Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance

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Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance

British Exploitation and Resistance Text Book Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Prepare the diagram that depicts the features of the Permanent settlement, the Ryotwari, and the Mahalwari land revenue systems.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance 1
Question 2.
How did the British land revenue Policy make the peasantry fall easy prey to the exploitation of moneylenders? Explain.
Answer:
In the permanent land revenue settlement the tax was collected by zamindars. When the zamindars became the owners of the land, the actual farmers became tenants. The tax to be paid to the Government was exactly estimated. In the Ryotwari system the ownership of the land was vested with the farmers. The condition of the farmers did not improve. The tax to be paid was of high interest.

HSSLive.Guru
Question 3.
Conduct a discussion on ‘British policies and commercialization of agriculture.
Answer:
The commercialization of agriculture began as a result of landlordism and revenue policy. The products made by them were used to meet their needs. The products were based on both their daily needs and luxury. They began to cultivate cotton. Indigo after Industrial Revolt.

Farmers did not get much income. Indian goods were thrown away. Indian goods lost their value with the arrival of foreign goods. Tax was more during the British rule. Indian lands became the cultivating field of Europe. Indigo, cotton, sugarcane, tea, jute and wheat were cultivated during that period.

Question 4.
Imagine yourself as a journalist. Prepare a news report on the plight of the indigo farmers of the nineteenth century.
Answer:
Indigo Plantation Makes the Farmers in Misery:
Bengal: flic farmers from Bengal are irudiiionally cultivators of wheat and sugarcane. They began Indigo plantation due to the compulsion of the British But (he profit did not go to the farmers, though the pi ice was high m the market They got only cheap wages.

The use of two artificial cnlomlessened (lie demand of indigo. So the farmers began to Lullivate wheal, sug.in.anc. and other crops Bui the Brilisli stood against it and deslroycd the crops. With this, the misery and plight nfthclanncrs increased.

Question 5.
Analyse the circumstances that led to the Indigo Revolt.
Answer:
Indigo was a product in the market. It was used for dyeing. Indigo was found from Indian farms for Europe. The British compelled Indian farmers. Low rate was permitted for the fanners. No other products were allowed to be made. Farmers came with protest, first in Bengal. They attacked indigo factories with arrows, swords and spears. As the protest be came severe, factories were closed. By the end of 1860 Indigo cultivation in Bengal came to an end.

Question 6.
How did the British rule make the Tribal life miserable. Examine ?
Answer:
The tribes became the victims of the British rule. Gathering forest produce, cattle rearing, shifting cultivation, and hunting were their major means of livelihood. The Forest Acts imposed by the British made their life miserable.

They were prohibited to enter forest when the British declared forests as protected.The forests that were abundant with trees required by the British were declared as protected forests.

The British widely felled trees from forests to lay railway lines and build ships, and for plantation. The British levied tax at higher rates on the forest produce collected by the tribes.

Question 7.
Analyse the reasons for the decline of the Indian textile industry and complete the diagram below.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance 2
Question 8.
Prepare an article on the problems faced by different sections of people due to the British policies in India.
Answer:
The rules of the British have helped the people in many ways. Land Revenue System is one among them. According to the rule, many fanners lost their land. They were compelled to pay heavy rate as taxes. The inflation in Bengal and the life of the workers, poverty, heavy tax, decline in the field of agriculture, the exploitation of Zamindars, money lenders and merchants all affected the people badly.

Question 9.
Discuss the causes of the Revolt of 1857 based on the hints below.

  • Miseries of farmers.
  • Poverty of the craftsmen.
  • Dissatisfaction of kings.
  • Miseries of the sepoys.

Answer:
The Rebellion was started by the sepoys of Meerut. Poor salary and abuse by the British officers were the major reasons for their resentment. The rumour that the cartridge in the newly supplied enfield rifles were greased with the fat of cows and pigs provoked Indians.

It wounded the religious sentiments of the Hindu and Muslim soldiers.The soldiers who were unwilling to use the new cartridge were punished by the officers.Along with the kings and the sepoys, common people also took part in the revolt. The British rule had adversely affected the kings too. In addition to the Doctrine of Lapse, the princely states were convicted of in efficient rule and were annexed by the British.

This made the kings lead the Rebellion.The salient features of this Rebellion was the active participation of the common people like farmers and craftsmen.The rioters could not overcome the superior military power of the British and the rebellion was extremely suppressed.

Though the revolt could not succeed completely, it was marked as the foremost massive resistance of the Indians against the British.1857 sepoy revolt brought several changes in the policies and administration of the British. The British parliament took over Indians from the British East India company. Economic exploitation of the British reached its extreme level in the post 1857 phase.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 10.
Prepare a note on Drain Theory.
Answer:
The financial exploitation of British created hatred among the Indians. Dadabhai Naoroji published the facts on the deterioration of Indian economy under British rule. He established the fact that a huge amount of money was flowing to the British every year. He proved that the drain of wealth was the root cause of poverty and starvation in India. His findings were known as ‘Drain Theory.’
The sources of drain of wealth from India to British were of different types.

