Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom

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Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom

Struggle and Freedom Text Book Questions and Answers

Struggle and Freedom Class 10 Question 1.
How did Gandhiji become the leader of Indian society?
Answer:
Gandhiji was aware of the miseries Indians had with the British while he was in South Africa. Sathyagraha was his principle. He demanded the people to withdraw from wars. He informed the people that sathyagraha stays in “Ahimsa and Truth”.

The methods of agitation made changes in the people. The movements which was concentrated in towns were expanded to villages. His ideologies were attracted by many people and the common people too joined his principle. Thus Gandhiji become a savior to all.

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Struggle and Freedom Class 10 Notes Question 2.
Examine the early Struggles led by Gandhiji and discuss his method of protest.
Answer:
Gandhiji started his social activities in India with the Champaran satyagraha in 1917. Champaran struggle, Ahemadabad cotton mill strike and the peasant struggle in Kheda were the struggles of his involvement. Champaran satyagraha was based on Indigo farmers protest in Bihar.

Kheda protest was withdrawn when the authorities reduced the tax rates. Gandhiji adopted the method of peace for all these three struggles. In the Non-cooperation movements, Gandhiji adopted the method of boycott. The British goods were boycotted.

Rowlatt Act of the British Intensified the Freedom Struggle in India Substantiate Question 3.
How did the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.influence Indian National Movement? Discuss.
Answer:
Jallianwala Bagh massacre had a vital role in Indian National Movement.The massacre intensified the protests at the national level. Those who believed in British too turned against them. The executive council under the membership of Sir. C. Sankaran Nair resigned.

Complete the following Table Movement and Leader Question 4.
Explain the circumstances that led Gandhiji to support the Khilafat Movement.
Answer:
Gandhiji believed that the Hindu-Muslim unity could be restored through Khilafat Movement. The people joined in the struggle of independence through Khilafat Movement as a part of National Movement the active participation of Muslims in the freedom struggle could be ensured.

Freedom Struggle in Kerala Question 5.
How far the demands of Ghandhiji are appropriate to attain the freedom of India ?
Answer:

  • Satyagraha was his policy.
  • Ahimsa was the principle he adopted against enemies.
  • Foreign textiles were put down and Indian goods were promoted.
  • He violated salt law as a part of civil disobedience movement.

Champaran Satyagraha Short Note Question 6.
The Salt Sathyagraha played a major role in making national movement a mass movement. Substantiate.
Answer:
The Salt March also known as the Dandi March and the Dandi Satyagraha, was an act of nonviolent civil disobedience in colonial India initiated by Mohandas K Gandhi to produce salt from sea water.

This was the practice of the local people until British officials introduced taxation on salt production, deemed their sea salt reclamation activities illegal, and then repeatedly used force to stop it.

The 24-day march began on 12 March 1930 as a direct action campaign of tax resistance and nonviolent protest against the British salt monopoly, and it gained worldwide attention which gave impetus to the Indian Independence Movement and started the nationwide Civil Disobedience Movement.

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Freedom Movement Class 10 Question 7.
‘The Quit India movement was a turning point in India’s freedom struggle’. Discuss.
Answer:
This was the call of Gandhiji in the conference of the National Congress held in Bombay in 1942. The Quit India Movement was the last popular protest organised by the Indian National Congress under leadership of Ghandhiji. Quit India was yet another popular movement like the Civil Disobedience Movement.

It was a mass movement based on the ideology of non-violence (Ahimsa) meant to force the British to leave the country offering complete freedom to Indians. The Quit India Movement was a clear indication of the peoples determination to grab freedom for their country.

Freedom Movement 10th Class Notes Question 8.
Conduct a quiz competition on ‘Gandhiji and the freedom struggle of India’.
Answer:

  • Year in Which Gandhiji reached india -1915.
  • First revolt of Gandhiji – Champaran.
  • Year of Champaran Struggle -1947.
  • Gandhiji s struggle in 1918 – Ahmedabad Textile mill strike.

10th Standard Science Question 9.
Conduct a seminar on the organisations which were formed as an alternative to Gandhian way of struggle for the freedom of India.
Answer:
Anusheelan Samithi – Bareender Kumar Ghose:
The brother of Aravinda Ghosh formed Anusheelan Samithi in Bengal in 1902. To stop British rule through violence was the goal.

Abhinava Bharat:
The secret agency formed by Savarkar in 1904. They helped Indians from foreign countries.

Yuganthar Party:
Formed as a result of the news paper ‘ Yugaathar’ published by Bhupendra Dutta and his friends. Hemachandra Das was the leader.

Gaddar Party of rebellion:
Formed in 1913. Mostly Hindus and Muslims Lala Harddayal gave leadership. The meaning of word Gaddar is rebellion. The main aim was to free India from Britain.

Hindustan Republic Association:
Socialist activist Sughdev, Bhagat Singh, Chandrasekhar Azad formed in 1928.

Labour India Class 10 Kerala Syllabus 2019 Question 10.
Discuss the role of laborers and farmers in the struggle for Indian independence.
Answer:
The unity and protest of farmers and laborious strengthened Indian National Movement. The workers and farmers who was against the feudal system of British protested in various freedom struggles.

