question Papers

Time: 2 1/2 Hours
Cool off time: 15 Minutes
Maximum: 80 Score

General Instructions to Candidates:

  • There is a ‘cool off-time’ of 15 minutes in addition to the writing time of 21/2 hours.
  • You are not allowed to write your answers or to discuss anything with others during the cool off time’.
  • Read questions carefully before answering.
  • All questions are compulsory and only internal choice is allowed.
  • When you select a question, all the sub-questions must be answered from the same question itself.
  • Electronic devices except non-programmable calculators are not allowed in the Examina­tion Hall.

(Question Nos. 1 – 6): Answer the questions as directed. (14)

Read the excerpt from ‘When, a Sapling is Planted’ and answer the questions that follow: ‘Later, they became aware of the widespread destruction of the ecosystems, especially through deforestation, Climatic instability and contamination of the soil and waters – all contributed to excruciating poverty and subsequent riots.’

Question 1.
Who does the speaker refer to as ‘they’? (1)
Answer:
The women of Kenya/African women/People of Kenya/Women

Question 2.
What was the main reason for the destruction of the ecosystem? (1)
Answer:
Deforestation/cutting down of trees/destruction of forests

Question 3.
Which word from the options given, can best replace the word ‘excruciating’? (1)
a) Entertaining
b) Progressing
c) Agonising
Answer:
c) Agonising

Question 4.
Here is a diary entry by Sudha Murty.
Fill in the blanks with appropriate similes or adjectives from the options given in brackets. (3)
Village days were memorable. Days were full of fun and frolic and we were all as ……. (a) …….. (dull/cheerful/sharp) as a lark. How I miss those days! In Mumbai, everyone is as busy as a ……… (b) ………. (snail/sloth/bee) and women too, are no different. Girls who were regarded to be as …….. (c) ……… (sour/chill/sweet) as a rose have now transformed themselves into leaders, office and torchbearers.
Answer:
a) cheerful; b) bee; c) sweet

Question 5.
Imagine that you are invited for an interview for the post of the chef at Taj Group of Hotels. Complete the interview suitably. (4)
Interviewer: ……. a ………?
You: I have specialized in Chinese and Continental dishes.
Interviewer: ……. (b) …….?
You: Yes, of course. I am comfortable with all types of delicacies.
Interviewer: ……. (c) …….?
You: I expect a comfortable work atmosphere, fantastic team work, and opportunities to develop.
Interviewer: Where do you see yourselves ten years from now?
You: Ten years from now, I ……. (d) …….
Answer:
a) What have you specialized in?/What are your areas of specialization?
b) Are you comfortable with delicacies?/Do you know how to make delicacies?
c) What are your expectations from this Organization?/ What do you expect from us?
d) I would start a hotel of my own./I may become the Chief Chef here. I would be working in a prestigious hotel abroad.

Question 6.
The passage given below contains a few errors. (4)
Edit the passage appropriately. The main conflict in the story ‘Amigo Brothers’ is that off ambition. Both friends want to be champions. But only one of them can be the champ. So they decide in fight out it. In the end, they realize that they value their bonding more than their ambition.
Answer:
off – of; wants – want; fight out it – fight it out; there bonding – their bonding

(Question Nos. 7 – 12): Answer any 5 questions in not less than 60 words. Each carries 4 scores. (5 × 4 = 20)

Question 7.
Your class is conducting a debate on the topic ‘PUNISHMENTS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR STUDENT DISCIPLINE’.
Write four arguments either favouring or opposing the topic.
Answer:
Punishments are essential for student discipline.
Arguments for:

  1. A proverb says, “Spare the rod, spoil the child”.
  2. Students can be easily corrected with appropriate punishments.
  3. If punishments are not given, students will tend to ignore their studies.
  4. Punishments will force the students to be punctual, respectful, obedient and hard-working.

Question 8.
Elaborate the idea conveyed in the lines given below:
‘I am the pillars of the house;
The keystone of the arch am I
Take me away, and roof and wall
Would fall to ruin me utterly.’
Answer:
The main idea in these lines is the importance of a woman in the house. She may be a mother or wife. She says she is the pillars that keep the house in place. She is the keystone of the arch and if she is removed from the house, it will completely collapse. The poem stresses the importance of women for the house and its proper functioning.

Question 9.
The activities of the literary club of your school will be inaugurated by the cine artist and state award winner, Sri. Indrans. The one-act play, ‘Post Early for Christmas’ will be staged on the day. Prepare a notice inviting all for the programme.
Answer:

GOVERNMENT HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL,
IRINJALAKUDA
LITERARY CLUB

Date 1 July 2019

NOTICE

The activities of our Literary Club will be inaugurated by the famous Cine Artiste and State Award Winner Sri Indrans. The inaugural meeting will take place at 10.00 a.m. in the Hall of the School. After the inaugural meeting, the one-act play titled “Post Early for Christmas” by R.H. Wood will be staged by our Literary Club Members.

“Post Early for Christmas” is a hilarious comedy in which you find different kinds of people coming to the Post Office and the havoc created by a parcel that was ticking. Some people think it is a bomb. There are many frantic activities going on. See what happens on stage!

All of you are invited!

Eva Saifu
Secretary

Question 10.
You have come to know that your close friend is having a severe toothache. Frame four sets of suggestions you would make before him/her.
You may use expressions like:

I think you should ……/ If I were you, I ……/ Would you like ……/ Perhaps you could ……/ I’d like to suggest ……
Answer:
I think you should immediately keep some salty, warm water in your mouth as it will reduce your pain. If I were you, I would then go to the dentist. Would you like to have a warm drink or take some pain killers? Perhaps you could take a Panadol to suppress your pain for the time being till you meet the doctor.

Question 11.
Prepare a profile of Shaheen Mistri using the hints given below:
Birth: 16th March 1971
Place of birth: Mumbai
Academic Qualifications: B.A. degree (Sociology), M.A. in Sociology
Almamater: the University of Mumbai, University of Manchester
Occupation: CEO, Teach for India
Famous as: Indian social activist and educator
Founder: Akansha Foundation, Teach for India
Awards won: Ashoka Fellow (2001), Global Leader for tomorrow (2002), Asia Society 21 Leader (2006)
Authored: Redrawing India – The Teach for India Story (2014)
Answer:

PROFILE OF SHAHEEN MISTRI

Shaheen Mistri was born in Mumbai on 16 March 1971. After her +2, she joined the University of Mumbai and got her B.A. in Sociology. Later she went to England and passed her M.A. in Sociology with a First Class, from the University of Manchester. Currently, she is the CEO of the Organization called “Teach India” which is doing a laudable job in educating slum children.

She is famous as a social activist and educator. She is the Founder of two famous Organizations named “Akanksha” and “Teach India”. She has received numerous awards which include Ashoka Fellow (2001), Global Leader for Tomorrow (2002), and Asia Society 21 Leader (2006). She has authored a well-known Book – “Redrawing India – The Teach for India Story” which was published in 2014.

Question 12.
Wangari Maathai says, ‘Women are often the first to become aware of environmental damage ………..’
Do you agree with her opinion? Substantiate your answer.
Answer:
I quite agree with the opinion of Wangari Maathai that “Women are often the first to become aware of environmental damage”. Wangari Maathai is a Kenyan. She is an environmentalist and political activist. She got the Nobel Prize in 2004 for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy, and peace. She made the remark quoted above in her Nobel Prize Acceptance speech.

Being a Kenyan she was especially speaking of the women of Africa. She spoke from her childhood experiences and observations of nature in rural Kenya. As she was growing up, she noticed that forests were cleared and were replaced by commercial plantations. This destroys the local biodiversity and the ability of the forests to conserve water.

Because of large scale deforestation, the African women lacked firewood, clean drinking water, balanced diets, shelter, and income. In Africa, women are the primary caretakers. They till the land and feed their families. As a result, they are the first to notice the environmental damage as resources become scarce, making it difficult for them to maintain their families.

(Question Nos. 13 – 19): Answer any 5 questions in about 80 words. Each carries 6 scores. (5 × 6 = 30)

Question 13.
Read the following lines from the poem ‘Rice’.
‘I’ll reach home in good time, at last
just as my mother drains the well-cooked rice.’
This is better money – what good times!’
How is the expression ‘good times’ used in the above two contexts? Substantiate your answer.
Answer:
The expression “good time/s” is used with two different meanings in the poem. I’ll reach home in good time means I will reach home soon or promptly or without much delay. The son, who is in North India, studying 15. for his doctorate, is tired of eating chappatis all the time and now he is dreaming of eating the well-cooked rice which his mother has drained. So he wants to reach home as quickly as he can. He hopes he will reach home in good time, that is very soon, to eat the rice. But in the second use ‘what good times’ the phrase good times refers to prosperity, the time when one has plenty of money. People of his village have abandoned rice cultivation and have started cultivating cash crops for good times and better money.

Question 14.
You have dreams of setting up a business of your own after your studies. You are greatly inspired by Irfan Alam’s views and ideas. Draft a letter of inquiry to Sammaan foundation asking for clarification of the doubts regarding the financial investment of the organization, mode of operation, the security of the members, etc.
Answer:
Jerry John
16/IV, Azad Road
Irinjalakuda North P.O.
Kerala
PIN 680125
3 July 2019

Mr. Irfan Alam
CEO, SammaaN
Kalina
Mumbai-21

Dear Sir,
Sub : Information about SammaaN

First of all let me congratulate you for founding such a useful organization like SammaaN which is helping thousands of auto-rickshaw workers to live better lives without getting into any kind of debt traps.

Being inspired by your model, I also want to embark upon some such entrepreneurship after my +2 studies. The financial condition of my family does not permit me to go for higher education as my father is sick and my mother does not go for any outside work.

I want to get some matters clarified by you as I also want to bean entrepreneur like you. What was your initial investment in the Organization? Did the banks or any government agency advance you some funds to start the operations?

I also would want to know the modes of your operation. Do you give financial help to the members who join you? What are the security measures you have in place if a member runs into a loss or is disabled due to some disease or accident?

Please find some time to send a reply to my letter. You can contact me on the phone. My phone number is 282 228450. My email address is jerry@amail.com.
Thank you in advance,

Yours sincerely,
Jerry John.

Question 15.
After the competition at Tompkin’s Square Park, the Amigo Brothers are interviewed.
Reporter: Has the bout affected your friendship?
Felix: No, we both never take fighting into our hearts.
Reporter: So then, who among you must have won the fight?
Antonio: We both are always winners. The question itself is unimportant.
How would you report the above conversation?
Answer:
The reporter asked the Amigo brothers if/whether the bout had affected their friendship. Felix replied in the negative saying that they both never took fighting into their hearts. Then the reporter asked them who among them must have won the fight. Antonio replied saying that they both were always winners and that the question itself was unimportant.

Question 16.
As the secretary of the Anti-Narcotics Club in your school, you decide to write an article on the dangers of drug abuse to make aware of this growing menace among schoolmates. Prepare the article to be published in your school magazine.
Answer:

DANGERS OF DRUG ABUSE

The problem of drug abuse has become a serious menace threatening the future and even the life of the youth, especially the school and college-going youth. This age group is more vulnerable to drug abuse because most of them are teenagers. Teenage is a time of stress and strain. To overcome their stress and strain, many youngsters abuse drugs. These drugs give them temporary pleasure, relieving them of their tensions for some time.