  • Export of Indian raw materials.
  • Pension and salary given for British employees.
  • Profit gained after selling British products.
  • Tax collected from India.

The drain of wealth to foreign countries was just a part of exploitation in India. The British used the methods of heavy taxes, unfavorable marketing etc. They gained more through these means.

British Exploitation and Resistance Let us Assess

Question 1.
The revenue policy of the British was the major cause for the decline of agricultural sector in India. Examine this statement by analyzing the features of the permanent settlement.
Answer:
Permanent land revenue settlement system was mainly implemented among the farmers by the British. This land revenue settlement was implemented in Bengal, Bihar and Odisha region. The permanent settlement was introduced by Lord Cornwallis, the Governor General of British India. This system is also known as Zamindari system. In this system the Zamindars collected tax from the farmers. They received 1/11th of the total tax collected as commission.

Various features of permanent land revenue settlement:
Zamindars were the owners of the entire land where they had the right to collect tax. While zamindars became the owners of the land, the actual farmers became tenants. Farmers were to pay up to 60% of the yield as tax. Tax was to be paid even at the time of poor yield. The tax was to be paid in cash strictly before the cut-off date

Question 2.
Match column A with column B.

A B
Santhal rebellion   Malabar
Mappila rebellion   Dadabhai Naoroji
Kurichya rebellion   Rajmahal Hills
Drain Theory   Wayanad

Answer:

A B
Santhal rebellion  Rajmahal Hills
Mappila rebellion  Malabar
Kurichya rebellion  Wayanad
Drain Theory  Dadabhai Naoroji

Question 3.
What were the circumstances that led to the commercialization of agriculture during the British period?
Answer:
During the British rule Indian farmers were mainly engaged in agriculture. The farmers produced things only to meet the needs of their family and the village. During the British rule farmers were compelled to cultivate crops according to the market needs. As a result commercial crops were largely cultivated instead of food crops.

This transformation is called commercialization of agriculture.Farmers had to pay high rate of tax in the form of cash before the deadline. To meet this, farmers cultivated the crops that had the higher market price. The products that had demand in the European markets were given higher price.

Thus,the Indian lands became the cultivating field of Europe.Various crops that were widely cultivated during this period were indigo, cotton, sugarcane, tea, jute, wheat etc.

Question 4.
Analyze the causes of the Indigo Revolt.
Answer:
With the industrial revolution in the 18th century in England textile industry gathered much momentum and the demand for indigo further increased.Import of indigo from Britain nearly doubled by 1810 against 1780. It was necessary for the British industrialists to get indigo plantation spread to more regions in India.

They gave the farmers a good amount as advance for the cultivation of indigo.The farmers succumbed to the temptation of the British and widely planted indigo as they were in trouble with no other means to pay the heavy land tax.

Due to the interference of the British agents in the harvesting seasons, the farmers received only a lower price for indigo. Later when artificial colors were invented, the indigo became obsolete. This made the plight of the farmers more miserable.

The Indigo farmers Revolt:
According to D. G. Tendulkar “not a chest of indigo reached England without being stained with human blood.” This quote reveals the sufferings of the indigo farmers. The indigo farmers resorted to revolt owing to the severe exploitation and endless miseries. In 1859 the farmers of Bengal organised themselves and declared that they were giving up indigo cultivation.

They attacked indigo factories with bows, arrows, swords and spears. Several women also participated in the revolt. The rioters excommunicated the British supporters and those who worked for the British. The Government appointed a commission to study the problem of the indigo farmers. The commission found that the indigo farming was uneconomic and proposed to stop it.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 5.
‘Kurichya rebellion was a resistance by the tribes against the British exploitation.’ What were the circumstances that led to the Kurichya rebellion?
Answer:
Kurichya revolt was another tribal in surgency against the British in Wayanad. It was organised by the Kurichya and the Kurumba tribes of Wayanad in 1812. There are various reasons for this revolt. Imposition of excessive tax by the British, compulsion for paying tax in cash and seizing of agricultural land for non-payment of tax, etc. are some of them.

The Revolt was led by the Kurichya leader Rama Nambi. Several people other than the tribes also joined in this struggle. The British government suppressed the struggle and killed Rama Nambi. Besides the Santhal and Kurichya revolt. Several other tribal insurgencies broke out in different parts of India. The important ones among them are.

  • Pachariya Rebellion
  • Kol Rebellion
  • Bhil Rebellion
  • Munda Rebellion
  • Khasi Rebellion

Question 6.
What were the causes of the decline of the Indian textile industry?
Answer:
The observation made by William Ben tick, the Governor General of India, on the decline of textile industry that was world famous once. The bones of the cotton weavers were bleaching the plains of India.

The British policies completely ruined not only the agricultural sector, but also the handicrafts in India.Large scale import of machine made British textiles was the major reason for the ruin of Indian textile industry.The machine made textiles imported from Britain could be sold easily, for they were cheaper.

