Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future

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Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future

Genetics for the Future Text Book Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Observe illustration on the various stages in the production of bacteria that are capable of producing insulin. Analyze it based on the indicators and write down the inferences.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future - 1
a) How insulin-producing bacteria are created?
b) What is the change that occurred in the genetic constitution of the bacteria that can produce insulin?
c) Will the future generation of this bacteria have the ability to produce insulin? Why?
Answer:
a) Insulin-producing bacteria are created through Genetic Engineering. Cutting the gene responsible for the production of insulin and joining it with bacterial DNA (plasmid).
b) The gene responsible for the production of insulin become part of the bacterial DNA.
c) Yes, the bacteria containing genes that the ability which controlling insulin production They replicates and forms more in number.

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Question 2.
Observe the collage given below analysis and prepare notes about it.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future - 2
Answer:
It is criticized that genetically modified varieties are threat to indigenous varieties and may cause health issues to human. There are possibilities to use the genetically modified organisms are bioweapons that might be applied any country to their enemies is called Bioware. This becomes a threat to the existence of human beings.

Genetic Engineering

The use of microorganisms and biological processes for various human requisites is called biotechnology. The ability of fungi and bacteria to convert sugar into alcohol was utilized to make wine, appam and cake. These can be considered as traditional methods of biotechnology. Genetic engineering is the modern form of biotechnology. Genetic engineering is the technology of controlling traits of Organisms by bringing about desirable changes in the genetic constitution of organisms.

Question 3.
What is the basis of genetic engineering?
Answer:
The basis of genetic engineering is the discovery of the fact that genes can be cut and joined.

  • Restriction Endonuclease: The enzyme used to cut DNA at specific sites. This enzyme is known as genetic scissors.
  • Liqase: The enzyme ligase is used for joining DNA at specific sites, this enzyme is called as genetic glue.
  • Vectors: Plasmids in bacteria are generally used as vectors. A gene from one cell is transferred to another cell by using suitable vectors.

Question 4.
How is the new genes become a part of the genetic constitution of target cells?
Answer:
DNA with ligated genes enter the target cell. Thus the new genes become a part of the genetic constitution of target cells.

Question 5.
Scope of genetic engineering
Answer:
a) Gene therapy
b) Genetically modified animals and crops
c) Forensic test

Gene Therapy

Question 6.
Why is gene therapy essential?
Gene therapy is the method of curing genetic diseases by removing disease-causing genes from the genome and inserting normal functional genes. Gene therapy is beneficial for the sustenance of humankind.

Human Genome Project

Question 7.
What is the significance of the human genome project?
Answer:
The human genome includes about 30000 genes present in his 46 chromosomes. The secret of human genome is revealed through a project, known as the Human Genome Project started in 1990 and ended in 2003 in various laboratories of the world. The Gene mapping technology helped us to identify the location of a gene in the DNA.

Question 8.
What is the benefit of gene mapping ?
Answer:
Gene mapping is a technology by which we can locate a specific gene in the DNA responsible for a particular trait.

Question 9.
What is Junk genes ?
Answer:
In human DNA, majority of genes, except the genes that code for protein are non-functional. They are called junk genes.
The relevance of the Human Genome Project:

  • Human genome has about 24000 functional genes.
  • Major share of human DNA includes junk genes
  • There is only 0.2 percent difference in DNA among humans.
  • About 200 genes in human genome are identical to those in bacteria.

Genetically Modified Animals& Crops

Question 10.
Proteins that can be used for the treatment of diseases in humans are produced through genetic engineering.
Answer:

Protein required for treatment Disease/Symptom
Interferons Viral diseases
Insulin Diabetes
Endorphin Pain
Somatotropin Growth disorders

Question 11.
One of the future promises of genetic engineering is pharm animals. What do you mean by pharm animals?
Answer:
Genes responsible for the production of human insulin and growth hormones etc. are identified and inserted in animals like cows or pigs to transform them into ‘pharm animals’ (animals providing pharmaceuticals or medicines). Medicines thus produced can be extracted from the blood or milk of such animals.

