Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense

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Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard BiologySolutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense

Soldiers of Defense Text Book Questions and Answers

Soldiers of Defense Biology Question 1.
Our surrounding are full of microorganisms. Most of them are pathogens too. Though we live in the midst of germs are we susceptible to diseases? What may be the reason?
Answer:
Numerous germs are present in our surroundings, that have the capacity to cause diseases. We are often in contact with them. There are several mechanisms in the human body which prevent the entry of germs. So we don’t get infected always.

Lysozyme Antibody Question 2.
What are the mechanisms in the body which prevent the entry of pathogens?
Answer:

  • A protein called keratin in skin, sebum, and acids.
  • Mucus in the trachea
  • Cilia in the bronchus
  • Hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
  • Cough and sneezing.
  • The wax in the ear.
  • The enzyme lysozyme in tears and saliva.
  • Blood, Lymph.

Body Coverings And Secretions

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 1

Thrombin Antibody Question 3.
Skin is referred to as a “fort of resistance”, why?
Answer:
Keratin makes the skin a thick fort which prevents germs from entering it. So the skin is referred to as a fort of resistance.

Question 4.
What is the function of cilia and mucus in the respiratory tract?
Answer:
Mucus in the trachea prevents the entry of germs into the lungs. The cilia in the bronchus wipe out dust that enters it.

HSSLive.Guru

Chapter 5 Biology Test Answers Question 5.
What are the methods in ears, eyes, and saliva to prevent germs?
Answer:
The enzyme lysozyme present in the tears and saliva are fight against germs. The wax in the ear prevents pathogens.

Lysozyme Question 6.
What is the role of hydrochloric acid in the stomach to prevent germs that enter the body through food?
Answer:
Since hydrochloric acid is present stomach, the germs that enter through food and water are destroyed.

Cyte Care Question 7.
Which are the secretions that help to defend pathogens? Analyze illustration and complete the table.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 2
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 3
Answer:

Part of the body Secretion
Ear Ear wax
Mouth Lysozyme in saliva Lysozyme
Eye Lysozyme  in tears
Stomach HCI

Body Fluids And Defense

  • Body fluids like blood and lymph play an important role in defense mechanisms.
  • Controlling the entry of germs into the body.
  • Neutralizing germs and the toxic substances they produce, preventing their multiplication.

White blood cells and Defense actions

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 4

Inflammatory Response

Lysozyme Antibodies Question 8.
Based on the indicators, analyze the following illustration. Write your inference in the science diary.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 5
Answer:
The cells that get damaged by a wound or an infection produce certain chemical substances. These substances dilate the blood vessel thereby increasing the blood flow. Blood plasma and white blood cells reach the wound site. This is the reason for the swelling of the wound site. This defense mechanism is known as inflammatory response.

Question 9.
What is the advantage of the dilation of blood vessels at the wound site?
Answer:
The cells that get damaged by a wound or an infection produce certain chemical substances. These substances dilate the blood vessels thereby increasing the blood flow.

Label the Specializations of the Plasma Membrane Question 10.
Is inflammatory response a defense activity? Why?
Answer:
Inflammatory response is a defense activity. Inflammation formed in the body due to the changes in the wall of blood capillaries in a part of the body that affected a wound. When germs enter through – the wound, changes occur in the capillary wall of that part. It leads to inflammation. Flow of blood through these capillaries increases and as a result more leucocytes come out from the capillaries and destroy the germs by engulfing them. The affected parts swell and become red-colored due to the arrival of more blood at the affected part of the capillaries.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 11.
Prepare the flowchart which showing the stages of inflammatory response.
Answer:
Germs enter through wound → Produces chemical messages → Blood vessels dilate → White blood cells from the blood vessel reach the wound site → White blood cells destroy the germs.

Phagocytosis

Phagocytosis is the process of engulfing and destroying germs. The cells engaged in this process are called phagocytes. (Phago – to engulf, cyte – cell) Monocytes and neutrophils are phagocytes.