The expansion of railway was also responsible for the decline of the Indian textile industry.It helped the British to carry the imported fabrics from port towns to interior villages and the cotton collected from villages to the ports for exporting to Britain.

Due to the higher tax levied, the price of Indian textiles exported to Britain increased so it lost the British market too.Weavers gave up their work massively due to the exploitation and torture of the British officers. So they searched for other jobs. The textile centers like Murshidabad and Dhaka that were thickly populated once, became least inhabited.

The people, who had been working in the textile industry migrated to villages and engaged in agriculture related works. This led to the stagnation in agriculture. The ruins of agriculture sector and handicrafts industry led India to famine and deaths due to starvation. Lakhs of people died of famine.

Question 7.
Do you think that the famines in India were the creation of the British? Why?
Answer:
India became a mere supplier of raw materials to Britain and a market for finished goods. Life had become a burden when the production and distribution of consumer items like salt came under the control of the British government. A huge amount of money was flowing to Britain every year.

The drain of wealth was the root cause of poverty and starvation in India. Export of Indian raw materials, salary and pension to the British officers in India, profit gained through the sale of the British products in India, Tax from India also led to poverty and starvation among Indians.

Question 8.
Evaluate the role of Drain theory by Dadabhai Naoroji in stimulating national feeling among the Indian masses.
Answer:
Economic exploitation among Indians by the Britishers reinforced their anti British attitude. Dadabhai Naoraj i’s drain theory played an important role in making the common people aware of the economic policy of the British and nationalism among Indians.

Question 9.
Analyzes the causes of the Revolt of 1857.
Answer:
There are various reasons for the Revolt of . 1857. The Rebellion was started by the sepoys of Meerut. Poor salary and abuse by the British officers were the major reasons for their resentment. The rumour that the car ridge in the newly supplied infield rifles were greased with the fat of cows and pigs provoked Indians. It wounded the religious sentiments of the Hindu and Muslim soldiers.

The soldiers who were unwilling to use the new cartridge were punished by the officers. Along with the kings and the sepoys, common people also took part in the revolt. The British rule had adversely affected the kings too. In addition to the Doctrine of Lapse, the princely states were convicted of inefficient rule and were annexed by the British.

This made the kings lead the Rebellion.The salient features of this Rebellion was the active participation of the common people like farmers and craftsmen. Out of one and a half lakhs of people who were killed in the riots at Awadh, a princely state, one lakhs were the common people.

The real strength of the rebellion was the Hindu Muslim unit. A spirit of cooperation existed among the soldiers, common people and the leaders. The rioters captured Delhi and declared Bahadur Shah II as the emperor of India.

The rioters could not overcome the superior military power of the British and the rebellion was extremely suppressed. Though the revolt could not succeed completely, it was marked as the foremost massive resistance of the Indians against the British.

1857 sepoy revolt brought several changes in the policies and administration of the British.The British parliament took over Indians from the British East India company. Economic exploitation of the British reached its extreme level in the post 1857 phase.

Question 10.
What were the sources of economic drain from India to Britain? .
Answer:
Export of Indian raw materials . Salary and pension to the British officers in India . Tax from India.These are the various sources of economic drain from India to Britain.

Question 11.
Do you think that the Swadeshi Movement was a mass movement? Why?
Answer:
To check economic drain, the early national leaders pleaded with the people to boycott foreign goods and strengthen Indian industry by consuming Indian products. As a part of the agitation, foreign goods were collected and burnt publicly. The extensive use of indigenous products by discarding foreign items rejuvenated Indian industry.

As a result, a number of textile mills, soap factories, match box companies, national banks and insurance companies were established. It was during the Swadeshi movement that the Bengal chemical store in Bengal, The Tata steel plant in Maharashtra and the Swadeshi steam Navigation company in Tamil Nadu were established.

Import of British goods to India steadily went down during this period.Massive participation of women, laborers, and students were another remarkable feature of this movement. Washer men look a vow that they would not wash foreign clothes.

The priests swore that they would not perform rituals and prayer using foreign items. Women boycotted foreign bangles and utensils. Students quit schools to take part in the movement. Indian nationalism attained further strength from Swadeshi movement.

British Exploitation and Resistance Extended Activities

Question 1.
Collect news and pictures on peasant and tribal rebellions that took place in different parts of India during the British rule and prepare an album
Answer:
Mappila Riots:
Mappila Riots or Mappila Outbreaks refers to a series of riots by the Mappila (Moplah) Muslims of Malabar, South India in the 19th century and the early 20th century (1836-1921) against native Hindus and the state. The Malabar Rebellion of 1921 is often considered as the culmination of Mappila riots. Mappilas committed several atrocities against the Hindus during the outbreak.

Santhal Rebellion:
The Santhal rebellion (sometimes referred to as the Santhal rebellion), commonly known as Santhal Hool, was a native rebellion in present Jharkhand, in eastern India against both the British colonial authority and upper caste Zamindari system by the Santhal people.