Question 12.
Instead of bacteria, animals like cows or pigs are used as medicinal animals or pharm animals. Why?
Answer:
It is easy to rear animals like cows or pigs than the culturing of bacteria. Moreover, medicines can be extracted from their blood or milk.

Dna Finger Printing

The arrangement of nucleotides in the DNA of each person differs. This finding leads to the DNA testing. The technology of testing the arrangement of nucleotides in each person also differs. Hence this technology is also called DNA fingerprinting. Alec Jeffrey in 1984 paved the way for DNA testing.

Question 13.
How are persons identified through DNA testing?
Answer:
The arrangement of nucleotides in the DNA of each person differs.

Question 14.
What is the basis of DNA testing?
Answer:
The arrangement of nucleotides in the DNA of each person differs. This finding lead to the DNA testing.

Question 15.
How is it possible to identify the person’s blood relatives?
Answer:
The arrangement of nucleotides among close relatives have many similarities. So DNA fingerprinting is helpful to find out hereditary characteristics, to identify real parents in cases of parental dispute.

Question 16.
What is the scope of DNA testing?
Answer:
DNA fingerprinting helpful to find out hereditary characteristics to identify real parents in cases of parental is missing due to natural calamities or wars. DNA of the skin hair, nail blood and other body fluids obtained from the place of murder, robbery, etc. is compared with the DNA of suspected persons. Thus the real culprit can be identified from among the suspected persons through this method.

Question 17.
Observe the collage given below analysis and prepare notes about it.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future - 3
Answer:
It is criticized that genetically modified varieties are threat to indigenous varieties and may cause health issues to humans. There are possibilities to use the genetically modified organisms are bioweapons that might be applied any country to their enemies is called Bioware. This becomes a threat to the existence of human beings.

Question 18.
We should utilize science and technologies for the well being of man and other living beings. On the basis of the above statement, should we favor gene technology, which has a few demerits? Share your thought.
Answer:
Though there are certain possibilities of misuse, gene technology has many merits. Hence, we should utilize science and technologies for the well being of man and other living beings.

Question 19.
Is it right to misuse technologies that are used for human progress? As such possibilities prevail, can we promote genetic engineering, organize a debate in the class on this topic.

Let Us Assess

Question 1.
Which of the following is not a part of modern genetic engineering?
a) DNA profiling
b) Gene mapping,
c) DNA fingerprinting.
d) X-ray diffraction.
Answer:
d) X-ray diffraction.

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Question 2.
Gene therapy is an example of the benefits of science for human existence.
a) What is gene therapy?
b) What was the discovery that led to gene therapy?
c) How does gene therapy become useful to human beings?
Answer:
a) Gene therapy is the method of curing genetic diseases by removing disease-causing genes from the genome and inserting normal functional genes.
b) Gene mapping
c) We can cure genetic diseases and disorders by gene therapy.

Question 3.
‘Since genetic engineering has many harmful effects, it can’t be promoted’. Do you agree to this statement? Why?
Answer:
No. Though there are certain possibilities of misuse, gene technology has many merits (like medicines, vaccines, treatment of genetic diseases, production of high yield and resistant varieties of food crops). Hence, we should utilize science and technologies for the well being of man and other living beings.

Extended Activities

Question 1.
Prepare a slide presentation including the stages of production of insulin through genetic engineering.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future - 4

Question 2.
Prepare a science excerpt collecting pictures and news related to genetic engineering.

Genetics for the Future More Questions And Answers

Question 1.
Traditionally, human beings adopted and utilized various methods of biotechnology. Substantiate this statement with suitable examples.
Answer:

  • Yeast (a fungus) was used to prepare food items like bread.
  • Bacteria and fungi were utilized to convert sugar into alcohol or acids.
  • Practiced the method of selecting and rearing of cattle or crops of superior hybrid variety

Question 2.
Give example for modern biotechnological practices.
Answer:

  • Development of human insulin-producing bacteria.
  • Production of ‘pharm animals’, that yielding medicines or vaccines.