There are many reasons for drug abuse among youth. They get a lot of money from their parents. Since most families have only one child or two, the parents pamper them. Many parents do not find time to spend with their children. Another reason for drug abuse is peer influence. A third reason is the blind imitation of the so-called glamour boys and girls in films and sports who use drugs. A 4th reason is the easy availability of drugs. Another reason is the moral laxity of the times. Law-enforcing agencies do not do their work sincerely. There is corruption everywhere and one can do anything if one has money.

Sensual drugs play havoc with the body and mind of their users. The drug addict experiences sensory deprivation. He has a general feeling of physical discomfort and there are personality changes in him. The addict feels depressed. His mental disturbance can be like paranoia. The addict knows he has a problem. But he does not know its source. He looks at external objects with suspicion. Anything outside scares him and he withdraws further and further into himself.

Drugs also affect the body adversely. Dirty needles and solutions can cause liver diseases, venereal diseases and infection of the kidney and brain. Sniffing cocaine and amphetamines can damage the tissue of the nose. Marijuana and tobacco smoking can cause lung diseases. Babies of women who are addicted to drugs are likely to be born with a lot of problems. A drug addict can easily get pneumonia, tuberculosis and have problems of malnutrition and weight loss. An overdose of any drug can cause respiratory or cardiac failure and death.

The drug problems can be solved only through the concerted efforts of the parents, teachers, community leaders and the law-enforcing agencies. Awareness programmes should be conducted about the dangerous effects of drug abuse. The community leaders should help the youth to channel their energies in the right directions. The police must ensure that sensual drugs are not easily available.

Drug abuse is a demon that should be exterminated from our midst with all the might we can muster.

Question 17.
Ahoregallu is essential in any journey. It is more so when people around us are too busy in their own worlds. You feel that it is necessary to post counsellors in schools so that students can reveal their fears and joys to them. Write a letter to the Minister of Education requesting him to take necessary steps in this regard.
Answer:

15/XV Azad Road
Irinjalakuda, North P.O.
10, July 2019

Prof. C. Ravindranath
Education Minister of Kerala
The Secretariat
Trivandrum – 001

Honourable Education Minister,

Sub.: Posting Counsellors in schools

Every day we watch on the TV and read in the newspapers about cases of child abuse. It is strange that even parents, guardians, teachers and religious . leaders abuse children who are entrusted to their care. These people are supposed to work for the welfare of the children and lead them into the right paths to succeed in life and make their valuable contributions to humanity at large. But unfortunately the fact is that many children are abused in many ways, even sexually, by the very people who are supposed to protect them.

The main reason for child abuse is the lack of ‘horegallus’. A horegallu is a stone bench where the weary traveller sits and talks to a sympathetic listener. Thus a horegallu is a patient and sympathetic listener. In the journey of life we all need horegallus. Children need them all the more. A child is afraid to -talk to others about the abuse he/she is facing from one of his relatives, teachers, neighbours or religious leaders. So he/she silently suffers the abuse which can even change his/her personality and attitude towards life and other people.

If there are counsellors in schools, they can listen to the problems of the children patiently and suggest appropriate solutions. By telling their problems to a sympathetic counsellor, the abused children feel relieved. The counsellors can initiate actions against the offenders and-th*is free the abused children from further abuses.

I humbly request your honour to post Counsellors to all schools so that the children can have horegallus to whom they can reveal their hearts.

Yours sincerely,
Mehboob Saithu

Question 18.
Robert Baldwin in ‘The Hour of Truth’ stands as an epitome of honesty throughout the play. His decisions are never influenced by any financial offers. Prepare a character sketch of Robert Baldwin.
Answer:
Robert Baldwin is the hero of the play “The Hour of Truth” by Percival Wilde. Baldwin lives in a trim cottage with his wife Martha and their son John and daughter Evie. He is working as the governor of a bank owned by John Gresham. His salary is very low, 60 dollars a week. His son John earns only 30 dollars a week. With this limited income they live reasonably happily.

Suddenly there is a problem in their lives. John Gresham has misappropriated bank money and he is in jail. The bank is closed and Baldwin will have no job. Only Baldwin is the witness for the misappropriation. If he gives his true testimony, John Gresham will definitely go to jail for a long period. Baldwin is honest and he has taught his family the importance of honesty.

When Baldwin returns home after the arrest of John Gresham, his wife and children rush to him to know the latest news. Initially his wife and the children tell him that he should say the truth during the trial even if it means jail term for Gresham. But when they come to know that Gresham has offered him a bribe of 100,000 dollars just to say ‘I don’t remember’ when some incriminating questions are asked in the court, they change their stance. Theytrytofind out all kinds of loopholes to make Baldwin accept the bribe. Martha, John and Evie do their best to make Baldwin change his mind. But he asserts that he wants to go to his grave clean.

He does love Gresham. He even named his son after him. Even now he remembers how he worked with him for so long. They were boys together. They worked side by side. All this is true, but he is not willing to tell a lie to save his friend and employer even when he is offered a colossal sum of 100,000 dollars.

Baldwin’s honesty is repaid abundantly. Even Gresham is proud of him and he recommends him to Mr. Marshall, the President of the Third International. At the end of the play we see Marshall coming to the house of Baldwin and offering him a job at the Third International. We see Baldwin crying in the end. He must have been crying for two reasons – his friend Gresham has confessed his guilt and he will surely be punished. Secondly he is shedding tears of joy in gratitude to God who has amply repaid his honesty. Honesty, Baldwin proves, beyond an iota of doubt, is the best policy.

Question 19.
The story of Amigo Brothers is always heart, warming. You want to share your appreciation of the story with your friend in Bengaluru. Draft an e-mail conveying the essence of the story so as to inspire your friend to read it at the earliest.
Answer:
ashalatha@gmail.com
Hi Asha, I got your mail. Good to know that you are planning to visit the Taj Mahal during the Onam Vacation.

I am writing this email with a special purpose. I read a story titled “Amigo Brothers” written by Piri Thomas. The story impressed me greatly. It is about friendship. As you are my best friend, I want you to read this story. I’m sure you will enjoy it.

Antonio Cruz and Felix Vargas were both 17. They were so together in friendship that they felt like brothers. They had known each other from childhood. They grew up in the same building on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. They both had a dream – becoming a light-weight champion of the world.

Whenever they got a chance they exercised. They would run everyday morning. They had a collection of fight magazines. They also kept the torn tickets of all the boxing matches they had gone to see. They also had some clippings of their own.

After a series of elimination bouts, they were told that they were to meet each other in the division finals which would be 2 weeks away. The winner would represent the Boys’ Club in the Golden Gloves Championship Tournament.

They were in a big fix. They both wanted to win. But neither of them wanted to defeat the other. They decided to go into the ring as if they had never met. They have to fight it out.

The fight was at Tompkins Square Park. The Park was full of people as the fight was well publicised. Antonio and Felix enter the ring. The crowd explodes into a roar. The referee whistles to start the fight. The fight is on. Punches fly back and forth but none is floored. Each punch is applauded thunderously by the crowd.

It is now the 3rd round. Each contestant wants to win. They punch each other very hard. Nobody falls to the canvas. The final bell rings. But the fight continues. The bell rings again and again. But there is no stopping to the fighting. People start getting worried. It looks as if they are witnessing a do or die fight and not a mere contest. There is utter silence. Then the referee and the trainers separate the contestants.

Now the contestants embrace. They have forgotten they were fighting like bulls up to a moment ago. The announcer makes an announcement. He is trying to name the winner. But Antonio and Felix had left like good old friends, arm in arm, declaring their bond of friendship.

In my mind both are winners, aren’t they Asha?
I am coming to Bengaluru next week. We will talk more about the story then! Bye for now!

Love,
Johny

(Question Nos. 20 – 22): Answer any 2 questions, each in about 140 words. Each carries 8 scores. (2 × 8 = 16)

Question 20.
Given below is a poster displayed at the Assembly Hall in connection with the International Women’s Day celebrations conducted by the Souhrida Club of your school. As the convenor of the programme, you are asked to give a detailed talk on ‘EMPOWERING WOMEN – CHALLENGES AHEAD’.Prepare the likely speech taking hints from the poster.
Plus Two English Previous Year Question Paper March 2019, 1
Answer:
Respected Principal and teachers and my dear friends,

Today we are celebrating International Women’s Day and I am asked to talk about “Empowering Women – Challenges Ahead”. It is a great pity that Indians speak very highly of women, but they do not show much respect to them in their actions. They will say woman is the mother, Devi guru and the light of the home. They even name their daughters with names of goddesses and saintly persons. Even in our own school, we have so many Lakshmis and Saraswatis, Aishas and Khadeejas and Marys and Theresas. But do they receive the respect they deserve from the society? Even in the buses and roads they are troubled and teased. We hear of so many crimes against women every day. Rapes and murder of women have ceased to shock people as they have become everyday affairs.

I say we are doing only lip-service to women. Even in Kerala which has more women than men, women are not given their rights. Look at the number of women candidates in the Lok Sabha elections for 2019. We have three coalitions in Kerala, UDF, LDF and NDA. Each of these groups is fielding 20 candidates for the 20 Lok Sabha seats. What percentage of women candidates do they field? Just 10%. No political party is free from this fault.

Women don’t get equal pay with men in non¬governmental services. A man gets Rs. 800 a day but a woman is given only Rs. 400 although she is doing similar or even harder work than the man. Women are refused opportunities for employment because employers feel that married women will take maternity leave.

I strongly feel that the Parliament and State Assemblies should have equal number of men and women representatives. Men have no business keeping women under a patriarchal system. Let the women also feel they are persons with the dignity and freedom that men enjoy in our society.

We have to change our mindset. Man and woman are created as equals and they should be treated equally by the society in all walks of life.

As I urge all the women here to fight for their rights,
I wish them success in their endeavors.

Jai Hind!

Question 21.
Read the poem given below. Compare and contrast it with ‘Mending Wall’ and attempt a critical appreciation.

NEIGHBOUR

Iain Crichton Smith

Build me a bridge over the stream
to my neighbour’s house
where he is standing in dungarees*
in the fresh morning.

O ring of snowdrops
spread wherever you want
and you also blackbird
sing across the fences.

My neighbour, if the rain fails on you,
let it fall on me also
from the same black cloud
that does not recognize gates.

*dungarees: a garment consisting of trousers held up by straps over the shoulders.
Answer:
“Mending Wall” by Robert Frost is a delightful poem. He once said: “A poem begins in delight and ends in wisdom.” He starts the poem in a delightful way saying that there is something that does not like a wall. That something makes the ground under the wa|l swell which results in cracks in the wall. Gradually the stones that make the wall fall to either side.

The fallen stones have lost their shapes. It is not easy to keep them back in their place. The gaps are so big that even two people can walk abreast through them. The poet strongly feels there is no need for a wall between him and his neighbour because he grows apple trees and the neighbour grows pine. Apple trees won’t go and eat the pine and pines won’t come to eat the apples. A wall was fine if they had cows as they could get mixed up without a wall. When the poet says there is no need for a wall between them, the neighbour tells him “Good fences make good neighbours.” Thus the poem ends in wisdom.