Question 12.
Stages of phagocytosis
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 6

Question 13.
Complete the flow chart by analyzing illustration showing the stages of phagocytosis.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 7
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 8

Blood Clotting

Blood clotting is a defense mechanism to prevent the loss of blood through wounds. In this process fibrin, the plasma protein forms a fibrous network. Blood cells get entangled in the network to form a blood clot.

Question 14.
Analyze the following illustration that details the stages of blood clotting
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 9
Answer:
When a person gets a cut or wound the blood that flows out from the wound changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a clot which plays the wound and prevents further bleeding.

When the platelets come into contact with the atmospheric air, they burst and liberate thromboplastin. It converts prothrombin in the plasma to thrombin. This thrombin converts soluble fibrinogen molecules into insoluble fibrin. This fibrin filament form-fine network over the wound and trap blood corpuscles and platelets to form a clot. The clot seals the wounds and stops bleeding.

Healing Of Wounds

Healing of the wound is a stage after inflammatory response and blood clotting. When wound occurs new tissues are formed in place of the tissues damaged by the wound. In such situations, the wound scar does not remain. In cases when new tissues cannot be formed, the connective tissue heals the wound. In such situations, the wound scar remains.

Question 15.
In some situations, the wound scar remains. Why?
Answer:
When wound occurs, new tissues cannot be formed, then connective tissues heal the wound. In such situations, the wound scar remains.

Fever, A Defense Mechanism

Question 16.
The normal body temperature is 37°c (98.6°F). Body temperature rises during fever. Is it a disease or a symptom. Analyze the flowchart given and write your inferences in the science diary.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 10
Answer:
Fever is not a disease. But it is a type of resistance activity. Though the body can control the multiplication of germs through mechanism like raising body temperature. The chemical substances produced by the white blood cells raises the body temperature. If the rise in body temperature persists for a long time, it may badly affect the internal organs including the brain. Hence it is necessary to seek medical assistance immediately.

Question 17.
Fever is the rise in the body temperature. Is it beneficial to the body?
Answer:
Our normal body temperature is 36.9°c. This temperature is suitable for the multiplication of germs. When infection occurs body rises the temperature through fever to reduce the capacity of multiplication of them.

Lymphocytes – The Warrior

Specific defense is the system which identifies and destroys pathogens. White blood cells known as lymphocytes are capable of destroying the pathogens in this way. Lymphocytes are of two types namely B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. B lymphocytes mature in them bone marrow. T lymphocytes mature in the thymus gland.

B – Lymphocytes

B lymphocytes produce certain chemical substances to act against antigens. The chemical substances which act against antigens are called antibodies.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 11

Antibodies destroy the pathogens in three different ways

  1. Destroy the bacteria by disintegrating their cell membrane.
  2. Neutralize the toxin of the antigens.
  3. Destroy the pathogens by stimulating other white blood cells.

T – Lymphocytes

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 12

T lymphocytes stimulate other defense cells of the body. Moreover, these cells are capable of destroying cancer cells and cells affected by virus.

Question 18.
Complete illustration showing the defense mechanisms of blood.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 13
Answer:

  • Inflammatory response
  • Phagocytosis
  • Blood clotting

Lymph And Defense

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 14

The lymph formed from the blood and reabsorbed into blood has a prominent role in defense mechanisms, lymph contains plenty of lymphocytes. They destroy the disease-causing bacteria in lymph nodes and spleen.

Immunization

Defense mechanisms become slow when germs enter the body. This causes the spread and multiplication of germs. Immunization is the artificial method to make the defense cells alert against the attack of pathogens.

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Question 19.
What are vaccines?
The substances used for synthesizing antibodies are called vaccines.

Question 20.
Which components of vaccine act as antigens?
Answer:
The components from alive or dead or neutralized germs neutralized toxins or cellular parts of the pathogens will be the component of each vaccine.

Question 21.
How do vaccines induce immunity?
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 15
Answer:
In induced immunity antibodies which can act against pathogens or toxins produced by them are synthesized in the body itself. The body prepares antibodies to act against these foreign bodies.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 16

Treatment – Final Defense

Question 22.
Which are the different methods of treatment that we depend on?
Answer:

  • Ayurveda
  • Sidda
  • Unani
  • Naturopathy
  • Homeopathy
  • Allopathy (Modern medicine)

Question 23.
Observe the pictures given below and write the name and use of this equipment for diagnosis.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 17
Answer:
A. Stethoscope – to measure heartbeat
B. Thermometer – To measure body temperature
C. Sphygmomanometer – To record blood pressure.