It started on June 30,1855 and on November 10, 1855 martial law was proclaimed which lasted until January 3,1856 when martial law was suspended and the movement was brutally ended by troops loyal to the British.

Kurichya Rebellion:
Unjust and violent acts against the people of Wayanad were done with the knowledge and concurrence of the Collector, Mr. Warden. His stubbomess and his officers’ stupidity and cruelty combined to produce a strong spirit of resistance and aggressive attitude on the part of the people of Wayanad in 1812. It was in this background that the Kurichya Rebellion of 1812 erupted.

Question 2.
Prepare a magazine featuring the centres and leaders of the First war of Indian Independence in 1857.
Answer:
Delhi : Bahadur Shah Zafar and Bakht Khan.
Jhansi : RaniLaxmiBai.
Bihar : Kunwar Singh.
Mathura : Devi Singh.
Meerut : Kadam Singh.
Faizabad : Muhammad Ullah. ,
Kanpur : Nana sahib, Tantya Tope and Azimullah Khan.
Allahabad : LiaqatAli.

British Exploitation and Resistance Orukkam Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Complete the table give below.

Land Revenue Systems Areas of Implementation Collections of tax
Permanent land revenue settlements Bengal, Bihar, Orissa regions ?
? South Indian Regions ?
? ? Village headmen collected the tax

Answer:

Land Revenue Systems Areas of Implementation Collections of tax
Permanent land revenue settlements Bengal, Bihar, Orissa regions Zamindars
Ryotwari system South Indian Regions Collected directly from farmers
Mahalwari system North west regions Village headmen collected the tax

Question 2.
Write the impact of the land revenue policies of its British.
High taxation
Answer:

  • High Taxation,
  • Seizing of agricultural land for non payment of tax,
  • Compulsion for paying tax in cash.

Question 3.
Complete the given chart in connection with the condition of Indian peasants and cultivation in India.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance 3
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance 4
Answer:

  • Increase in the manufacture of textile.
  • High demand for indigo.
  • Land used for cultivation of food grains was to be reserved for indigo plantation.
  • Indigo became obsolete.
  • The plight of the farmers became more miserable.

Question 4.
Complete the time line given below.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance 5
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance 6
Question 5.
List out the causes for the peasant revolts in Malabar.
Answer:

  • Unfair land revenue system.
  • Exploitation of Land Lords.
  • Eriction of Tenants.

Question 6.
Complete the given table.

Revolts Nature
Indigo Revolts Peasant Revolt
Mappila Revolts a.
Kurichya Revolts b.
Santhal Revolt c.

Answer:

  • Peasant Revolt,
  • Tribal Revolt,
  • Tribal Revolt.

Question 7.
Write the causes for the revolt of the tribal’s against the British.
Answer:

  • Forest Laws of the British.
  • Imposition of excessive tax by the British.
  • Compulsion of paying tax in cash.

Question 8.
Complete the diagram.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance 7
Answer:

  • Imposition of excessive tax by the British.
  • Seizing of agricultural land for paying tax in cash.

Question 9.
Complete the diagram.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance 8
Answer:

  • Pahariya Rebellion,
  • Kol Rebellion,
  • Vaadi Revolts,
  • Munda Rebglion,
  • Bhil Rebellion.

Question 10.
Identify the cause for the decline of the textile industry.
Answer:

  • Import of machine made textile.
  • Export of raw materials. Expansion of railway.
  • Exploitation and Torture of British.
  • Advent of rail ways.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 11.
List out the results of the decline of the textile industry in India.
Answer:

  • The cities became least inhabited.
  • People who had been working in textile industry migrated to villages and engaged in agriculture related works.
  • The ruins of agriculture sector and handicraft industry led India to famine and death.

Question 12.
Complete the table.

Village Industries Causes of decline
Pottery ………. a……….
Tanning ……… b……….
…….. c………… Use of machines made of metals

Answer:

Village Industries

Causes of decline

Pottery Import of aluminium vessels
Tanning Export of raw leather to Europe
Carpentry Use of machines made of metals

Question 13.
List out its problem faced by the labors in the modern industrial factories started by the British.
Prolonged working hours
Answer:

  • Prolonged working hours.
  • Meagre wages.
  • Unhealthy accommodation.

Question 14.
Complete its table.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance 9
Answer:

  • Discrimination of cast,
  • Miseries of sepoys,
  • Miseries of farmers,
  • Poverty of Crafts men.

Question 15.
Complete the following table.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance 10
Answer:

  • Bahadur Shah II,
  • Jhansi,
  • Begum Hazret Mahal,
  • Kanpur,
  • Moulavi Ahammedullah.

Question 16.
Identify how the wealth of India drained to Britain.
Export of raw materials from India
Answer:

  • Salary and Pension to the British officers in India.
  • Tax from India.
  • Profit gained through the sale of the British products in India.

Question 17.
Complete the given time line.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance 11
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance 12
Question 18.
Complete the table.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance 14
Answer:
Consumption of Indigenous products.