In “Mending Wall”, the poet has used many poetic devices such a metaphor, simile, personification and repetition. The language is simple and the imagery is exquisite. It gives a fine message, a priceless truth. “Neighbour” by lain Crichton Smith is a beautiful poem of just 12 lines. It gives a fine message. We see two neighbours here separated by a stream, ring of snowdrops, fences and gates. The poet can see his neighbour standing in his house wearing his trousers with shoulder straps. He wants a bridge to be built across the stream to connect the two neighbours. The blackbird sings across the fences and the rain falls on both the neighbour and himself. The rain which comes from the black cloud does not differentiate his neighbour from him. Nature is treating them equally and so the poet thinks that the neighbours should be linked by a bridge.

The poem is highly melodious. The imagery is superb as we can visualize the stream, the ring of snowdrops, the blackbird singing, and the rain falling. We can see the neighbour standing in his house in his trousers held by shoulder straps. The message is loud and clear – There should be love between neighbours.

Between the two poems, I prefer “Mending Wall”, as it is more dramatic and action packed.

Question 22.
In the light of reading excerpts from the lives of Irfan Alam and Shaheen Mistri, you arrive at the conclusion that ‘Entrepreneurs are not made, they are born.’ Our nation benefits from such enterprises too. Write an essay on the topic highlighting the merits of promoting entrepreneurship among the youth.
(HINTS : youth made responsible – dignity of labour – self-confident – self-reliance – hard work and commitment – job satisfaction – financial stability – creating employment opportunities – initiatives like kudumbasree, mango cabs, ubereats, flipkart, etc.)
Answer:

ENTREPRENEURS ARE NOT MADE, THEY ARE BORN

There is a wrong tendency in our society which makes the youth to look for government jobs. After getting their degrees, they go on writing PSC tests in the
hope of getting clerical jobs in government services. This is really bad for our country because the government can’t provide jobs for all the people. Here comes the importance of entrepreneurship.

Entrepreneurship makes us responsible and the success of the enterprise depends on our planning, vision and hard work. It also adds to the concept of dignity of labour’. An entrepreneur is prepared to do any kind of work that is needed of him for the success of his enterprise. In the Government service employees are graded as Class I, II, III and IV. Class IV employees are usually sweepers, cleaners and peons. Class III consists of clerks. Class II is of the Supervisory staff and Class I is that of High Officers. But in a private enterprise, there is no such division.

Entrepreneurship enhances self-confidence, self reliance and hard work. There is a lot of job satisfaction when we see our enterprises are succeeding. Entrepreneurs give jobs to others instead of being job hunters. It brings financial stability to ourselves and also the people whom we employ.

There are so many private enterprises which are very popular today. We have the Kudumbasree, Mango Cabs, Uber Eats and Flipkart. They are all successful enterprises and they originated in the minds of ordinary people. With some thinking, willingness to work hard, determination and self-confidence we too can embark upon some project that will prove successful.

Rome was not built in a day. Let us remember Dhirubhai Ambani, the father of the richest man in India today, Mukesh Ambani. Dhirubhai Ambani worked as a clerk in Yemen and returned to India and started a textile trading company in 1958. His initial capital was a mere Rs. 15,000. Let’s remember, “Where there is a will there is a way.”

Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life

Kerala State Board New Syllabus Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions and Answers Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life.

Kerala Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life

Question 1.
Antibiotics, antiseptics, and disinfectants are antimicrobial drugs. (March – 2010)
i) Give two examples of antibiotics.
ii) Write one similarity between antiseptics and disinfectants.
iii) Write one difference between antiseptics and disinfectants.
Answer:
i) Penicillin, Tetracyline
ii) Both antiseptics and disinfectants are chemicals which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms.
iii) Antiseptics can be applied to living tissues such as wounds, cuts, ulcers, and diseased skin surfaces. But disinfectants are applied to inanimate objects such as floors, drainage systems, instruments, etc. They are harmful to live tissues.

Question 1.
The doctor prescribed to use antacid for a person who was suffering from acidity in the stomach. (Say – 2010)
a) What is the function of antacid?
b) Explain the reason for acidity in the stomach.
c) What are the commonly used antacids?
Answer:
a) To remove the excess acid in the stomach and raise the pH to the appropriate level.
b) Acidity in the stomach in the presence of excess hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice.
c) Sodium hydrogen carbonate, mixture of aluminium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide, Calcium carbonate etc.

Question 1.
Detergents are used to remove oil and dirt from surfaces. (March – 2011)
a) What are synthetic detergents? Give an example.
b) What are anionic, cationic, and non-conic detergents? Illustrate with examples.
c) A synthetic detergent is used as a dishwasher. To which of the above type would it belong?
Answer:
a) Synthetic detergents are cleansing agents which have all the properties of soaps, but which actually do not contain any soap. e.g. Sodium lauryl sulphate
b) Anionic detergents are sodium salt of sulphonated long-chain alcohols or hydrocarbons. Example: Sodium lauryl sulphate. Used in toothpaste. Cationic detergents are quarternary ammonium salts of amines with acetates. Used in hair conditioners. e.g. Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. Non-ionic detergents do not contain any ion e.g. Liquid dishwashing detergents.
c) Non-ionic detergents.

Question 1.
Drugs play an important role in health maintenance. Analgesics and Antibiotics are two important drugs. (Say – 2011)
a) Define each.
b) Give one example for each.
Answer:
a) Analgesics – These are drugs used to reduce pain, eg. Paracetamol
Antibiotics – These are chemical substances produced by microorganisms like bacteria, which can inhibit the growth or even destroy other microorganisms.
b) Example for Analgesics – Aspirin (Non-narcotic), Morphine (Narcotic).
Example for Antibiotics – Penicillin

Question 1.
Different drugs have different therapeutic actions in our bodies. Write the therapeutic action of the following drugs in our body. (March – 2012)
i) Tranquilizers
ii) Analgesics
iii) Antibiotics
Answer:
i) Tranquilizers are chemical substances used to cure mental diseases or disorders and to reduce mental stress. They can act on higher centres of central nervous system and induce sleep to the patients. e.g. luminal, seconal, valium.
ii) Analgesics are the chemical substances which are used to relieve or abolish pain without causing impairment of consciousness, mental confusion, incoordination or paralysis or some other disturbances of the nervous system. e.g. Aspirin, Novalgin
iii) Antibiotics are the chemical substances which are produced by microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, molds etc. which can inhibit the growth or even destroy other microorganisms. e.g. Penicillin G, Ampicillin, Amoxycillin.

Question 1.
Antiseptics, disinfectants and antibiotics are antimicrobial drugs. (Say – 2012)
i) What is the major difference between antiseptics and disinfectants?
ii) Write one example each of antiseptics and disinfectants.
iii) What are antibiotics?
Answer:
i) Antiseptics are chemical which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms and can be applied to the living tissues such as wounds, cuts, ulcers and diseased skin surfaces.

Disinfectants are chemicals which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms and can be applied only to inanimate objects such as floors, drainage systems, instruments etc. They are harmful to living tissues.

ii) Example for Antiseptic – Dettol Example for Disinfectant -1 % solution of phenol

iii) Antibiotics are chemical substances produced by microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and molds that inhibit the growth or even destroy other microorganisms. e.g. Pencillin.

Question 1.
a) Chemotherapy is a term found in medical terminology. What is chemotherapy? Write example? (March – 2013)
b) Synthetic detergents are classified into three categories.
i) What are the three categories?
ii) To which of the above categories of synthetic detergents, does the liquid dish washing detergents belong?
Answer:
a) It is the branch of chemistry which deals with the treatment of disceases using suitable chemicals.
b) i) Synthetic detergents are mainly classified into three categories:
1) Anionic detergents
2) Cationic detergents and
3) Non-ionic detergents
ii) Liquid dishwashing detergents are non- ionictype.

Question 1.
Tranquilizers and analgesics are neurologically active drugs. (Say – 2013)
a) What are tranquilizers? Give one example.
b) What are analgesics? Give one example.
Answer:
a) Tranquilizers are a class of chemical compounds used for the treatment of stress, and mild orever severe mental diseases. These relieve anxiety, stress, irritability or excitement by inducing a sense of well-being. They form an essential component of sleeping pills.
e.g. Chlordiazepoxide, Meprobamate

b) Analgesics are drugs used to reduce or abolish pain without causing impairment of consciousness, mental confusion, incoordination or paralysis or some other disturbances of nervous system.

They are of two types: Non-narcotic analgesics e.g. Aspirin and Narcotic analgesics e.g.Morphin.

Question 1.
a) Antibiotics are classified into broad-spectrum antibiotics and narrow-spectrum antibiotics. Write one example each for these antibiotics.
b) Write one similarity and one difference between antiseptics and disinfectants.
Answer:
a) Broad-spectrum antibiotic – Chloramphenicol Narrow spectrum antibiotic – Penicillin G
b) Similarity
Both are chemicals which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms.

Difference
Antiseptics are applied to the living tissues such as wounds, cuts, ulcers and diseased skin surfaces. Disinfectants are applied to inanimate objects such as floors, drainage syste, instruments, etc.

Question 1.
Match the chemical terms shown in column I with the chemicals shown in colum II. (Say – 2014)

Column I Column II
i) Antacid
ii) Antihistamine
iii) Artificial sweetner
iv) Bactericidal antibiotic
v) Bacteriostatic antibiotic
vi) Disinfectant
a) Terfenadine
b) Ranitidine
c) Tetracycline
d) Aspertame
e) 1 % phenol solution
f) Ofloxacin

Answer:

Column 1 Column II
i) Antacid
ii) Antihistamine
iii) Artificial sweetner
iv) Bactericidal antibiotic
v) Bacteriostatic antibiotic
vi) Disinfectant
b) Ranitidine
a) Terfenadine
d) Aspartme
f) Ofloxacjn
c) Tetracycline
e) 1% Phenol solution

Question 1.
Different drugs have different therapeutic action in our body. Write the therapeutic action of the following drugs in our body : (March – 2015)
i) Analgesics
ii) Antibiotics
iii) Antihistamines
Answer:
i) Analgesics – These reduce or abolish pain without causing impairment of consciousness, mental confusion, incoordination or paralysis or some other disturbances of nervous system.
Example
– Aspirin (Non-narcotic)
– Morphine, Heroin, Codeine etc. (Narcotic)

ii) Antibiotics – In low concentrations antibiotics inhibits the growth or destroys microorganisms by intervening in their metabolic processes. These are used as drugs to treat infections because of their low toxicity for humans and animals.
Example
– Pencillin, Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol etc.

iii) Antihistamines – These prevent the interaction of histamine (a potent vasodilator and is responsible for the nasal congestion associated with common cold and allergic response to pollen) with the receptors. Thus, antihistamines prevent nasal congestion associated with common cold and allergic responses.

Question 1.
Write therapeutic actions of the following drugs: (Say – 2015)
i) Antipyretic
ii) Antiseptic
iii) Antibiotic
Answer:
i) Antipyretic – Drug used to reduce fever.
ii) Antiseptic – Drug which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms. It is applied to living tissues such as wounds, cut, ulcers and diseased skin surfaces.
iii) Antibiotic – Drug used to treat infections because oftheir low toxicity for humans and animals. It is a substance produced wholly or partly by chemical synthesis, which in low concentrations inhibits the growth or destroys microorganisms by intervening in their metabolic processes.