Question 24.
Given below is the table including a few other modern equipments and their uses.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 18

Laboratory Tests

The report of a test showing the quantity of different factors in blood
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 19

Question 25.
Identify the specializations in medicine and the related areas and complete the table
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Answer:

Specialization Related area
Cardiology Treatment of heart
Ophthalmology Treatment of eye
Neurology Treatment of brain/nerve diseases
Oncology Cancer treatment
ENT Treatment of diseases of ear, nose, throat.

Antibodies

The scientist Alexander Fleming, who first synthesized antibiotics in 1928. Antibiotics are used to resist bacterial diseases.

Question 26.
Antibiotics are very helpful but use of it should be with great care. Why?
Answer:

  • Regular use develops immunity in pathogens against antibiotics
  • Destroys useful bacteria in the body.
  • Reduces the quantity of some vitamins in the body.
  • Some of them cause allergy, problems to stomach, bones, and kidneys.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 27.
Is it proper to use antibiotics without recommendation by a doctor? Why? Discuss. Write your inferences in the science diary.
Answer:
No. Though antibiotics are effective medicines, their regular use brings many side effects. Therefore use medicines only by the instruction of the doctor. Doctors prescribe medicine by considering the dose, method of use, period of use, age of the patient, etc. indiscriminate use of them causes health problems. Regular use develops immunity in pathogens against antibiotics, destroys useful bacteria in the body and reduces the quantity of some vitamins. So self-treatment without the instruction of the doctor is not good.

First Aid

Question 28.
Observe figures A, B and C and identify the instance in which the following type of first aid is given.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 21
Answer:

  • A – Breathing has stopped but heartbeat has not as in drowning electric shock, choking gas, suffocation, etc.
  • B – Bone and ligament injuries; and fractures
  • C – Choking occurs when an object swallowing

Blood Transfusion

The transfer of blood from one person to another is called blood transfusion. Certain instances such as blood is lost excessively in accidents, affected with diseases like blood cancer and surgical operations require blood transfusion.

Different Types of Blood Group

A, B, AB, O are the main blood groups. Carl Landsteiner proposed blood grouping on the basis of the presence or absence of A, B antigens seen on the surface of the red blood cells. The blood group in which Rh factor is present are positive blood groups and those without Rh factor are negative blood groups.

Question 29.
Can a patient receive blood from any person?
Answer:
No. Blood of certain persons cannot be received by others. The antigen present in the received blood and antibody in the recipient’s blood will react each other to form blood clot.

Question 30.
Observe the table and identify the various types of blood group, antigens, and antibodies present in them
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 22

Question 31.
Prepare posters on the greatness of donating blood
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 23

Defense Mechanisms In Plants

Question 32.
Complete the illustration by including different defense mechanisms in plants.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 24
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 25

Let Us Assess

Question 1.
Which among the following is not included in non-specific body defense?
a) production of sebum
b) action of hydrochloric acid in the stomach
c) action of B lymphocytes
d) action of lysozyme in saliva
Answer:
c) action of B lymphocytes

Question 2.
Write the functions of the two types of lymphocytes in the defense mechanism of the body.
Answer:
B lymphocytes produce antibodies and it destroys the antigens, T- lymphocytes stimulate white blood cells and also destroys cancer cells.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 3.
What is the basis of grouping blood Into different types? Everybody cannot receive blood of all groups. Why?
Answer:
The basis of blood grouping is the presence of antigen seen on the surface of the red blood cells. When an antigen reaches one s blood, it stimulates defense activity to produce antibody. The antigen and antibody react each other and form a blood clot. Hence everyone cannot receive blood from aH blood groups.

Soldiers of Defense More Questions And Answers

Question 1.
Identify the diagram and mention the defense process taking place in A
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 26
Answer:
Skin.
A is the outermost Keratin layer. Keratin is a protein, it blocks the entry of germs.