British Exploitation and Resistance Evaluation Questions

Question 1.
Analyse the features of the permanent land revenue settlement.
Answer:

  • In the permanent land revenue settlement the tax was collected by zamindars.
  • Zamindar was the owner of the entire land where had the jurisdiction to collect tax.
  • While the zamindars became the owners of the land, the actual farmers became tenants.
  • Farmers were to pay up to 60% of the yield as tax.
  • Tax was to be paid even at the time of poor yield.
  • The tax was to be paid in cash strictly before the cutoff date.

Question 2.
Distinguish between its Ryot Wari and the Mahal Wari systems.
Answer:
The Ryotwari system introduced in South India the land revenue was collected directly from the farmers (Ryots). Though ownership of land was vested with the farmers, excessive tax impoverished them. Further more the tax rates were frequently increased.

In the Mahalwari system, the village headman was assigned the responsibility to collect tax. The tax rate was excessive in this system too. The entire village (Mahal) was considered as a single unit for tax collection.

Question 3.
What do you mean by the commercialization of agriculture? How did if affect Indian peasants?
Answer:
Traditionally the peasants in India were engaged in agriculture mainly to produce things only to meet the needs of their family and the village.During the British rule they were compelled to cultivate crops according to the market needs. As a result, commercial crops were largely cultivated instead of food crops. This transformation is termed as commercialization of agriculture.

Question 4.
Analyse how the land revenue and economic policies of its British affected different sections of India society.
Answer:
Farmers were one of the immediate victims of the British rule. It was the land revenue system implemented by the British that destroyed the backbone of the farmers.

The aim of their tax policy was to maximize the income. The land revenue system implemented in the various regions under the British rule was different. The Land Revenue systems introduced by the British were. Permanent land revenue settlement, Ryotwari system, Mahalwari system.

Permanent Land Settlement:
The permanent settlement was introduced by lord Cornwallis, the governor general of British India. This system is also known as the zamindari system. In this system, the zamindars collected tax from farmers. They received 1/11th of the total tax collected as commission.

Features of permanent land revenue settlement:

  • In the permanent land revenue settlement the tax was collected by zamindars.
  • Zamindar was the owner of the entire land where he had the jurisdiction to collect tax. . While the zamindars became the owners of the land, the actual farmers became tenants.
  • Farmers were to pay up to 60% of the yield as tax.
  • Tax was to be paid even at the time of poor yield.
  • The tax was to be paid in cash strictly before the cutoff date.

Ryotwari System:
In the ryotwari system introduced in South India the land revenue was collected directly from the farmers (Ryots). Though ownership of land was vested with farmers, excessive tax impoverished them. Furthermore, the tax rates were frequently increased.

Mahalwari System:
The village headman was assigned the responsibility to collect tax. The tax rate was excessive in this system too. The entire village (Mahal) was considered as a single unit for tax collection.

Question 5.
Explain the causes of the Revolt of 1857?
Answer:
There are various reasons for the Revolt of . 1857. The Rebellion was started by the sepoys of Meerut. Poor salary and abuse by the British officers were the major reasons for their resentment. The rumour that the car ridge in the newly supplied infield rifles were greased with the fat of cows and pigs provoked Indians.

It wounded the religious sentiments of the Hindu and Muslim soldiers.The soldiers who were unwilling to use the new cartridge were punished by the officers. Along with the kings and the sepoys, common people also took part in the revolt.

The British rule had adversely affected the kings too. In addition to the Doctrine of Lapse, the princely states were convicted of inefficient rule and were annexed by the British.This made the kings lead the Rebellion.The salient features of this Rebellion was the active participation of the common people like farmers and craftsmen.

Out of one and a half lakhs of people who were killed in the riots at Awadh, a princely state, one lakhs were the common people. The real strength of the rebellion was the Hindu Muslim unit. A spirit of cooperation existed among the soldiers, common people and the leaders.

The rioters captured Delhi and declared Bahadur Shah II as the emperor of India.The rioters could not overcome the superior military power of the British and the rebellion was extremely suppressed.Though the revolt could not succeed completely, it was marked as the foremost massive resistance of the Indians against the British.

1857 sepoy revolt brought several changes in the policies and administration of the British.The British parliament took over Indians from the British East India company. Economic exploitation of the British reached its extreme level in the post 1857 phase.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 6.
What do you mean by its drain theory?
Answer:
The earlier leaders of congress were much conscious of the economic exploitation of the British and the resultant poverty faced by the Indians. They unveiled the British attempts to convert India as the market for selling British products, and a mere center for collecting raw material for the British industries.

They pointed out that life has become a burden when the production and distribution of consumer items like salt came under the control of the British government. Dadabai Naoroji was at the lead in pointing out such discrimination.

Through his studies, he publicized the facts On the deterioration of Indian economy under the British rule. His studies were based on empirical data. He proved that the drain of wealth was the root cause of poverty and starvation in India. His finding is known as ‘Drain Theory’.