Question 1.
a) Identify an analgesic from the following: (March – 2016)
a) equanil
b) aspirin
c) serotonin
d) cimetidine

b) Differentiate between antiseptics and antibiotics.
Answer:
a) b) aspirin
b) Antiseptics – These are chemicals which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms and are applied to the living tissues such as wounds, cuts, ulcers and diseased skin surfaces. These are not ingested like antibiotics.
e.g. dettol, iodine etc.

Antibiotics – These are drugs used to treat infections because oftheir lowtoxicity for humans and animals. These are chemical substances produced by microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and molds) that inhibit the growth or even destroy microorganisms. Some purely synthetic compounds have antibacterial activity. Therefore, now antibiotics are refered to as substances produced wholly or partly by chemical synthesis, which in low concentrations inhibits the growth ordestroys microorganisms by intervening in their metabolic processes,
e.g. penicillin, chloramphenicol etc.

Question 1.
Different drugs have different therapeutic action in our body. Write the therapeutic action of the following drugs in our body. (Say – 2016)
i) Analgesics
ii) Antibiotics
iii) Tranquilizers
Answer:
i) Analgesics – Drugs which reduce or abolish pain without causing impairment of conciousness, mental confusion, incoordination or paralysis or some other disturbances of nervous system.

ii) Antibiotics – Drugs used to treat infections because of their low toxicity for humans and animals. These are substances produced wholly or partly by chemical synthesis, which in low concentrations inhibit the growth or destroy microorganisms by intervening in their metabolic processes.

iii) Tranquilizers – These are neurologically active drugs which affect the message transfer mechanim from nerve to receptor. These are used forthe treatment of stress, and mild or even severe mental diseases. These relieve anxiety, stress, irritability or excitment by inducing a sense of well-being.

Question 1.
Antibiotics, antiseptics and disinfectants are anti microbial drugs.’ Explain anyone of the above mentioned drugs with examples. (March – 2017)
Answer:
Antibiotics – These are drugs used to treat infections because of their low toxicity for humans and animals. These are chemical substances produced
by microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and molds) that inhibit the growth or even destroy microorganisms. Some purely synthetic compounds have antibacterial activity. Therefore, now antibiotics are refered to as substances produced wholly or partly by chemical synthesis, which in low concentrations inhibits the growth ordestroys microorganisms by intervening in their metabolic processes.
e.g. penicillin, aminoalycosides, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol etc.

Or

Antiseptics – These are chemicals which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms and are applied to the living tissues such as wounds, cuts, ulcers and diseased skin surfaces. These are not ingested like antibiotics.
e.g. furacine, soframicine, dettol, iodine, bithionol, 0.2% phenol etc.

Or

Disinfectants: These are chemicals which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms and are applied to inanimate objects such as floors, drainage system, instruments, etc.
e.g. 1% phenol, chlorine, sulphur dioxide, etc.

Question 1.
Match the following (Say – 2017)

a) antiseptic i) sodium stearate
b) artificial sweetness ii) bithional
c) Soap iii) ascorbicand
d) vitamin C iv) Saccharin
v) barbituric acid

Answer:

a) antiseptic ii) bithional
b) artificial sweetness iv) Saccharin
c) Soap i) sodium stearate
d) vitamin C iii) ascorbicard
v) barbituric acid

Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 15 Polymers

Kerala State Board New Syllabus Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions and Answers Chapter 15 Polymers.

Kerala Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 15 Polymers

Question 1.
Based on the mode of polymerisation we can classify polymers into addition polymers and condensation polymers. (March – 2010)
a) Classify the polymers given below into addition polymers and condensation polymers. Terylene, polyvinyl chloride, bakelite, polyethene.
b) How will you prepare Nylon 6,6?
Answer:
a) Addition polymers – Polyvinyl chloride, Polythene Condensation polymers-Terylene, Bakelite
b) Nylon 6,6 is prepared by the condensation ‘ polymerisation of hexamethylene diamine with adipic acid under high pressure and at high temperature.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 15 Polymers 1

Question 1.
Polymers are high molecular mass compounds having special properties and so used for special purposes. Identify the following polymers X, Y and Z. (Say – 2010)
a) X is a polymer resistant to heat and chemicals. People used it to make non-sticky frying pans.
b) Y is a polymer formed from ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid and used for making heart valves.
c) Z is a polymer used for making unbreakable crockery items.
Answer:
a) Teflon (Polytetrafluoroethylene)
b) Terylene
c) Melamine – formaldehyde polymer

Question 1.
a) LDPE is a homopolymer, while Nylon 6,6 is a co-polymer. Explain. (March – 2011)
b) Classify the following into homopolymer or co-polymer: Nylon-6, HDPE.
Answer:
a) LDPE is Low-Density Poly Ethylene and its monomer is ethylene. The monomers of Nylon 6,6 are hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid. Here two monomers are present and hence it is a copolymer.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 15 Polymers 2
b) Nylon – 6 is a homopolymer contains only one type of monomer units, i.e., aminocaproic acid

Question 1.
Monomers polymerise to give polymers. Polymers can be classified in many ways. (Say – 2011)
a) Distinguish between homopolymers and co-polymers.
b) Give the name or formulae of the monomers in the following polymers.
i) Nylon – 6, 6
ii) Dacron
Answer:
a) Homopolymers-Addition polymers formed by the polymerisation of a single monomeric species.
e.g., Polythene.
Co-polymers – Polymers made by addition polymerisation from two different monomers.
e.g., Buna-S, Buna-N
b) i) Nylon 6,6 – hexamethylene diamine with adipic acid
ii) Dacron – Ethylene glycol (HOH2C-CH2OH) and Terephthalic acid( HoocPlus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 15 Polymers 3COOH).
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 15 Polymers 4

Question 1.
a) Rubber is a natural polymer obtained from the bark of rubber trees. (March – 2012)
i) Name the monomer of natural rubber.
ii) Vulcanisation improves the elasticity of rubber. What is vulcanisation?
b) Write two examples for synthetic rubber.
Answer:
a) i) Isoprene, 3-butadiene)
ii) The process of heating a mixture of raw rubber with sulphur and an appropriate additive at a temperature range between 373 K to 415 K.
b) e.g. 1. Neoprene, 2. Buna – N

Question 1.
PVC, bakelite and polythene are plastics. (Say – 2012)
i) Classify the above plastics into thermoplastics and therm osetting plastics.
ii) Name the monomer units of PVC and bakelite.
Answer:
i) Thermo plastics – PVC, Polythene
Thermosetting plastics – Bakelite
ii) The monomer of PVC ¡s ployvinyl chloride (CH2=CH-Cl)
The monomers of bakelite are phenol (C6H5ÇOH) and formaldehyde (HCHO)

Question 1.
a) Synthetic rubber is a vulcanisable rubber-like polymer. (March – 2013)
1) Write one example for synthetic rubber.
ii) Write the method of preparation of the above synthetic rubber.
b) Which are the monomers of Nylon-6 and Nylon-66?
Answer:
a) 1) Neoprene
2) It is obtained by the free radical polymerisation of chloroprene.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 15 Polymers 5

b) Polymer Monomer
1) Nylon 6 → Caprolactam
2) Nylon 6,6 → Hexamethylene diamine & Adipic acid

Question 1.
Natural rubber obtained from rubber latex is soft and sticky. (Say – 2013)
a) Suggest a method to improve the stiffness of rubber.
b) Explain the above method.
c) Classify the following into natural and synthetic polymers:
Nylon, Starch, Cellulose, PVC
Answer:
a) Vulcanisation

b) It is the process of heating a mixture of raw rub- ber with sulphur and an appropriate additive at a temperature range between 373 K to 415 K. On vulcanisation, sulphur forms cross-links at the reactive sites of double bonds in the polyisoprene chain and thus rubber gets stiffened. Vulcanisation improves the physical properties of natural rubber-like elasticity, water absorption capacity and solubility. It also increases its resistance to attack by oxidising agents.

c) Natural polymers – Cellulose, Starch Synthetic polymers – Nylon, PVC

Question 1.
a) Write any two differences between step-growth polymerisation and chain-growth polymerisation. (March – 2014)
b) What are the monomers of the following?
i) Neoprene
ii) Nylon-6
Answer:
a)

Chain growth polymerisation Step growth polymerisation
1) Molecules of the same or different monomers add together on a large scale to form a polymer. 1) There is repetitive con­densation reaction be­tween two bi-functional monomers with elimi­nation of some simple molecules.
2)The monomers are unsaturated com­pounds like alkenes, alkadienes and their derivatives. 2)The monomers are saturated compounds with two functional groups.

b) 1) Neoprene: Neoprene (2-Chloro-1 ,3-butadiene)
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 15 Polymers 6
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 15 Polymers 7

Question 1.
a) Name two thermoplastics. (Say – 2014)
b) Nylon 6, 6 and Dacron are two synthetic fibres. Suggest the monomers of each.
Answer:
a) 1) Polythene
2) Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC)

b) Nylon 6,6: Hexamethylenediamine [HOOC(CH2)4 COOH] and adipic acid [H2N(CH2)6NH2],
Dacron : Ethylene glycol (HOH2C – CH2OH) and Terephthalic acid (HOOC – C6H4 – COOH).

Question 1.
Polymers are macromolecules formed by union of monomers. (March – 2015)
a) Name natural polymer and synthetic polymer.
b) Distinguish between thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers with example.
Answer:
a) Natural polymer – proteins, cellulose, starch, resins, natural rubber (any one)
Synthetic polymer- Polythene, Nylon 6,6, BunaS, Teflon, PVC (any one)
b) Thermoplastic polymers – These are linear or slightly branched long-chain molecules capable of repeatedly softening on heating and hardening on cooling. These polymers possess intermolecular forces of attraction intermediate between elastomers and fibres. These can be reused.

Example – polythene, polystyrene, polyvinyl (any one)

Thermosetting polymers – These polymers are cross linked or heavily branched molecules, which on heating undergo extensive cross-linking in moulds and again become infusible. These cannot be reused.

Example – bakelite, urea-formaldehyde resins (any one)

Question 1.
Polymers are classified into elastomers, fibres, thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics, depending upon the intermolecular forces. Fill in the vacant boxes given below: (Say – 2015)
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 15 Polymers 8
Answer:

  • Bakelite
  • Elastomer
  • Isoprene (2-Methy-1,3-butadiene)
  • Fibres
  • Nylon 6
  • Thermoplastic

Question 1.
Polymers can be classified based on molecular forces. (March – 2016)
a) Classify the following polymers into elastomers and fibres: Rubber, Nylon 6,6 Buna-S, Terylene
b) What do you mean by thermosetting polymers? Give one example.
Answer:
a) Elastomers – Rubber, Buna-S Fibres – Nylon 6,6, Terylene b) Thermosetting polymers are cross-linked or heavily branched molecules, which on heating undergo extensive cross-linking in moulds and again become infusible.