Question 3.
The scope of modem biotechnology is endless. Substantiate this statement providing apt examples.
Answer:
The statement is true. Organisms that can withstand adverse conditions, beautiful flowers, amazing animals, effective vaccines, food crops, etc. can be developed through biotechnology.

Question 4.
Describe the stages in the production of human insulin bacteria through the process of genetic engineering.
Answer:

  • From human DNA, cut the gene responsible for the production of insulin.
  • This gene is joined with cutting of bacterial DNA (plasmid)
  • Insert the joined DNA in the bacterial cell.

Question 5.
Both the genetic scissors and genetic glue are used in the process of genetic engineering. What do you mean by these?
Answer:
The enzymes like Restriction endonuclease, used to cut DNA at specific sites, are generally called as ‘genetic scissors’. The enzymes like Ligase, used for joining DNA at specific sites, are generally called as ‘genetic glue’.

Question 6.
Observe the given illustration and answer to the following questions
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future - 5
a) Name the technology indicated here.
b) Name the general term for enzymes that use to cut genes.
c) Which is the vector used in this process?
Answer:
a) Genetic engineering
b) Genetic scissor
c) Bacterial DNA (plasmid)

Question 7.
Define ‘vectors’ in genetic engineering.
Answer:
Vectors are other DNA (usually bacterial DNA), by which genes can be transferred from one cell to another.

Question 8.
Paravur Fire Tragedy: The remnants of body parts sent for DNA test to identify missed persons.
What is the test indicating in this news? How is it possible to identify any person from minute remnants of their body parts?
Answer:
DNA fingerprinting (DNA profiling or DNA Testing). DNA of the skin, hair, nail, blood and other body fluid obtained from the place is compared through DNA profiling with the DNA of suspected person’s blood relatives.

Question 9.
Identify this person. What is the technology that he put forwarded in 1984? Mention its importance.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future - 6
Answer:
Alec Jeffrey.
He paved the way for DNA testing, by which we can find out hereditary characteristics, identify real parents in the case of parental dispute and also can identify persons found after long periods of missing.

Question 10.
Genetic engineering caused tremendous changes in medicinal field, how? Answer with examples.
Answer:

  • Human insulin-producing bacteria.
  • Pharm animals, which produce human insulin and growth hormones
  • Medicine producing plants

Question 11.
Instead of bacteria, animals like cows or pigs are used as medicinal animals or pharm animals. Why?
Answer:
It is easy to rear animals like cows or pigs than the culturing of bacteria. Moreover, medicines can be extracted from their blood or milk.

Question 12.
Explain briefly about the merits of genetic engineering in the fields of food and agriculture?
Answer:
Genetic engineering influenced in the production of genetically modified disease resistant and high yield varieties of animals, food crops and cash crops.

Question 13.
Bioweapons are crucial threat to human beings. What are bioweapons? Which is the technology behind biowar?
Answer:
Bioweapons are genetically modified pathogens that might be applied any country to their enemies. Genetic engineering is the technology behind this kind of BioWare.

Question 14.
Make a few logo sentences that can be used for the awareness programme against the misuse of science and technology.
Answer:

  • Genetic modification can be allowed only for the benefit of mankind.
  • Avoid all weapons including bioweapons, save life.
  • Science and technologies are meant for protection, not for destruction.

Question 15.
“Genetic engineering is the branch of Science that transforms the living world”.
a) What is your opinion on the above statement?
b) Give reason to substantiate your opinion.
Answer:
a) I agree with this statement
b) In agriculture, medicine, use of superbugs, DNA fingerprinting, misuses

Question 16.
BT Brinjal is less subject to pest attacks. (March 2013)
a) How is it possible?
b) What are the advantages of genetic modifications?
c) What are the harmful effects of genetic modifications?
Answer:
a) The gene which introduced in these plants causes the production of a protein since this protein can destroy pests.
b) Today insulin without any side effects is being manufactured through genetic engineering.