Question 2.
Respiratory track is always free from germs. Why?
Answer:
Mucus in the trachea prevents the entry of germs into the lungs. The cilia in the bronchus wipe out dust that enters it. Cough and sneezing help to expel foreign bodies from the respiratory tract. So respiratory tract is always free from germs.

Question 3.
Complete the table suitably.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 27
Answer:
a) Ear
b) Hydrochloric acid
c) eye / mouth
d) The outermost layer blocks the entry of germs/ Keratin / Sebum / Acids.

Question 4.
Is swelling of the wound site helpful or not? why?
Answer:
Yes, It is helpful. The wounds and cuts occur in the skin, that area swells and blood vessels dilate It increases the blood flow and more white blood cells can come out through the enlarged pores and destroy the germs.

Question 5.
Generally, bacteria are useful but some of them are pathogenic. How?
Answer:
After entering the body they multiply by binary fission and produce certain toxic substances, which either disrupt the cellular activities or destroy the cell itself.

Question 6.
Following are certain steps of a defense process identify the process.
1. Phagocytes reach near the pathogens.
2. Engulf pathogens in the membrane sac
3. Membrane sacs combine with lysosome.
4. The enzyme in the Iysosome destroys the pathogens.
5. Expels the remnants from phagocyte.
Answer:
Phagocytosis

Question 7.
Observe the illustration and identify the process.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 28
Answer:
Phagocytosis

Question 8.
What are the factors needed for blood clotting?
Answer:
Prothrombin, Fibrinogen in plasma, Calcium ions, Vitamin K, Red blood cells, Platelets.

Question 9.
Blood clotting is a defense mechanism to prevent the loss of blood through wounds. Mention the different stages of this process.
Answer:

  • Tissues of the wounded part degenerate to form the enzyme thromboplastin.
  • Thromboplastin converts prothrombin in the plasma to thrombin.
  • Thrombin converts the fibrinogen in the plasma to fibrin.
  • Blood clot is formed by the entangling of platelets and red blood cells in the fibrin network.

Question 10.
Complete the flowchart showing the blood clotting.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 29
Answer:
A) Thrombin
B) Fibrin

Question 11.
“Fever is not a disease, it is a defense mechanism.” Analyze the statement.
Answer:
Yes. The presence of toxin produced by the pathogens stimulate the white blood cells and hence the white blood cells produce chemical substance that raises the body temperature. The rise in body temperature reduces the rate of multiplication of pathogens and increases the rate of phagocytosis.

Question 12.
How is antibody destroy germs?
Answer:
Antibody destroys the bacteria by disintegrating their cell membrane and neutralize the toxin of the antigens by stimulating other white blood cells.

Question 13.
Define the following
1. Antigen
2. Antibody
3. Antibiotic
Answer:
Any foreign body that stimulates the defense mechanism is called an antigen. The chemical substance produced by the lymphocytes act against antigen is an antibody. Antibiotics are medicines used to resist bacterial diseases.

Question 14.
The graph shown below represents the difference in the number of two bacteria when taken a particular antibiotic by a patient.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 30
Answer:
a) This antibiotic is effective and reduces the number of pathogens. But its antibiotics. It also destroys useful bacteria in the body.
b) Further use of these antibiotics is not effective because the harmful bacteria got resistance against it.

Question 15.
Complete the boxes according to the given hint.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 31
Answer:
A – Regular use develops immunity in pathogens against antibiotics
B – Destroys useful bacteria in the body.
C – Reduces the quantity of some vitamins in the body.

Question 16.
Can a person with ‘A’ group blood receive blood from ‘B’ group person? Or it take place vice versa? Give reason for this.
Answer:
A person with ‘A’ group blood cannot receive or donate blood with ‘B’ group person. Because the antigen present in the received blood and antibody in the recipient’s blood will react each other and form a blood clot (Coagulation).