These cannot be reused.

e.g. Bakelite, urea-formaldehyde resins (any one)

Question 1.
Polymers are of different types (Say – 2016)
a) Identify the thermoplastic polymer from the following:
i) Bakelite
ii) Nylon-6,6
iii) Neoprene
iv) PVC

b) What is biodegradable polymers? Write an example.
Answer:
a) (iv) PVC
b) Biodegradable polymers – Polymers which can be degraded by microorganisms,
eg. Poly β-hydroxybutyrate – co-β-hydroxy- valerate (PHBV), Nylon 2-nylon 6 (any one example)

Question 1.
a) Which of the following is not applicable to Nylon 6,6? (March – 2017)
i) Synthetic polymer
ii) Fibre
iii) Addition polymer
iv) Condensation polymer.

b) Differentiate between thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics. Write one example each to them.
Answer:
a) Addition polymer
b)

Thermoplastic Thermosetting
1. They can be reused 1. Cannot be reused
2. They can be repeatedly softening on heating and hardening on cooling 2. On heating they undergo extensive cross-linking and become infusible
3. They are linear or lightly branched long-chain polymers 3. They are cross-linked or heavily branched polymers
4. Eg. Polythene, Polystyrene, Polyvinyl 4. Eg. Bakelite, Urea-formaldehyde, Resin.

Question 1.
a) Distinguish between thermoplastic polymers and thermosetting polymers. (Say – 2017)
b) Name the monomers in the following two polymers.
i) Nylon 6,6
ii) Bu
Answer:
a) March 2017 Question 1 (b)
b) i) Nylon 66 → Adipic acid + Hexamethylene- diamine
ii) Buna-N → 1,3 butadiene + acrylonitrile

Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 14 Biomolecules

Kerala State Board New Syllabus Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions and Answers Chapter 14 Biomolecules.

Kerala Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 14 Biomolecules

Question 1.
Carbohydrates can be divided into three major classes monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. (March – 2010)
a) What are polysaccharides?
b) Give two examples for polysaccharides.
c) What is invert sugar?
Answer:
a) Polysaccharides are carbohydrates which on hydrolysis gives large number of monosaccharide units.
b) Starch and cellulose
c) The equimolar mixture of D – (+) – glucose and D – (-) fructose obtained by the hydrolysis of sucrose is called invert sugar.

Question 1.
Glucose (C6H12O6) is a monosaccharide, which can be oxidized, reduced and acetylated. What happens when glucose is treated with the following: (Say – 2010)
a) Br2 water
b) Hl/red P
c) Acetic anhydride
Answer:
a) When glucose is treated with bromine water it is oxidised to gluconic acid.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 14 Biomolecules 1
b) Glucose on prolonged heating with HI forms n-Hexane.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 14 Biomolecules 2
c) Acetylation of glucose with acetic anhydride gives glucose pentaacetate.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 14 Biomolecules 3

Question 1.
a) Names of some carbohydrates, their properties and structural patterns are given below. Match them properly. (March – 2011)

Glucose Disaccharide d-1, 4 link
Sucrose Reducing Galactoxide
Lactose Insoluble (in water) 1, 6-linkage
Amylopectin Non-reducing Fructoxide
Trisaccharide Anomers present
Mono saccharide 2-glucose units linked

b) Proteins have polypeptide bonds. What are polypeptides?
Answer:
a) Glucose – monosaccharide – Anomers present Sucrose – Disaccharide – Fructoxide Lactose – Reducing -1,4 link Amylopectin – Insoluble in water -1,6 link
b) When the number of amino acid units in a protein is more than ten, then the products are called polypeptides.

Question 1.
Proteins are the polymers of a-amino acids. The structure and shape of proteins can be discussed at four different levels, namely, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. Give an account of structure and shape of proteins considering the above four levels. (Say – 2011)
Answer:
The structure and shape of proteins can be studied at four different levels, i.e., primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.
1) Primary structure of proteins – It refers to the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
2) They are found to exist in two different types of structures such as α -helix and β-pleated sheet structure. In α -helix the polypeptide chain forms all possible hydrogen bonds by twisting into a right-handed screw with the -NH groups of each amino acid residue hydrogen-bonded to the Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 14 Biomolecules 4 group of an adjacent tum of the helix. In β -pleated sheet structure all peptide chains are stretched out to nearly maximum extension and laid side by side which are held together by intermolecular hydrogen bonds.
3) Tertiary structure of proteins – It represents overall folding of the polypeptide chains.
4) Quaternary structure of proteins – The spacial arrangement of two or more polypeptide chains.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 14 Biomolecules 5

Question 1.
a) Carbohydrates are classified into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. (March – 2012)
i) What is the basis of such classification? Explain.
ii) Give an example for an oligosaccharide.
b) Vitamin ‘C’ is a vitamin found in fruits and vegetables. It cannot be stored in our bodies. Why?
Answer:
a) i) On the basis of their behaviour on hydrolysis, carbohydrates are divided into three major classes.
1) Monosaccharides: These cannot be hydrolysed further into a simpler unit of polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone. e.g. Glucose, Fructose etc.
2) Oligosaccharides: These carbohydrates which on hydrolysis give 2-10 monosaccharide units. e.g. Sucrose
3) Polysaccharides: These are high molecular mass carbohydrates which give many monosaccharide units on hydrolysis. e.g. Starch, Cellulose, Glycogen etc. ii) Sucrose

b) Vitamin ‘C’ is a water-soluble vitamin and must be supplied regularly in the diet because it are readily excreted in urine and cannot be stored in our body.

Question 1.
Proteins are important polymers of biological systems. (Say – 2012)
i) What is the denaturation of proteins?
ii) Give two examples of denaturation.
Answer:
i) When a protein in its native is subjected to physical change like change in temperature or chemical change like change in pH, the hydrogen bonds are distrubed, the 2° and 3° structures change and the protein loses its biological activity. This is called denaturation of the protein.
ii) 1) When egg is boiled, it becomes hard because the soluble globular proteins change to in-soluble fibrous proteins.
2) Curdling of milk which is caused due to the formation of lactic acid by the bacteria present in milk.

Question 1.
a) Amino acids can be classified into essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids. (March – 2013)
i) What is the basis of such classification?
ii) Write one example each for essential and non-essential amino acids.
b) Write any two differences between DNA and RNA.
Answer:
a) i) The amino acids which can be synthesized in body are known as non-essential amino acids. Those amino acids which can not be synthesized in the body and must be obtained through diet are known as essential aminoacids.
ii) Essential amino acids
e.g. Valine, Lysine
Non -essential amino acids
e.g. Glycine, Alanine
b)

DNA RNA
1) Double helix structure
2) Sugar- deoxyribose
3) Bases – A, G, C, T
4) Transmits Traits
1) Single helix
2) Sugar-Ribose
3) Bases A, G, C, U
4) Responsible for protein synthesis

Question 1.
Name the products obtained in the following reactions. (Say – 2013)
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 14 Biomolecules 6
c) What is inverted sugar?
d) Name two polysaccharides.
Answer:
a) Gluconic acid.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 14 Biomolecules 7
c) The equimolar mixture of D – (+) – glucose and D – (-) fructose obtained by the hydrolysis of sucrose is called invert sugar.
d) starch and cellulose

Question 1.
Biomolecules are formed by certain specific linkages between simple monomeric units. Write the names of linkages and monomeric units in the following class of biomolecules. (March – 2014)
i) Starch
ii) Protein
iii) Nucleic acid
Answer:
i) Starch – Monomer: α – D – (+) – Glucose
Linkage: Glycosidic linkage
ii) Protein – Monomer: α – amino acids
Linkage: Peptide linkage or Peptide bond
iii) Nucleic acid – Monomer: Nucleotide
Linkage: Phosphodiesterlinkage

Question 1.
a) Name a fat-soluble vitamin. Suggest a disease caused by its deficiency. (Say – 2014)
b) What do you mean by the following:
i) Secondary structure of proteins.
ii) Nucleosides.
Answer:
a) Vitamin A-Xerophthalmia
b) i) It refers to the shape in which a long polypeptide chain can exist. These are found to exist in two different types of structures viz. α-helix and β -pleated sheet structure. These structures arise due to the regular folding of the backbone of the polypeptide chain due to hydrogen bonding between and NH- groups of the peptide bond.
ii) Nucleoside is a structural part of nucleic acid. It is a unit formed by the attachment of a base to 1′ position of the sugar.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 14 Biomolecules 8

Question 1.
Carbohydrates are broadly divided into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. (March – 2015)
a) Write one example of each of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides.
b) i) Write any one method for the preparation of glucose.
ii) What is peptide linkage?
Answer:
a) Monosaccharide – Glucose, Fructose, Ribose (anyone) Oligosaccharide – Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose (anyone)
b) i) From Sucrose (cane sugar): Sucrose on hydrolysis gives glucose and fructose.
or
Hydrolysis of starch by boiling it with dilute H2SO4 at 393 K under pressure.
ii) Due to peptide linkage an amide farmed between -COOH group and -NH2 group of amino acids of proteins.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 14 Biomolecules 9

Question 1.
a) Match the following structures of proteins in Column 1 with their characteristic features in column II. (Say – 2015)
b) What is the denaturation of proteins?
Answer:
a)

Column I Column II
(i) Primary structure (a) Special arrange­ment of polypeptide subunits
(ii) Secondary structure (b) Structure of amino acids
(iii) Tertiary structure (c) Folding of peptide chains
Civ) Quaternary structure (d) Sequence of amino acids
(e) Fibrous or globular nature

b) What is the denaturation of proteins?
Answer:
a)

Column I Column II
(i) Primary structure
(ii)  Secondary structure
(iii) Tertiary structure
(iv) Quaternary structure
(d) Sequence of amino acids
(c) Folding of peptide chains
(e)  Fibrous and globular nature
(a) Spacial arrangement of polypeptide subunits

b) When a protein in its native form, is subjected to physical change like change in temperature or chemical change like change in pH, the hydrogen bonds are disturbed. Due to this, globules unfold and helix get uncoiled and protein loses its biological activity. This is called denaturation of protein.

Question 1.
Cane Sugar, Glucose and Starch are Carbohydrates. (March – 2016)
a) Represent the structure of Glucose.
b) Write a method to prepare Glucose from Starch. Write the chemical equation of the reaction.
c) Suggest any two uses of Carbohydrates.
Answer:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 14 Biomolecules 10
b) Glucose is obtained by hydrolysis of starch by boiling it with dilute H2SO4 at 393 K under pressure.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 14 Biomolecules 11
c)

  • Carbohydrates form a major portion of our food.
  • Honey, a carbohydrate has been used for a long time as an instant source of energy ¡n ayurvedic system of medicine.
  • Carbohydrates are used as storage molecules as starch in plants and glycogen in animals.
  • Cell wall of bacteria and plants is made up of cellulose.
  • Cellulose in the form of cotton fibre is used for clothing.
  • Cellulose in the form of wood is used to build furniture.
  • Carbohydrates provide raw materials for many important industries like textiles, paper, lacqures and breweries. (any two)

Question 1.
Proteins are biomolecules (Say – 2016)
a) What is denaturation of protein?
b) Match the following:
Vitamin A – Glucose
Starch – Zymase
Aldohexose – Night blindness
Enzyme – Amylose
– Fructose
Answer:
a) When a protein in its native form is subjected to physical change like change in temperature or chemical change like change in pH, the hydrogen bonds are disturbed. Due to this, globules unfold and helix get uncoiled and protein loses its biological activity. This is called denaturation of protein.
b) VitaminA – Night blindness
Starch – Amylose
Aldohexose – Glucose
Enzyme – Zymase

Question 1.
a) Which of the following is a polysaccharide? (March – 2017)
i) Maltose
ii) Sucrose
iii) Fructose
iv) Cellulose
b) Explain the amphoteric behaviour of amino acid.
Answer:
a) iv) Cellulose
b) This behaviour is due to the presence of both acidic (carboxyl group) and basic (amino group) groups in the same molecule. In aqueous solution, the carboxyl group can lose a proton and amino group can accept a proton, giving rise to a dipolar ion known as a zwitterion. In zwitterionic form, aminoacids show amphoteric behaviour as they react both with acids and bases.