Question 7.
How did the swadeshi movement resist British colonial domination?
Answer:
To check Economic drain, the early national leaders pleaded with the people to boycott foreign goods and strengthen Indian industry by consuming Indian products. The major strategy adopted for the anti partition movement in Bengal in 1905 was the boycott of for reign goods and consumption of indigenous products by discarding foreign items rejuvenated Indian industry.

As a result a number of textile mills, soap factories, match box companies, national banks and insurance companies were established.It was during the Swadeshi Movement, that the Bengal chemical store in Bengal. The Tata steel plant in Maharashtra and the Swadeshi steam navigation company in Tamil Nadu was established.

Import of British goods to India steadily went down during this period massive participation of women, laborers and students were another remarkable feature of this movement. Washer men took a vow that they would not wash foreign clothes. The priests swore that they would not perform rituals and prayers using foreign items. Women boycotted foreign bangles and utensils. Students quit school to take part in the movements.

Question 8.
Arrange its following table appropriately.

A B
Dadabhai Naoroji Barrackpore
Thantia Thopi Kurichya Revolt
Mangal Pande Kanpur
Rama Nambi Drain Theory

Answer:

A B
Dadabhai Naoroji Drain Theory
Thantia Thopi Kanpur
Mangal Pande Barrackpore
Rama Nambi Kurichya Revolt

British Exploitation and Resistance SCERT Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What were the revenue systems implemented by the British in various parts of India?
Answer:

  • Permanent land revenue settlement,
  • Ryotwari system,
  • Mahalwari system.

Question 2.
Revenue systems implemented by the British broke the back bone of the Indian farmers. Evaluate the statement based on Permanent land revenue settlement implemented by the British.
Answer:

  • In this system the tax was collected by the zamindar
  • Right to collect tax from the land and its ownership was also vested on zamindar.
  • The zamindars became the owners of land, the actual farmers became tenants.
  • 60% of production was given as tax.
  • Tax was to be paid in cash before the cut-off date.

Question 3.
What was the major difference of the Ryotwari system from the Permanent land revenue settlement?
Answer:
In Ryotwari system, the land revenue was collected directly from the farmers. Ownership of land was vested with the farmers.

Question 4.
How did the Mahalwari system differ from Ryotwari system.
Answer:

  • In the Mahalwari system village headman collected tax.
  • Village was considered as a single unit for tax collection.

Question 5.
Although there are certain differences in the ownership of land and the collection of land revenue, certain similarities can also be found in the land revenue system implemented by the British. Substantiate.
Answer:

  • Tax has to be paid in cash.
  • Tax was very high.

Question 6.
Evaluate how the revenue system implemented by the British adversely affected the agricultural sector.
Answer:
Tax was to be paid in cash. So often peasants had to take loans from money lenders at a high rate of interest. Farmers got money from money lenders by mortgaging land. Moneylenders seized the mortgaged agricultural land of farmers, who couldn’t repay the loan.

Question 7.
Evaluate the circumstances that forced Indian farmers to cultivate cash crops.
Answer:

  • High rate of tax
  • Tax had to be paid in cash before the dead line.
  • To meet this situation they cultivated products having higher market price.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 8.
What was the name of the revenue system implemented by the British in the regions of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa?
Answer:
Permanent land revenue settlement.

Question 9.
What was the name of the revenue system implemented by the British in South India?
Answer:
Ryotwari system.

Question 10.
What was the name of the revenue system implemented by the British in the North western region.
Answer:
Mahalwari system.

Question 11.
Revenue systems implemented by the British in India and its features are given below in table. Arrange them in proper order.

Revenue Systems Features
1. Permanent settlement a. Village headman collected the tax
2. Ryotwari System b. Zamindars collected the tax
3. Mahalwari System c. Tax was collected directly.

Answer:
1 – b,
2 – c,
3 – a.

Question 12.
Certain commercial crops cultivated in India and its important centers of cultivation are given in table below. Arrange them in correct order.

Crops Region Crops Region
1. Indigo 1. Indigo
2.  Cotton 2.  Cotton
3.  Tea 3.  Tea
4. Wheat 4. Wheat
5. Jute 5. Jute
6. Sugar cane 6. Sugar cane

Answer:
1- c,
2 – e,
3 – a,
4 – f,
5 – d,
6 – b.

Question 13.
What was the strategy used by the British to force Indian farmers to cultivate indigo?
Answer:
Indigo farmers were given money in advance.

Question 14.
Analyse the factors that led to the miseries of Indigo farmers in India.
Answer:
With the Industrial revolution textile industry gathered momentum in England. The demand for indigo increased. British merchants were ready to give money in advance to farmers in order to encourage the cultivation of Indigo.

Farmers succumbed to the temptation of the British and were liable to plant indigo in a fixed portion of the land. So the land used for the cultivation of food crops had to be set a part for indigo plantations. But in the harvest season, the farmers received only a lower price for indigo.

With the invention of artificial indigo, demand for natural indigo reduced. This made the plight of the farmers more miserable for they had used much of their land for indigo cultivation.