Question 17.
Give more examples of vaccine
Answer:

Vaccine Diseases
BCG Tuberculosis
OPV Polio
DPT Diphtheria, Petussis, Tetanus
MMR Mumps, Measles and Rubella
Hepatitis. B. Vaccine Hepatitis
TT Tetanus
Cowpox vaccine Small pox
Rabies vaccine Rabies

Question 18.
“Germs, both alive and dead are used to get immunity”. Substantiate the statement with vaccines used for rabies and tuberculosis. (March 2015)
Answer:
Germs, both alive and dead are used as vaccines. ‘ Dead germs are utilized in rabies vaccine which acts against rabies. Live, but inactivated vaccines are used in BCG vaccine against tuberculosis.

Question 19.
Observe the following figure and answer the given questions.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 32
a) Label A and B.
b) How did they protect our body? (March 2015)
Answer:
a) A – small hair, B – Sebaceous gland
b) Since sebum is oily, water does not stick on to the skin. Covering of hair protects the body from cold and heat and also prevents the entry of foreign bodies.

Question 20.
Whichever be the type of germs infected, the initial symptom appear in human body will be the fever. Give reason. (March 2014)
Answer:
Bacterial infection produces toxic substances in body, body temperature is suitable for bacterial growth, in order to control the growth of bacteria body rises the temperature, fever is not a disease.

Question 21.
Constant use of antibiotics is not good for health. This is the opinion of Rahim.
a) Do you agree with his opinion? Why?
b) Give two specific examples for justifying your answer. (Model 2013)
Answer:
a) I agree with this. Constant use of antibiotics results a few side effects.
b) Constant use of antibiotics may destroy useful bacteria in the body, develop resistance in bacteria against antibiotics or reduces the level of certain vitamins in the body.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 22.
How does the influence of the following action blocking germs.
a) Rise in body temperature.
b) Low oil content on skin.
c) Swelling occurs near wound.
d) Lymphocytes produce Antibodies. (March 2013)
Answer:
a) To resist the strengthening or increasing of causative organisms.
b) Waterproof and oily, germs cannot grow.
c) Flow of blood through the capillaries increases and more leucocytes comes out from the capillaries and destroy the germs by engulfing them.
d) Lymphocytes produce antibodies to destroy germs.

Question 23.
Whichever be the type of germs infected, the initial symptom appear in human body will be the fever Give reason. (March 2013)
Answer:
Bacterial infection produces toxic substances in body body temperature is suitable for bacterial growth, in order to control the growth of bacteria body rises the temperature, fever is not a disease.

Question 24.
The graph representing the difference in the number of two bacteria, while applying a particular antibiotic on a patient is shown below
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 33
A. Analyze the graph and record the findings.
B. Is this antibiotic effective against the bacteria? Why? (Model 2012)
Answer:
A. The harmful bacteria decrease in number in the first few weeks. Later they increase in number. Number of useful bacteria are decreasing gradually.
B. The antibiotic is not effective because the harmful bacteria got resistance against it. Moreover, number of useful bacteria decreases.

Soldiers of Defense Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Which among the following is the odd one? Why? Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Neutrophil, Basophil, Eosinophil (Question Pool-2017)
Answer:
Lymphocyte – Involved in specific defense

Question 2.
Skin is the largest sense organ of the body. It helps! us to sense heat, cold, touch, pressure, etc and it j acts as a soldier of defense of the body,
a) Does the skin have significance in defense as mentioned above? Justify. (Question Pool – 2017)
Answer:
Yes. The outermost Keratin, the protein layer blocks the entry of germs; sebum and some acids in the: skin-are disinfectants,

Question 3.
A table indicating primary level defense is given below. Arrange column B based on column A. (Question Pool – 2017)
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 34
Answer:
i) – c
ii) – d
iii) – a
iv) -b

Question 4.
Which among the following is the odd one and why? (Question Pool – 2017)
a) The Mucus of trachea destroys the pathogens.
b) The wax in the ear destroys pathogens.
c) Neutrophil destroys pathogens by engulfing them.
d) Lysozyme present in Saliva destroys pathogens
Answer:
C, Secondary defense

Question 5.
Nimisha’s hand got injured in an accident. After some time the wound area got swollen.
a) What is this type of activity known for?
b) Is it a defense mechanism? Why?
Answer:
a) Inflammatory response
b) Yes
Secondary level defense
Process to destroy pathogens in the body