Question 1.
a) a -D-(+) glucose and p -D(+) glucose are (Say – 2017)
i) Metameres
ii) Anomers
iii) Geometrical Isomers
iv) Functional group isomers
b) What is the denaturation of proteins?
c) Differentiate between nucleoside and nucleotide
Answer:
a) ii) Anomers
b) When a protein is treated with acid, alkali or heated or subjected to change in pH, the secondary and primary structure of protein gets ruptured. Denaturation does not change the primary structure of proteins.
c) The repeating structural units of nucleic acids are called nucleotides.

Pentose sugar + Base → nucleoside
Nucleoside + Phosphoric acid → nucleotide

Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines

Kerala State Board New Syllabus Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions and Answers Chapter 13 Amines.

Kerala Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines

Question 1.
Aromatic amines are important synthetic intermediates. (March – 2010)
i) What are the products obtained when aniline is treated with bromine water?
ii) How will you convert nitrobenzene to aniline?
iii) Write down the Isocyanide test for the primary amines.
Answer:
i) Aniline reacts with bromine water at room temperature to give a white precipitate of 2,4,6 tribromoaniline.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 1
ii) Nitrocompounds on reduction gives amines.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 2
iii) Primary amines on heating with chloroform and ethanolic KOH, foul-smelling substances known as isocyanides or carbylamines are formed.
\(\mathrm{R}-\mathrm{NH}_{2}+\mathrm{CHCl}_{3}+3 \mathrm{KOH} \underline{\mathrm{Heat}}, \mathrm{R}-\mathrm{NC}+3 \mathrm{KCl}+3 \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}\)

Question 1.
Benzene sulphonyl chloride and aqueous NaOH can be used to distinguish three classes of amines such as primary, secondary and tertiary. (Say – 2010)
a) Name the above test.
b) How will you distinguish the above amines using this test?
c) Give the reactions and justifications,
Answer:
a) Hinsberg test. C6H5SO2Cl
b) 10 Amine + Hinsberg reagent → a compound soluble in alkali
20 Amine + Hinsberg reagent → A compound which is insoluble in alkali
30 Amine +Hinsberg reagent → no reaction.

c) The hydrogen attached to nitrogen in sulphonamide is strongly acidic due to the presence of strong electron withdrawing sulphonyl group. Hence, it is soluble in alkali.

Secondary amine react with benzene salphonyl chloride to form N, N-dialkylbenzene- sulphon-amide, which is insoluble in alkali. This is be?cause it does not contain any hydrogen attached to nitrogen atom and is not acidic.

Tertiary amines do not react with benzene salphonyl chloride, because they do not possess any replacable hydrogen.

Question 1.
Amines are versatile functional group useful in the preparation of many organic compounds. How can you convert? (March – 2011)
OR
a) A student tried to prepare p-nitroaniline by nitrating Aniline with Conc. HNO3 – Coric. H2SO4 mixture, but he got only m-nitro aniline. Why?
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 3
b) Explain how he should proceed to get pnitroaniline from Aniline.
Answer:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 4
a) In the strongly acidic medium aniline is protonated to form anilium ion which is meta directing.

b) The -NH2 group in aniline should be protected by acetylation by treating it with acetic anhydride. The acetanilide formed ¡s subjected to nitration to get p-Nitroacetanilide which on hydrolysis gives p-Nitroaniline.

Question 1.
Primary, secondary and teritary amines can be distinguished using Hinsberg’s reagent. (March – 2012)
i) What is Hinsberg’s reagent?
ii) How will you distinguish primary, secondary and tertiary amines using Hinsberg’s reagent?
Answer:
i) Benzene salphonyl chloride (C6H5SO2Cl)
ii) a) The reaction of C6H5SO2Cl with primary amine yields N-alkyl benzenesulphonamide which is soluble in alkali
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 5

The hydrogen attached to nitrogen in suiphonamide is strongly acidic due to the presence of strong electron withdrawing suiphonyl group. Hence, it is soluble in alkali.

b) Secondary amine read with benzene salphonyl chloride to form N, N-dialkylbenzene sulphonamide, which is insoluble in alkali. This is because it does not contain any hydrogen attached to nitrogen atom arid is not acidic.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 6

c) Tertiary amines do not react with benzene salphonyl chloride, because they do not pos-sess any replacable hydrogen.

Question 1.
a) Carbyl amines have an offensive smell. (Say – 2012)
i) Write the carbyl amine reaction.
ii) How will you convert aniline into phenol?
b) How will you convert an amide into the following? 0 An amine with one carbon atom less than that
of the amide.
ii) An amine containing the same number of car bon atoms as that in the amide.
Answer:
a) i) Aliphatic and aromatic primary amines on heating with chloroform and ethanolic potas skim hydroxide form foul smelling substances called isocyanides or carbylamines. This reaction is known as carbylamine reaction or isocyanide test and is used as a test for primary amines.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 7

ii) Aniline on diazotisation gives benzene diazonium chloride. This on warming with water gives phenol.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 8

b) i) By Hoffman bromamide degradation reaction- when an amide is treated with bromine in an aqueous or ethanolic solution of sodium hy-droxide at about 343 K, an amine with one carbon less than that present in the amide is formed.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 9

ii) By reduction – An amide on reduction with LiAIH4 or Na and ethanol an amine having the same number of carbon atoms as that in the amide is formed.

Question 1.
a) Amines are basic in nature. (March – 2013)
Arrange the following compounds in the increasing order of their basic strength.
NH3, C6H5NH2, CH3-NH2, (CH3)NH, (CH3)3N.
b) How will you convert aniline (C6H5NH2) to chlorobenzene?
Answer:
a) In aqueous solution when R = CH3 basic strength increases in the order
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 10

Question 1.
Amines can be considered as derivatives of ammonia. (Say – 2013)
a) Arrange the following in the increasing order of their basic strength.
C6H5NH2, C2H5-NH2(C2H5)2NH, NH3.
b) Represent a reaction of explain the basic character of aniline.
c) Name the reagents used in Hoffmann bromamide reaction.
d) What is the significance of the above reaction?
e) Give one chemical test to distinguish between methyl amine and diethyl amine.
Answer:
a) C6H5NH2 < NH3 < C2H5NH2, (C2H5)2NH
b) Aniline, being basic reacts with hydrochloric acid to form anilinium chloride salt.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 11
c) An amide, bromine, aqueous or ethanolic solution of NaQH.
d) It is a method for preparation of primary amines. The amine so formed contains one carbon less than that present in the amide.
e) Hinsberg’s test – When methyl amine (1° amine) is treated with Hinsberg’s reagent (benzene suiphonyl chloride), N-Methylbenzene suiphonamide is formed which is soluble in alkali due to the presence of acidic hydrogen.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 12

When dimethyl amine (2° amine) is treated with Hinsberg’s reagent N,N-dimethyl benzene shlphonamide is formed which is insoluble in alkali due to the absence of acidic hydrogen.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 13

Question 1.
a) Write a method of preparation of primary amines. (March – 2014)
b) Describe a chemical reaction given only by primary amines.
c) What is diazotisation?
Answer:
a) Reduction of nitriles – Nitriles on reduction with LiAIH4 or catalytic hydrogenation produce primary amines.
OR
Reduction of amides with LiAIH4 produce primary amines.
OR
Pthalimide on treatment with ethanolic KOH forms potassium salt of phthalimide which on heating with alkyl halide followed by alkaline hydrolysis produces the corresponding primary amine.

b) Carbylamine reaction / Isocyanide test – Aliphatic and aromatic primary amines on heating with chloroform and ethanolic potassium hydroxide form isocyanides or carbylamines which are foul smelling substances. Secondary and tertiary amines do not show this reaction. This reaction is known as carbylamine reaction or isocyanide test and is used as a test for primary amines.
R-NH2 + CHC3 + 3KH \(\underline{\text { Heat }}\) R-NC + 3KCI + 3H3O
c) Conversion of primary aromatic amines into dia zonium salts by reaction with nitrous acid is called diazotisation.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 14

Question 1.
a) Amines are basic. Arrange the following amines in the increasing order of basic strength (Say – 2014)
CH3 NH2, (CH3)2, NH, (CH3)3N, C6H5NH2.
b) Two well known reactions are given below: Suggest the main product of each reaction. Also give the name of each reaction.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 15
Answer:
a) In gas phase:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 16
(Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction)

Question 1.
Amines are classified as primary, secondary and tertiary. (March – 2015)
a) Write the IUPAC name of the following compound: NH2 – (CH2) – NH2
b) Which is stronger base – CH3NH2 or C6H5NH2? Why?
Answer:
a) Hexane-1,6-diamine
b) CH3NH2 is a stronger base than C6H6NH2.
Alkyl amines are stronger than aniline. This is because the unshared electron pair on nitrogen atom to be in conjugation with the benzene and thus making it less available for protonation.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 17

CH3NH2, due to electron releasing nature of the CH3– group, it pushes electrons towards nitrogen and thus makes the unshared electron pair more available for sharing.

Question 1.
a) Aromatic and aliphatic amines are basic in nature like ammonia. Arrange the following compounds in the increasing order of their basic strength: (Say – 2015)
CH3NH2,(CH3),NH,NH3,C6H5 -NH2
b) How will you carry out the following reactions?
i) Hoffmann bromamide reaction
ii) Carbylamine reaction (Chemical equations not required)
Answer:
a) C6H5-NH2<NH3<CH3NH2<(CH3)2NH
b) i) Hoffmann bromamide reaction – When an amide is treated with bromine in an aqueous or ethanolic solution of NaOH an amine with one carbon atom less than that present in the amide is formed. In this degradation reaction, migration of an alkyl or aryl group takes place from carbonyl carbon of the amide to the nitrogen atom.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 18

ii) Carbylamine reaction – Aliphatic and aromatic primary amines on heating with chloroform and ethanolic KOH form isocyanides or carbylamines which are foul smelling substances.
R – NH2 + CHCI3 + 3KOH → R – NC + 3KCI + 3H2O

Question 1.
Amines are classified as primary, secondary and tertiary amine. (March – 2016)
a) Represent the structure of secondary and tertiary amine.
b) How will you convert nitrobenzene to aniline?
c) Aniline does not undergo Friedel-Crafts reaction. Why?
Answer:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 19
b) Nitrobenzene on reduction by passing hydrogen gas in the presence of finely divided nickel, palladium or platinum and also by reduction with metals(Sn or Fe) in acidic medium gives aniline.

Or, the chemical equation:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 20

c) Aniline does not undergo Friedel-Crafts reaction (alkylation and acetylation) due to salt formation with aluminium chloride, the Lewis acid, which is used as a catalyst. Due to this, nitrogen of aniline acquires positive charge and hence acts as a strong deactivating group forfurther reaction.