  • Superbugs are one of the products of genetic engineering
  • Bt cotton and Bt Brinjal are produced.
  • The DNA fingerprinting which is used to prove disputed parentage and criminal offenses.

c) A possibility to the pathogens which will not yield to any medicine.

  • Superbugs introduced in oil fields destroy oil fields

Genetics for the Future Questions & Answers

Question 1.
Analyze the word pair relationship and fill in the blanks: (Question Pool-2017)
a) Restriction endonuclease: genetic scissors
……………………………………..: genetic glue
b) DNA profiling: Tests the arrangement of nucleotides
………………………………………: Identifies the loca tionofageneinthe DNA
Answer:
a) Ligase
b) Gene mapping

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Question 2.
Choose the right statement from those given below: (Question Pool – 2017)
i) Gene mapping is a technology that identifies the location of a gene in the DNA.
ii) The sum of genetic material presents in an organism is called its DNA.
iii) Enzyme Ligase is used to join the genes.
iv) Gene therapy is the technology that tests the arrangement of nucleotides.
Answer:
i) Gene mapping is a technology that identifies the location of a gene in the DNA.
iii) Enzyme Ligase is used to join the genes.

Question 3.
‘Pharm animals’ is one of the promises of genetic engineering. What is the significance of this concept? (Question Pool-2017)
Answer:

  • Genes responsible for the production of insulin and growth hormones are inserted into animals, transforming
  • them into pharm animals.
  • These animals are easy to be reared and cared when compared to bacteria.
  • Medicines can be extracted from their blood or milk.

Question 4.
Observe the logo given below. What does it indicate? (Question Pool-2017)
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future - 7
Answer:
Human Genome Project

Question 5.
“Gene therapy becomes the remedy for genetic diseases.” (Question Pool-2017)’
This is a note in Sethu’s science diary.
Do you agree to this note? Justify your opinion. (2)
Answer:

  • Yes
  • Gene therapy is the treatment for curing genetic diseases by removing disease-causing genes and inserting functional genes in the genome.

Question 6.
Suma murder case – trace of hair obtained from the site of incidence enabled to identify killer. (Question Pool-2017)
a) Read the above news. Name the technology that helped to find the killer?
b) Cite two other uses of this technology
Answer:
a) DNA fingerprinting
b) 1. to solve parental dispute
2. to identify culprits
3. to identify persons

Question 7.
“Insulin-producing bacteria created” – news report Santhosh raises the following doubts about the news. What explanations would you give as a student of Genetics? ‘
a) Which is the technology that helped to create insulin-producing bacteria?
b) Will the next generation of this bacteria be able to produce insulin? Give reason.
Answer:
a) Genetic Engineering
b) 1. Yes
2. Because the gene responsible for the production of insulin is there in the next generations

Question 8.
Given below are the various steps involved in the production of insulin through genetic engineering, Arrange them appropriately. (Question Pool – 2017)
a) Producing active insulin from this
b) Cutting the gene responsible for the production of insulin from human DNA.
c) Bacteria produce inactive form of insulin.
d) Isolating bacterial DNA.
e) Joining the gene with bacterial DNA and inserting it into the bacterial cell.
f) Providing a favorable medium for the multiplication of bacterial
Answer:
b → d → c → f → c → a

Question 9.
A debate has been organized in the topic. ‘Genetic Engineering – scope and challenges’. (Question Pool – 2017)
List out 3 scopes encountered in the field of Genetic Engineering for Anoop and 3 challenges for Safa respectively.
Answer:
Scopes: In the field of medicine, food crops, cash crops, cattle management, nature conservation, gene therapy, etc.
Challenges: Genetic modifications – violation of rights, bioweapons, BioWare, threat to indigenous varieties, health problems in man, superbugs, etc.