Question 6.
Using the following statements,-prepare a flow chart of inflammatory response. (Question Pool-2017)
a) Production of chemical messages.
b) White blood cells destroy pathogens.
c) Blood vessels dilate.
d) Pathogens enter into the wound.
e) White blood cells come out from blood vessels.
f) Blood flow increases
Answer:
d
a
c
f
e
b

Question 7.
The given illustration includes white blood cells which act as a part of nonspecific defense. Fill up the blanks and complete the word web. (Question Pool -2017)
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 35
Answer:
A – Neutrophil /Monocyte
B – Stimulates other white blood cells / dilates blood vessels
C – Eosinophil
D – Engulfs and destroys germs

Question 8.
When there is an injury or wound, the blood vessel of that part dilates. (Question Pool – 2017)
a) What is its benefit?
b) Which white blood cell dilates the blood vessel?
Answer:
a) The cells that get damaged by a wound or an infection produce certain chemical substances. These substances dilate the blood vessels thereby increasing the blood flow. Blood plasma and white blood cells reach the wound site and it destroys the germs,
b) Basophil

Question 9.
Observe the given illustration and answer the following questions. (Question Pool-2017)
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 36
Answer:
a) Which is the process indicated in the illustration?
b) Which are the.white blood cells involved in the process?
c) Is it a specific defense mechanism? Justify
Answer:
a) Phagocytosis
b) Neutrophil, Monocyte
c) No
does not identify and destroy pathogens that enter to the body.

Question 10.
The flow chart given below indicates a type of defense mechanism occurring in the body. (Question Pool – 2017)
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 37
a) Complete the flow chart
b) Which process is it related to?
Answer:
a) i) Engulfs pathogen in the membrane sac
ii) The enzyme in the lysosome destroys the pathogens
iii) Expels the remnants
b) Phagocytosis

Question 11.
Blood clotting is a defense mechanism. Analyze the statement. (Question Pool – 2017)
Answer:

  • Prevents the entry of germs through wound
  • Prevents bleeding through wounds

Question 12.
Prepare the flow chart of the clotting of blood using the following statements. (Question Pool-2017)
a) Thromboplastin converts prothrombin to thrombin.
b) Blood flows from the wound.
c) Blood clot is formed.
d) Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin.
e) Tissues degenerate to form the enzyme called thromboplastin.
f) The red blood cells and platelets entangle in the fibrin network.
Answer:
d
a
c
f
e
b

Question 13.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 38
a) Identify A
b) B is a vitamin and C is an enzyme. Name them.
c) How does the lack of B or C affect the consequent chemical process? (Question Pool – 2017)
Answer:
A – Prothrombin
B – Vitamin K, C – Thromboplastin
C – Thrombin not formed
fibrinogen not converted to fibrin

Question 14.
Blood clot is formed by the entangling of red blood cells and platelets in the fibrin network.
White blood cells are not involved in this process. What explanation will you give for this? (Question Pool-2017)
Answer:

  • White blood cells do not have a definite shape
  • They come out through the fibrin network

Question 15.
One of the scars of the wound obtained by Binu while playing football remained even after 10 years. What explanation will you give for the scar remaining as such? (Question Pool-2017)
Answer:
When wound occurs, new tissues cannot be formed, then connective tissues heal the wound. In such situations, the wound scar remains

HSSLive.Guru

Question 16.
Fever is a defense mechanism. Is the statement correct? Justify your answer. (Question Pool-2017)
Answer:
Yes. The presence of toxin produced by the pathogens stimulate the white blood cell and hence the white blood cells produce chemical substance that raises the body temperature. The rise in body temperature reduces the rate of multiplication of pathogens and increases the rate of phagocytosis.

Question 17.
Complete the illustration (Question Pool-2017)
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 39
Answer:
a) B – lymphocyte
b) T – Lymphocyte
i) Stimulates white blood cell and destroys pathogens
ii) Destroys the bacteria by disintegrating their cell membrane
iii) Stimulates defense cells
iv) Destroys the cell which is affected by virus.