Question 1.
Amines are basic in nature. (Say – 2016)
a) Arrange the following compounds in the increasing order of their basic strength
NH3,C2H6NH2, C6H5NH2, (C2H5)NH
b) How will you convert aniline to chlorobenzene?
Answer:
a) C6H5 – NH2 < NH3 < C2H5NH2 < (C2H5)2NH
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 21

Question 1.
a) Classify the following amines as primary, secondary and tertiary (March – 2017)
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 22
Identity the products B and C and write their formulae.
Answer:
a) Primary amines:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 23
Secondary amine: (C2H5)2NH
Tertiary amine:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 13 Amines 24
Product B is aniline and product C ¡s 2,4,6- tribromoaniline

Question 1.
a) The most basic compound among the following is (Say – 2017)
i) C2H5NH2
ii) C6H5NH2
iii) NH3
iv) (C2H5)2NH

b) Compound A is treated with Ethanolic NaCN to give the compound C2H5CN(B). Compound B on reduction gives compound C. Identify compounds A and C.
Answer:
a) iv) (C2H5)2NH
b) A-C2H5-X ethyl halide
C → C2H5-CH2NH2 propanamide

Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Kerala State Board New Syllabus Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions and Answers Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids.

Kerala Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Question 1.
a) Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds containing carbonyl group. (March – 2010)
i) Write a chemical reaction to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones.
ii) Aldehydes and ketones can be subjected to Clemmensen reduction and Wolf-Kishner reduction. Name the reagents used in both cases.

b) How will you make the following conversions?
i) Ethanoic acid to ethanol.
ii) Propanoic acid to 2-chloropropanoic acid.
iii) Toluene to benzoicacid.
Answer:
a) i) Tollens’ Test: on warming an aldehyde with freshly prepared ammonical silver nitrate solution (Tollens’ reagent), a bright silver mirror is produced due to the formation of silver metal.
\(\begin{array}{r}
\mathrm{RCHO}+2\left[\mathrm{Ag}\left(\mathrm{NH}_{3}\right)_{2}\right]^{+}+3 \mathrm{OH}^{-} \rightarrow \\
\quad \mathrm{RCOO}^{-}+2 \mathrm{Ag}+2 \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}+4 \mathrm{NH}_{3}
\end{array}\)
Ketones, will not anwserTollens’ test.
ii) Clemensons reduction – Zinc amalgam and concentrated hydrochloric acid
Woif-Kishner reduction – Hydrazine, KOHI Ethylene glycol

b) i) By reduction – When ethanoic acid is treated with lithium aluminium hydride it is reduced to ethanol.
\(\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{COOH} \frac{\mathrm{LiAlH}_{4}}{\longrightarrow} \mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{CH}_{2}-\mathrm{OH}\)
ii) By Hell-Volhartl-Zelinsky HVZ) reaction – When propanoic acid is treated with chlorine in presence of small amount of red phosphorus followed by hydrolysis 2-chloropropanoic acid is formed.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 3

iii) When toluene is heated with alkaline solution of potassium permanganate the methyl side chain is oxidised to form benzoic acid.
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Question 2.
Following are a group of compounds showing acidic behavior: (Say – 2010)
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 5
a) Give the IUPAC names of these compounds.
b) Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 6does not contain a carboxylic group, still it is acidic. Why?
c) Phenols are less acidic than carboxylic acids Why?
d) Formic acid is stronger than acetic acid. Why?
Answer:
a) HCOOH → Methanoic acid
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 7
b) Thus, phenol always remains ionised in solution giving H+ ions and is acidic in nature.

Resonance in phenol:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 8
Resonance in phenoxide ion:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 9

c) Carboxylic acids are more acidic than simple phenols because the carboxylate anion is more resonance stabilised by two equivalent resonance structures than phenoxide ion.

d) In acetic acid due to the I effect of the CH3 – group attached to the – COOH group, the resonance stabilisation of the corresponding carboxylate anion is decreased while there is not I effect for H in formic acid. Hence, formic acid is stronger than acetic acid.

Question 3.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 10
a) What is its IUPAC name? (March – 2011)
b) Explain the conversion of the above acid to the following:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 11
Answer:
a) 3,4 – Dinitrobenzoic acid.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 12

Question 4.
Aldehydes resemble ketones in many respects. (Say – 2011)
a) Give the reason fortheir resemblance.
b) Give a reaction in which aldehydes resemble ketones.
c) Write two tests to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones.
d) What is Cannizaro reaction?
Answer:
a) Both aldehydes and ketones contain the carbonyl functional group Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 13. The general formulae of aldehydes and ketones are given below:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 14
(R and R’ ar same or different alkyl or aryl groups)

b) Both aldehydes and ketones undergo nucleophilic addition reactions. For example, both aldehydes and ketones react with hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to yield cyanohydrins.
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c) 1) Tollens’ Test – On warming an aldehyde with freshly prepared ammonical silver nitrate solution (Tollens’ reagent), a bright silver mirror is produced due to the formation of silver metal. Here the aldehydes reduce Ag+ to metallic silver and are oxidised to the corre sponding carboxylate anion.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 16

2) Fehlina’s Test – On heating an aldehyde with Fehling’s reagent (FehlingssolutionA- aqueous copper sulphate and Fehling’s solution B – alkaline sodium potassium tartarate), a red dish brown precipitate is obtained. Here the aldehydes reduce Cu2 to Cu2O and are oxidised to corresponding carboxylate anion.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 17
Ketones, being less reactive than aldehydes will not anwserTollens’ test and Fehling’s test.

d) Cannizzaro reaction – Aldehydes which do not have α-hydrogen atom, undergo self oxidation and reduction (disproportionation) reaction on treatment with concentrated alkali. This reaction is called Cannizzaro reaction. In this reaction, one molecule of the aldehyde is reduced to corresponding alcohol while another molecule is oxidised to corresponding carboxylic acid salt.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 18

Question 5.
Aniline is an aromatic pnmary amine. Starting from aniline a number of organic compounds can be prepared.
a) How is aniline converted to benzene diazonium chlonde?
b) How are the following obtained from benzene diazonium chloride?
i) Ch loro benzene
ii) Phenol
Answer:
a) Aniline is treated with nitrous acid. Nitrous acid is produced in the reaction mixture by the reaction of sodium nitrite with hydrochloric acid.
b) i) Benzenediazonium chloride when treated with cuprous chloride and HCI, the diazonium group is replaced by Cl ion to form chioroben zene.
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ii) When the aqueous solution of benzene-dia zonium chloride is warmed upto 283 K it is hydrolysed to phenol.
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Question 6.
a) Which named reaction is used to reduce CH3COCI to CH3CHO? (March – 2012)
b) Aldehydes and Ketones undergo reactions due to the presence of α – hydrogen atom.
i) Write the name of the reaction of aldehyde which takes place only because of the presence of α – hydrogen atom.
ii) How will you bring about the above reaction?
c) i) CH2CICOOH is a stronger acid than CH3COOH Why?
ii) How will you convert CH3COOH to CH2CICOOH
Answer:
a) Rosenmund Reduction.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 21

b) i) Aldol condensation.
ii) Aldehyde or ketone containing at least one x-hydrogen undergo self-condensation reaction with dil. alkali (e.g. dii. NaOH) as catalyst to form β – hydroxy aldehydes (atdol) or β – hydroxy ketones (ketol) respec travel.

c) i) Electron with drawing group or-leffect group ‘Cl’ stabilises the conjugate acid of the carboxylate anion through delocalisation of negative charge and strengthens the carboxylic acid.
CH2CI COOH > CH3 COOH

ii) When a carboxylic acid that contains α – hydrogen is treated with Cl2 or Br2 in the presence of small amount of red phosphorus the α – hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlonne or bromine atoms to give α – halo carboxylic acids. This reaction is known as the Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky (HVZ) Reaction.
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Question 7.
a) Complete the following. Write down the structure of A, B and C. (Say – 2012)
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b) Write down the IUPAC names of A, B and C.
c) Explain the following reactions.
i) Cannizzaro reaction
ii) Esterification
Answer:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 24
b) A – Propanoic acid
B – n-Butance
C – 2-Bromobutanoic acid

c) i) Canizzaro reaction -Aldehydes which do not have an α-hydrogen atom, undergo self oxidation and reduction (disproportionation) reaction on treatment with concentrated alkali. In this reaction, one molecule of the aldehyde is reduced to alcohot while another is oxidised to carboxylic acid salt. e.g.
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ii) Carboxylic acids react with alcohols or phenols in the presence of mineral acids such as concentrated H2SO4 or HCI gas as catalysts to form esters. This reaction is known as esterification.
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Question 8.
a) Suggest a method of preparation of benzaldehyde from toluene. (March – 2013)
b) Aldehydes and ketones differ in their chemical reactions. How do they react with the following?
i) Tollen’s reagent
ii) Alcohol.
c) How will you convert propanoic acid into the following compounds?
i) Ethane
ii) Butane.
Answer:
a) Toluene on treating with chromyl chloride give benzaldehyde.This reaction is called Etard reaction.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 27

b) i) Tollens’ Test: on warming an aldehyde with freshly prepared ammonical silver nitrate solution (Tollens’ reagent), a bright silver mirror is produced due to the formation of silver metal.
\(\begin{array}{r}
\mathrm{RCHO}+2\left[\mathrm{Ag}\left(\mathrm{NH}_{3}\right)_{2}\right]^{+}+3 \mathrm{OH}^{-} \rightarrow \\
\quad \mathrm{RCOO}^{-}+2 \mathrm{Ag}+2 \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}+4 \mathrm{NH}_{3}
\end{array}\)
Ketones, will not anwserTollens’ test.

ii) Aldehydes react with one equivalent of monohydric alcohol in the presence of dry hydrogen chloirde to yield alkoxy alcohol known as hemiacetalswhich further react with one more molecule of alcohol to give a gem-dialkoxy compound known as acetal.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 28

Ketones react with ethylene glycol in presence of dry hydrogen chloride to form cyclic products known as ethylene glycol ketals.
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c) Propanoic acid → Ethane
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 30
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Question 9.
a) Among formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzalde hyde and formic acid, which compounds undergo Cannizzaro reaction? Give reason. (Say – 2013)
b) What is esterification?
c) Write the chemical reaction to effect the transformation of sodium acetate to ethane.
d) Write the IUPAC names of the compounds given below,
i) CH3-CH2-CO-CH3
ii) HOOC-CH2-COOH
Answer:
a) i) Canizzaro reaction -Aldehydes which do not have an α-hydrogen atom, undergo self oxidation and reduction (disproportionation) reaction on treatment with concentrated alkali. In this reaction, one molecule of the aldehyde is reduced to alcohot while another is oxidised to carboxylic acid salt. e.g.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 25

ii) Carboxylic acids react with alcohols or phenols in the presence of mineral acids such as concentrated H2SO4 or HCI gas as catalysts to form esters. This reaction is known as esterification.
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b) Formation of ester is known as esterification. Carboxylic acid react with alcohols or phenols in presence of acids like HCI to give ester.
c) By Kolbe’s electrolytic method – An aqueous solution of sodium acetate on electrolysis gives ethane at the anode.
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Question 10.
a) Aldol condensation reaction is a special reaction of aldehydes. (March – 2014)
i) What is a Idol condensation reaction?
ii) Write the structural formula of aldol formed from ethana I.
b) Write simple chemical tests and observations used to distinguish between the following compounds:
i) Propanal and propanone
ii) Phenol and benzoic acid
c) Write the names of the reagents used to bring about the following transformations:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 33
Answer:
a) i) Aldehydes and ketones having at least one α-hydrogen undergo a condensation reaction in the presence of dilute alkali to form β-hydroxy aldehydes (aldol) or β-hydroxy ketones (ketol) respectively. This reaction is known as Akiol condensation.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 34

b) i) Propanal and propanone – They can be distin guished by Tollens’ Test – When propanal is warmed with freshly prepared ammonical silver nitrate solution (Tollens’ reagent), a bright silver mirror is produced due to the formation of silver metal. Here propanal is oxidised to propanoate anion while it reduces Ag+ to metallic silver. Since ketones are less reactive, propanone will not answer this test.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 35

[Other tests: (1) Fehling’s test – Propanal gives a red precipitate on heating with Fehling’s reagent while propanone does not answer this test. (2) iodoform test – Propanone being a methyl ketone, when heated with NaOH and 12 sOlUtiOn an yellow precipitate of lodoform is formed. But propanal does not answer the jodo-form test.]

ii) Phenol and benzoic acid – When benzoic acid is treated with NaHCO3 solution there is bnsk effervescence of CO2. But phenol being less acidic than benzoic acid will not react with NaH CO3 solution.

c)
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 36
This reaction is caNed Rosenmund reduction.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 37
This reaction is called Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky (HVZ) reaction.