Question 10.
Identify the odd one and write the common feature of others: (1) (Question Pool – 2017)
DNA profiling, Electrocardiogram, gene mapping, gene therapy
Answer:
a) Electrocardiogram
Others related to genetic engineering

Question 11.
Given below is a word tree prepared by Appu for classroom presentation. Help him to complete the tree by choosing the words given in the box: (2) (Question Pool-2017)
Junk genes, Ligase, Gene therapy DNA profiling, Restriction endonuclease, Gene mapping, Plasmid, Genetic engineering.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future - 8
Answer:
a) Restriction endonuclease
b) Ligase
c) DNA profiling
d) junk genes
e) Gene mapping
f) Gene therapy

Question 12.
Observe the table and form matching pairs. (2) (Question Pool-2017)

a) DNA Profiling i) Treatment for genetic dis­eases
b) Gene mapping ii) Testing the arrangement of nucleotides
c) Gene therapy iii) The sum of genetic mate­rial presents in an organism
d) Genome iv) Locating the position of a gene in the DNA

Answer:
a) ii
b) iv,
c) i,
d) ii

Question 13.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future - 9
Didn’t you read the news report? (Question Pool -2017)
a) What is the basis of DNA test?
b) How is it possible to identify relations through DNA test?
Answer:
a) The arrangement of nucleotides in the DNA differs in different individuals
b) The arrangement of nucleotides among close relatives have many similarities.

Question 14.
Analyse the table given below and answer the following questions. (Orukkam – 2017)

Crop Productivity Resistance to the disease
A High Low
B Low High

a) What are the desirable characters that you like from hybridization between crop A and B?
b) Is there any chance for getting plants with undesirable characters in the same hybridization? Explain the reason for this chance in the light of Mendel’s experiment in pea plant?
c) Can you suggest a remedy for this problem?
Answer:
a) More productivity, and resistance to the disease.
b) Yes. Four different types of plants may forms in the ratio of. 9 : 3 : 3 : 1, as a result of the self-pollination of plants A and B.
c) Genetically modified plants is the remedy for this.

Question 15.
Read the statement given below and answer the following questions. (Orukkam – 2017)
Gene mapping is the method to identify the location of gene in the DNA responsible for a particular trait.
a) How does gene mapping help in insulin production?
b) What is the significance of pharm animals?
c) What is meant by gene therapy?
Answer:
a) We can locate the correct position of gene responsible for insulin production.
b) Pharmammals produce medicines, growth ‘ hormones, human insulin, etc.
c) The process in which new active gene is added in the place of diseased or inactive genes to rectify genetic diseases is known as gene therapy.

Question 16.
Complete the illustration which represents the scope and misuses of genetic engineering. (Orukkam – 2017)
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future - 10
Answer:
A) Food crops and cash crops with high productivity and disease resistance
B) Medicines: From pharm animals, plants and microorganism
C) DNA fingerprinting: To identify person in disputes.
D) Possibility of BioWare: Using genetically modified organisms as bioweapons
F) Violation of rights: Genetic modification is intrusion upon the freedom of organisms.

Question 17.
Explain the difference between”traditional biotechnology and modern biotechnology with suitable examples (Orukkam – 2017)
Answer:
In traditional biotechnology process, we select and use organisms having desirable qualities, eg. Yeasts were used in bread making.

Question 18.
What are the scope of DNA fingerprinting and gene mapping? (Orukkam – 2017)
Answer:
DNA fingerprinting:

  • To identify. real parents
  • To find out hereditary characteristics
  • To identify apt persons found after a long period of missing.

Gene mapping:

  • To identify the correct position of genes in DNA responsible for each characteristic.
  • To rectify genetic disorders through gene therapy.
  • To produce new varieties of organisms with desirable qualities.

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Question 19.
Write down any two arguments that evolved during the debate about the topic “Is genetic engineering for human progress?” From support and against group. (Orukkam – 2017)
Answer:
Environment: Neutralizing substances that cause pollution to nature, Gene therapy, New desirable varieties.
Misuses: Threat to indigenous varieties: Genetically modified varieties cause harm to indigenous varieties.

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