Question 18.
After attending a class on immunity, Arun raised a question to his teacher. (Question Pool-2017)
“In spite of so many defense mechanisms in the body, why are we still affected by diseases?
a) What explanation will you give for Arun’s doubt?
Answer:

  • Bad habits
  • Unhealthy food habits
  • Unhygienic
  • Excess pathogens

Question 19.
The use of some modern equipment are given below. Identify the equipment. (Question Pool-2017)
a) To record electric waves in the brain.
b) To record electric waves in the heart muscle
c) To understand the structure of internal organs using ultrasonic sound waves.
Answer:
a) EEG
b) ECG
c) Ultrasound scanner

Question 20.
The doctor prescribed antibiotics to Sunil who is affected with cholera, but not to Anil who is affected with chickenpox. What is the reason? (Question Poo1 -2017)
Answer:
Antibiotics are used to prevent bacterial diseases. Chickenpox is a viral disease. Cholera is a bacterial disease. So the doctor prescribed antibiotics to Sunni

Question 21.
Enlist the demerits of antibiotics for Jose who is preparing for a seminar on the topic “The merits and demerits of Antibiotics. (Question Pool -2017)
Answer:

  • The frequent use of antibiotics produces disease defense in pathogens.
  • Destroys useful bacteria in the body.
  • Reduces the level of some vitamins in the body.

Question 22.
Ashiq who met with an accident was in need of blood. Antigen A and D and Antibody b was identified in his blood. (Question Pool -2017)
a) Name his blood group?
b) Whose blood, among the following can be accepted by ashiq?
(i) Venu = A+
(ii) Amal- AB+
(iii) Suhara – AB
(iv) Anoop – A
Answer:
a ) A+
b) (i)VenuA+
(ii) Anoop A

Question 23.
The table given below indicates blood groups.

Blood group Antigen Antibody
A (i) b
B B (ii)
(iii) A, B (iv)

Answer:
i) A
ii) a
iii) AB
iv) No
v) O
vi) No

Question 24.
Box A includes the major components of vaccines and box B includes the diseases against which they are used. Match them appropriately. (Question Pool -2017)
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 40
Answer:
i) -d
ii) -c
iii) -b
iv) -a

Question 25.
Ravi prepared an illustration showing defense mechanisms in plants. Complete it. (Question Pool – 2017)
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 41
Answer:
a) Prevents the entry of germs which have crossed the cell wall, through cell membrane.
b) Bark
c) Cuticle in leaves
d) Cell wall

Question 26.
“This mode of treatment is a lifestyle in tune with nature rather than a mere method of treatment” This is a statement regarding a well-known mode of treatment.
a) Name the treatment.
b) Apart from this, name any two well-known modes of treatment. (Question Pool – 2017)
Answer:
a) Ayurveda
b) 1. Allopathy
2. Homeopathy/ etc.

Question 27.
Prepare two suitable placards to conduct an awareness rally in association with World Blood Donation day. (Question Pool-2017)
Answer:
2 placards contain appropriate concepts
Example: Donate blood Donate Life
Blood donation – Nothing to loose profits – Life

Question 28.
Match the following pairs (Question Pool – 2017)
a) T-lymphocyte: Thymus gland
B – lymphocyte:………………
b) EEG: to record electric waves in brain
………… to record electric waves in heart muscles
c) First Antibiotic: Alexander Flemming
First vaccine:……………..
d) Heartbeat: Stethoscope
Blood pressure:……………..
e) Antigen: Red blood cells
Antibody:…………………
Answer:
a) Bone marrow
b) ECG
c) Edward Jenner
d) Sphygmomanometer
e) Plasma

Question 29.
Given below is an equipment used for disease diagnosis. (Question Pool-2017)
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 42
a) Identify the equipment
b) What is its use?
c) Name another equipment that works on the same principle.
Answer:
a) ECG
b) To record electric waves in heart muscles
c) EEG

Question 30.
“it is possible to build up a healthy society with hospitals, doctors, and medicines” This is Bashir’s opinion. Evaluate it (Question Pool -2017)
Answer:

  • The opinion of Bashir is wrong
  • Nutritious food
  • Healthy lifestyle
  • Hygiene, These are the factors which build up a healthy society.