Question 15.
Why is the peasant revolts in the British Malabar region considered as Mappila revolt?
Answer:
Most of the tenants in Malabar were Mappilas (Muslims in Malabar). So peasant revolts in Malabar were known as Mappila revolt.

Question 16.
Which was the commission appointed by the British government to study recurring peasant revolts in Malabar.
Answer:
William Logan Commission.

17. What was the reason found out by the William Logan Commission for the peasant revolt in Malabar?
Answer:
Unfair land revenue system of the British.

Question 18.
“The tribal people also became the victims of the British rule”. Do you agree with the statement. Explain the reasons.
Answer:
The Forest laws implemented by the British made their life miserable. The British imposed restriction on tribals to collect forest products and enter into the protected forest. Imposed high taxes on forest products collected by the tribals.

Question 19.
Evaluate the circumstances that led to the kurichyas and Kurumbas of Wayanad to turn against the British.
Answer:

  • Imposition of excessive tax by the British.
  • Paying of tax in cash.
  • Seizing of agricultural land for non payment of tax.

Question 20.
Analyse the circumstances that led to the deterioration of textile industry which was one of the important traditional industries in India.
Answer:

  • Large scale import of machine made textiles in India.
  • Low price of machine made textiles.
  • Expansion of railway.
  • Imported textiles could reach the villages.
  • Traditional weavers lost their village markets.
  • Due to high export tax, textiles exported to Britain lost its market.
  • Seizing of agricultural land for non payment of tax.

Question 21.
Evaluate the circumstances that led to the deterioration of village industries like pottery, tannery, carpentry etc.
Answer:

  • Pottery – Import of aluminium vessels.
  • Tannery – Export of raw leather to Europe.
  • Carpentry – Use of machines made of metals.

Question 22.
The British Industrialists exploited Indian laborers. Examine the validity of this statement.
Answer:

  • Prolonged working hours.
  • Meagre wages.
  • Unhealthy accommodation.

Question 23.
What were the early labour strikes in India against the exploitation of British Industrialists.
Answer:

  • Great Bombay Textile strike.
  • Calcutta Jute Mill strike.

Question 24.
Analyse the circumstances that led the British Indian soldiers to the Revolt of 1857.
Answer:

  • Poor Salary.
  • Abuse by the British officers.
  • Rumours connected with newly introduced rifle and its cartridges.
  • Server punishments given to sepoys who were unwilling to use this cartridges.
  • The religious sentiments of the Hindu and Muslim soldiers were wounded.
  • Mangal Pandey, an Indian sepoy was hanged, as he shot a British official.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 25.
What was the important strategy used by the company to annex the princely states into the British empire.
Answer:
The Doctrine of Lapse.

Question 26.
The first war of Indian independence in 1857 was entirely different from the early resistance movements held in India so far. Evaluate the validity of the statement.
Answer:

  • Active participation of the common people like farmers and craftsmen.
  • Hindu-Muslim unity.
  • Co-operation existed among the soldiers, common people and the leaders.

Question 27.
Name of the leaders and centers of the first war of Indian independence in 1857 are given in table below. Arrange them in appropriate order.

Centres of the Revolt Leaders
1. Delhi a. Begum Hazret Mahal
2. Lucknow b. Maulavi Ahammedulah
3. Kanpur c. Bahadur Shah II
4. Faizabad d. Nana Saheb

Answer:
1 – c,
2 – a,
3 – d,
4 – b.

Question 28.
What are the methods by which the wealth of India drained to Britain according to the drain theory of Dadabai Naoroji.
Answer:

  • Export of Indian raw materials.
  • Salary and pension to the British officers in India.
  • Profit gained through the sale of the British products in India.
  • Tax from India.

Question 29.
What was the idea put forward by leaders to prevent the drain of India’s wealth?
Answer:
Swadeshi.

Question 30.
What was the major strategy adopted in the agitation against the partition of Bengal in 1905.
Answer:
Boycott of foreign goods.

Question 31.
The use of swadeshi goods and boycott of foreign goods rejuvenated Indian Industry. Substantiate.
Answer:
A number of textile mills, soap factories, match box companies, national banks and insurance companies were established. The Bengali Chemical store, the Tata Steel Plant in Maharashtra and Swadeshi Steam navigation company in Tamil Nadu etc. started during swadeshi movements. Import of British goods to India steadily went down during this period.

British Exploitation and Resistance Exam Oriented Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Find out the region where the permanent land revenue system was not implemented from given below?
a. Bengal.
b. Bihar.
c. Orissa.
d. Kerala.
Answer:
Kerala.

Question 2.
Swaraj is better than the best form of foreign rule.”. Whose opinion is this ?
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

Question 3.
In which year was Indian National Congress formed ?
Answer:
1885

Question 4.
Write the name of the book of Dadabhai Naoroji in which the ‘Drain Theory’ is included.
Answer:
Poverty and Un British rule in India

Question 5.
What was the reason behind the division of Eastern Bengal and Western Bengal?
Answer:
Bengal was the center of nationalist movements at that time. The Hindu Muslim Unity in Bengal strengthened such movements. To destroy such unity, separate people on the basis of religion was focused by the British to divide Bengal.