Question 11.
a) Methanal (HCHO) is an aldehyde having no α – hydrogen atom. What are the products formed when methanal is treated with strong KOH solution? (Say – 2014)
b) How are the following conversions achieved?
i) Benzoyl chloride (C6H5COCI) to benzalde hyde (C6H5 – CHO)
ii) Acetic acid (CH2COOH) to chioro acetic acid (CH2CI – COOH)
iii) Ethanal (CH3 – CHO) to Ethane (CH3 – CH3)
Answer:
a) Aldehydes which do not have α -hydrogen atom, undergo self oxidation and reduction (dispropor tionation) reaction on treatment with concentrated alkali. This reaction is called Cannizzaro reaction. ie, one molecule of the aldehyde is reduced to corresponding alcohol while another molecule is oxidised to the carboxylic acid salt. eg when methanal is treated with strong KQH solution it under goes self oxidation and reduction to give a mixture of potassium formate and methanol.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 38

b) i) Benzoyl chloride is hydrogenated over catalyst, palladium on barium sulphate to get benzaldehyde (Rosenmund reduction).
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 39

ii) Acetic acid on treatment with chlorine in presence of small amount of red phosphorus is chlorinated at the a position to get α-chioroacetic acid (HeIl-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction).
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 40

iii) When ethanal is treated with zinc amalgam and concentrated hydrochloric acid the carbonyl group is reduced to -CH2 group to get ethane.
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Question 12.
Aldehydes, Ketones and Acids contain Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 42. (March – 2016)
a) Name the product obtained by the reaction between Acetic acid and Ethanol.
b) a) Give any Iwo tests to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones.
ii) Two chemical reactions are given below:
1) Identify the products of each reaction.
2) Give the name of each reaction.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 43
Answer:
a) Acetic acid reacts with ethanol in presence of mineral acids such as concentrated H2SO4 as catalyst to form the ester ethyl acetate or ethyl ethanoate (CH3COOC2H. This reaion is known as esterification.
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b) i) 1) Tollens test (Silver mirror test) – on warming an aldehyde with freshly prepared am moniacal silver nitrate solution (Tollens’ reagent) a bright silver mirror is produced due to the formation of silver metal. Here the aldehydes are oxidised to the corresponding carboxylate anion while they reduœ Ag to metallic silver.
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2) Fehling’s Test – on heating an aldehyde with Fehlings reagent (mbdure of aqueous copper sulphate and alkaline sodium potassium tartarate), a reddish brown precipi tate is obtained. Here aldehydes are oxidised to the corresponding carboxylate anion while they reduce Cu2+ to Cu2O.
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Since ketones are less reactive than aldehydes they will not answer these two tests.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 47

Question 13.
a) Explain aldol condensation taking CH2-CHO example. (Say – 2015)
b) Write the named reactions involved in the following conversions:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 48
c) How are the following conversions achieved?
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 49
Answer:
a) Aldehydes and ketones having at least one α-hydrogen undergo a reaction in the presence of dilute alkali as catalyst to form β-hydroxy aIde hydes (aldol) or β-hydroxy ketones (ketol), respectively. This is known asAldol reaction. The aldol and ketol readily lose water to give α, β unsaturated carbonyl compounds which are al-dol condensation products and the reaction is called Aldol condensation.

e.g. CH3-CHO undergo Aldol reaction in presence of dil NaOH to form 3-Hydroxybutanal which on heating lose water to form the Aldol condensation product But-2-enal.
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b) i) Rosenmund reduction
ii) Cannizzaro reaction
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 51

Question 14.
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids are Car bonyl compounds. (March – 2016)
a) Aldehydes differ from Ketones in their oxidation reactions. Illustrate with one example.
b) How will you prepare benzaldehyde by Gatterman Koch reaction?
c) Write the reactions of carboxylic acid with the following reagents. (Write the chemical equations)
i) Thinoyl chloride (SOCl2)
ii) Chlorine in presence of small amount of red phosphorous.
iii) Lithium Aluminium hydride (LiAlH4) I ether.
a) Write a test to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones.
b) How will you prepare benzaldehyde by Etard’s rea dio n?
c) Howwillyou bring about the followng conversions? (Write the chemical equations)
i) Ethanol → Ethanoic acid
ii) Benzamide → benzoic acid
iii) Benzaldehyde → meta nitro benzaldehyde
Answer:
a) Aldehydes are easily oxidised to carboxylic acids containing same number of carbon atoms on treatment with mild or strong oxidising agents. Ketones are oxidised under vigorous conditions Le., with strong oxidising agents and at elevated temperatures to give carboxylic acids containing lesser number of carbon atoms.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 52

OR

On warming an aldehyde with freshly prepared ammoniacal silver nitrate solution (Tollens’ reagent), a bright silver mirror is produced due to formation of silver metal. The aldehydes are oxidised to corresponding carboxylate anion.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 53

Ketones will not give this reaction because Tollens’ reagent being a mild oxidising agent cannot oxidise ketones.

[Or, any other suitable example – Reaction with Fehling’s reagent, Reaction with Benedict’s reagent etc.]

b) When benzene is treated with carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride or cuprous chloride, it gives benzaldehyde.

Or, the chemical equation:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 54

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a) Fehling’s Test – on heating an aliphatic aldehyde with Fehling’s reagent (aqueous copper sulphate + alkaline sodium-potassium tolerate), a reddish-brown precipitate is obtained. Aldehydes are oxidised to corresponding carboxylate anion.
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Aromatic aldehydes and ketones do not answer this test. This is because Fehling’s reagent being a mild oxidising agent cannot oxidise them.
[Or, any other suitable example – Fehling’s test, Benedict’s test etc.]

b) Toluene on treating with chromyl chloride (CrO2Cl2) in CS2 forms a chromium complex WNCII on hydrolysis gives benzaldehyde.

Or, the chemical equation:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 57

Question 15.
Aldehydes and ketones are the compounds having >C = O group (Say – 2016)
a) Choose the IUPAC name of the compound CH– CH = CH – CHO
i) propen-1 -al
ii) But-2-en-1 -al
iii) Butanal
iv) But-2-en-2-al

b) Complete the following reaction:
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OR
Aldehydes, Ketones and acids contain > C= O group.
a) Choose the IUPAC name of the compound (CH3)2CHCOOH
i) Butanoic acid
ii) Ethanoic acid
iii) 2-methyl propanoic acid
iv) Propanoic acid

b) Complete the following reaction:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 59
Answer:
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 60

Question 16.
a) The product obtained when benzene is treated with carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride in presence of anhydrous AICI3 is (March – 2017)
i) Chlorobenzene
ii) Phenol
iii) Benzaldehyde
iv) Benzoic acid

b) How will you carry out the following conversions?
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 61
OR
Explain the following:
i) Esterification
ii) Tollen’s test
iii) HVZ reaction
iv) Decarboxylation of Carboxylic acid.
Answer:
a) iii) Benzaldehyde
b) i) Toluene on heating with alkaline KMnO4 followed by acid hydrolysis give benzoic acid.
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ii) Benzoic acid reacts with ammonia to give ammonium benzoate which on further heating at high temperature gives benzamide.
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iii) Propanoic acid on reduction using LiAIH4 gives Propan-1 -al.
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iv) Ethanoic acid on heating with mineral acids such as H2SO4 or with P2O5 gives ethanoic anhydride.
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i) Estenfication: Carboxylic acids are estenfied with alcohols or phenols in the presence of a mineral acid such as concentrated H2SO4 or HCI gas as a catalyst.
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ii) Tollens’s Test: On warming an aldehyde with freshly prepared ammoniacal silver nitrate solution (Tollens’ reagent), a bright silver minor is produced due to formation of silver metal. The aldehydes are oxidised to corresponding carboxylate anion.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 67

Ketones will not give this reaction because Tollens’ reagent being a mild oxidising agent cannot oxidise ketones.

iii) HVZ reaction: Carboxylic acids having an α – hydrogen are halogenated at the α – position on treatment with chlorine or bromine in the presence of small amount of red phosphorus to give halocarboxylic acids. The reaction is known as Hell-Volharti-Zelinsky (HVZ) reaction.
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iv) Decarboxylation: Carboxylic acids lose carbon dioxide to form hydrocarbons when their sodium salts are heated with sodalime (NaOH and CaÇ. in the ratio of 3: 1). The reaction is kriownas decar carboxylation.
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Question 17.
a) Which among the following reduces Tollen’s reagent? (Say – 2017)
i) Methanal
ii) Propanone
iii) Benzophenone
iv) Acetophenone

b) Since both aldehydes and ketones possess carbonyl functional group, they undergo similar chemical reactions.
i) Explain the structure of carbonyl group.
ii) Explain Aldol condensation with an example.
OR

a) Which among the following does not give red precipitate with Fehling’s solution?
i) Ethanal
ii) Propanal
iii) Butanal
iv) Benzaldehyde

b) How will you bring about the following conversions?
i) Toluene into Benzaldehyde
ii) Benzoic Acid to Benzamide

c) Explain Cannizaro reaction with an example.
Answer:
a) i)Methanal
b) i) The carbonyl C atom is sp2 hybridized. Carbon forms 3 α bonds and one π bond. Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 70

The C = O bond is polarised due to higher electronegativity of oxygen relative to carbon.

ii) Aldehyde or ketone containing at least one x-hydrogen undergo self-condensation reaction with dil. alkali (e.g. dil. NaOH) as catalyst to form β – hydroxy aldehydes (atdol) or β – hydroxy ketones (ketol) respec travel.

OR

a) iv) Benzaldehyde
b) i) Etard’s reaction
Toluene on treatment with CrO3 and acetic unhydride gives benzaldehyde
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c) i) Canizzaro reaction -Aldehydes which do not have an α-hydrogen atom, undergo self oxidation and reduction (disproportionation) reaction on treatment with concentrated alkali. In this reaction, one molecule of the aldehyde is reduced to alcohot while another is oxidised to carboxylic acid salt. e.g.
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ii) Carboxylic acids react with alcohols or phenols in the presence of mineral acids such as concentrated H2SO4 or HCI gas as catalysts to form esters. This reaction is known as esterification.
Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Previous Questions Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 26