Question 31.
“It is not necessary to detect blood groups if we can accept blood from anyone”. This was an argument put forward by Sivaprasad in a discussion on blood transfusion.
a) What is the base of blood group determination?
b) Can a person receive any blood from anyone? Why? (Question Pool – 2017)
Answer:
a) The presence of antigens A and B on the surface of Red blood cells,
b) 1. Not possible
2. When a foreign antigen reaches one’s blood, it stimulates the defense activity
3. The antigen present in the received blood and the antibody in the recipients, blood will react each other to forms a blood clot (coagulation)

Question 32.
Given below is the picture of white blood cells which are parts of specific defense? 32 (Question Pool – 2017)
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 43
a) Identify A and B
b) What is the role of A in specific defense?
c) Give anyone difference between A and B
Answer:
a) A – T- lymphocyte
B – B lymphocyte
b) 1. Stimulates other defense cells
2. Destroys cancer cells and virus affected cells.
c) B lymphocytes matured at bone marrow T lymphocytes matured at thymus

HSSLive.Guru

Question 33.
Analyze the following statement and answer the following questions. 33 (Question Pool-2017)
When there is a wound, the body temperature rises.
a) What is the significance of white blood cells in this activity?
b) How does immunity become possible through a rise in temperature?
Answer:
a) The chemical substances produced by white blood cells rise body temperature
b) The presence of toxin produced by the pathogens stimulate the white blood cell and hence the white blood cells produce chemical substance that raises the body temperature. The rise in body tempera¬ture reduces the rate of multiplication of pathogens and increases the rate of phagocytosis.

Question 34.
Statements related to nonspecific defense and specific defense are given below. Identify the type of the defense and mark them using the letters N and S respectively.
(Orukkam – 2017)
a) The cilia in bronchus wipe out dust that enters it.
b) Destroy the bacteria by disintegrating their cell membrane.
c) The blood vessels near the wound diabetes.
d) The rise in body temperature reduces the rate of multiplication of pathogens.
e) B lymphocytes produce certain chemical substances against antigens.
f) Eosinophil produces chemical substances needed for inflammatory responses.
g) T lymphocytes destroys cancer cells.
h) The enzyme lysozyme present in tears destroys germs.
i) T lymphocytes destroy cancer cells.
j) Phagocytes engulf and destroy germs.
Answer:
a) N
b) S
c) N
d) N
e) S
f) N
g) S
h) N
i) S
j) N

Question 35.
Our body has the capacity to destroy germs those enter the body by breaking the first level defense Write your comment on this statement? (Orukkam – 2017)
( Hints: inflammation, different types WBCs and their functions, phagocytosis)
Answer:
The statement is true. When germs enter to the body the blood vessels diates (inflammation). This helps the white blood cells to act at the site A few white blood cells destroy germs by phagocytosis.

Question 36.
The basis of blood grouping is the presence of antigens in red blood cells. Complete the table given below based on this statement. (Orukkam-2017)
Blood groups
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 44
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 45
a) B lymphocytes produce antibodies against antigens.
b) We can use antigens as vaccines for the formation of antibodies in advance.
c) Neutralized toxins – Diphtheria
Alive but neutralized germs – Measles
Cellular parts of pathogens – Hepatitis B Killed germs – Cholera

Question 37.
Complete the illustration suitability related to antibiotics (Orukkam – 2017)
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Soldiers of Defense - 46
Answer:
A) Prevent bacterial diseases
B) Prolonged use may develop immunity in germs
C) Destruction of useful bacteria
D) Deficiency of certain vitamins in the body

Question 38.
The wound scar does not remain always. Write reason? (Orukkam – 2017)
Answer:
If the wound is filled with same tissue, no wound scar occurs there.

Question 39.
Fill in the blanks by observing the relationship in the first pair. (Orukkam – 2017)
a) EEG: To record electric waves in the brain
ECG:……………………………..
b) Rabies: Killed germs
Typhoid:………………………..
Answer:
a – Records electric waves in the heart muscles
b – Alive but neutralized germs.

Question 40.
Name the first vaccine? Who developed this? Write the situation which leads to the development of vaccine? (Orukkam – 2017)
Answer:
Smallpox vaccine, developed by Edward Jenner. He observed no smallpox disease in people who had affected cowpox earlier.

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