Question 6.
Was the 1st war of Independence a failure? Did it motivate for the succeeding revolt?
Answer:
The 1st war of Independence was a failure but it helped in generating nationalism. The suppression of rulers brought hatred among the Indians. It was able to motivate and create a sense of cooperation for the succeeding revolts.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 7.
Besides the Santhal and Kurichya Revolts several other insurgencies broke out in different parts of India. Write the important revolts among them.
Answer:

  • PahariyaRebellion.
  • Kol Rebellion.
  • Khasi Rebellion.
  • Munda Rebellion.
  • Bhil Rebellion.

Question 8.
What were the measures taken by the British Government against poverty?
Answer:
The British government did not take any measures for the upliftment of the people. Starve and die was the fate of the people.

Question 9.
Why did the British compel the farmers to produce crops instead of food products?
Answer:
Raw materials were needed for the British industrial growth. So the farmers were compelled to cultivate crops according to the market needs. Commercialization resulted in many problems and the most important was the scarcity of food.

Question 10.
Find out the difference in the Indigo Revolts and other revolts?
Answer:
The Indigo cultivation led the Indian farmers to misery. The British forced them to make the products at a low rate. When the cost of land in Europe was decreased, the condition of Indian farmers became miserable. They showed their protest by standing against cultivation. The farmers in Bengal protested against the land lords. But other protests were against the British Government.

Question 11.
What was the common aspect in Peasant Revolts?
Answer:
The reasons of peasant revolts were the heavy tax imposed by them and the suppression in the British rule. Most of the peasant revolts were for the people.

Question 12.
What were the reason for poverty?
Answer:
India was economically high in the field of agriculture. But with the entry of British, exploitation and suppression became strong and India turned to misery. The commercialization of agriculture resulted in scarcity of food. Jute, cotton and Indigo increased and traditional products lost its market. Indigo cultivation in the wheat field brought the farmers of Orissa and Bengal into misery.

Question 13.
How did the misery affect the peasants? What were the other happenings in Bengal?
Answer:
The British rule made the life of peasants in trouble. Farmers who borrowed money for high interests were compelled to leave the fields. Merchants of Bengal closed their shops. Weavers lost their job. Cattle were sold. Tools for agriculture were sold. They ate whatever they got. Many were dead. Fever, Plague and other epidemics spread all over. Many lost their lives in Bengal and Bihar.

Question 14.
Prepare a news paper report on Bengal Famine.
Answer:
Indians on Hunger
Calcutta:
People in Orissa, Bengal, Bihar, and Madras are dying in starvation. They struggle with out food to feed once a day. The British is responsible for it. People die due to the hunger and starvation. Schools and markets remain closed. Epidemics like plague spreads everywhere. Even infants are lost every day. But no measures are taken from the part of government to fight the trouble.

Question 15.
What were the reflections of the decline of the textile industry in India.
Answer:
The immediate reflection of the decline of the textile industry was found in urban areas. The textile centers like Murshidabad and Dhaka that were thickly populated once, became least inhabited. The people who had been working in textile industry migrated to villages and engaged in agriculture related works.

As a result, the number of people who engaged in agriculture to earn a living, increased. It fragmented the agricultural fields and the production became stagnant.

Question 16.
What were the common reasons for the revolt of 1857 and regional revolts which happened before 1857?
Answer:
Common reasons were there for the revolt of 1857 and other regional revolts. The revenue policies and heavy taxes of the British were one which made the Indians stay against the British. The military officials who served under English East India company their small land owners.

British took over the rule of Kings. They decided to bring them under their control. They also thought to bring the militants under the expense of kings. After signing the militant force, they lost their rights. The life of the people were in misery.

The temporary policies of Travancore made Veluthampi Dalava and British to revolt. Changes were brought in the British rule in India after 1857. British parliament took the control of India from English East India Company. The miseries were after 1857. Starvation and death were the ultimate results.

Question 17.
a. How did the Indian textiles lose the British market ?
b. Why did the weavers in India search for other jobs?
Answer:
a. Due to the higher tax levied the price of Indian textiles exported to Britain increased. So the Indian textiles lost the British market.
b. The British officers forced the weavers to work at meagre wages and to exchange the products to them at cheaper rate. Weavers gave, up their work due too the exploitation and fortune of the British officers. So they searched for other jobs.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 18.
What were the reflections of the decline of the textile industry in India ?
Answer:
The immediate reflection of the decline of the textile industry was found in urban areas. The textile centers like Murshidabad and Dhaka that were thickly populated once, became least inhabited. The people, who had been working in textile industry, migrated to villages and engaged in agriculture relayed works. As a result, the number of people, who engaged in agriculture to earn a living, increased. It fragmented the agricultural fields and the productions became stagnant.

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