The most important one was the struggle of cotton workers in 1884 in Mumbai to reduce the working hours Bombay mill Association was for med in 1890. Revolutionary methods were adopted by the workers for their needs.

Peasant revolt:
In India were against landlords and money lenders. Tax policies were the reason. Peasant got united against British exploitation. The Mappila Rebellion Indigo Revolt, Peasant Revolt in Madhurai are perfect examples.

Struggle and Freedom Let Us Assess

Question 1.
What are the regional agitations in which Gandhiji participated after his arrival in India?
Answer:
There are some regional struggles in which Gandhiji was involved after returning to India from South Africa. They are the struggle of indigo farmers in Champaran, Ahmedabad cotton mill strike, Peasant struggle in Kheda.

Question 2.
What are the strategies of strike used in the peasant struggle in Kheda?
Answer:
Due to drought and crop failure farmers in Kheda were living in utter misery. The rulers decided to collect tax from these poor villagers starting sathyagraha Gandhiji protested against the decision.

He advised people not to pay tax. Consequently, the authorities were forced to reduce tax rates. His early struggles based on Satyagraha and Ahimsa made Gandhiji a popular leader.

Question 3.
Analyse the outcomes of Gandhiji’s earlier struggles.
Answer:
There are some regional struggles in which Gandhiji was involved after returning to India from South-Africa. They are

  • The struggle of Indigo farmers in Champaran.
  • Ahmedabad cotton mill strike
  • Peasant struggle in Kheda.
  • Due to these regional struggles some results took place.
  • The struggles he took up popularized his ideologies and method of protest.
  • Till his entiy into the political scenario,national movement was confined to the educated section of the society.
  • His methods of protest attracted the laymen to the movement.
  • The city eccentric national movement spread to rural areas.
  • Gandhiji became a national leader acceptable to all strata of the society.

Question 4.
Name the law made by the British in the pretest of preventing extremist activities.
Answer:
In the pretext of preventing extremist activities, the British parliament passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919 limiting the civil rights. The committee which recommended this Act was led by Sir Sydney Rowlatt. Hence the Act was known as Rowlatt Act. As per this act any person could be arrested and imprisoned without trial.

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Question 5.
Write a short note on Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
Answer:
People gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar on 13 April, 1919 to protest against the arrest of SaifuddinKitchlew and Satyapal who led the anti Rowlatt act agitations in Punjab. The city was under the control of the army.

Accusing that the protesters violated his instructions, the army chief General Dyer ordered to shoot without warning. The innocent aimless people were trapped as the ground was surrounded by buildings and the only entrance was blocked by the armed British soldiers.

As per the British Records, the shooting of ten minutes killed 379 protesters. In fact, the death toll was actually double than this.The massacre at Jallianwala Bagh intensified the protests at the national level. Gandhiji said “if the Battle of Plassey laid the foundation for the British rule, Jallian Wala Bagh shock the foundation.”

Question 6.
List out the outcomes of the Non-cooperation movement under Gandhiji.
Answer:
The first national level struggle by the Indian National Congress under the leaderhsip of Mah atma Gandhi was the Non-cooperation movement. The confidence gained from the Rowlatt protest motivated Gandhiji to declare Non-cooperation against the British.

Various effects of Non-cooperation movement are given below. Farmers in Awadh refused to pay taxes. The tribal groups in Northern Andhra entered the forests and collected the forest products violating the forest laws.

  • Farmers in Uttar Pradesh refused to carry the luggage of the colonial officials.
  • Workers struck work.
  • Lawyers boycotted courts . Students acquitted colleges and schools run by the British
  • The public, including women, burnt foreign clothes on the streets.

In addition to his appeal for non-cooperation, Gandhiji motivated the people to participate in constructive programmers. Inspired by this, people began to make indigenous products, Spin Khadu cloth using charka, establish national schools and popularise Hindu.

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Question 7.
Which incident forced Gandhiji to withdraw the non-cooperation movement?
Answer:
Gandhiji withdraw theNon-cooperation Movement due to a untoward incident in Chawri Chawra village in Uttar Pradesh. In response to the police firing at a mob, the villagers set ablaze the police station and 22 policemen died.

This incident disappointed Gandhiji and he released that people could not fully understand the essence of the principle of Ahimsa. So he called for stopping the Non-cooperation Movement.

Question 8.
Which session of the congress declared Poorna Swaraj as the ultimate aim of Indians freedom struggle?
Answer:
The Lahore session of the Indian National Congress held in 1929 under the charimanship of Jawaharlal Nehru declared the ultimate aim of Indian freedom struggle was Pooma Swaraj.

Question 9.
Prepare a seminar paper on the significance of the civil disobedience movement in the freedom struggle. .
Answer:

  • The Labour session of the Indian National Congress held in 1929 under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru was a turning point in the history of freedom movement in India.
  • The session declared that the ultimate aim of Indian freedom struggle was to attain complete.
    freedom (Pooma Swaraj) for the country.
  • Civil Disobedience Movement started under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.
    With the Civil Disobedience Movement’.
  • Gandhiji meant to disobey all anti-popular and antidemocratic civil laws made by the British Government.

As a part of this Gandhiji’s proposed the following.

  • To lift salt tax.
  • To declare 50% tax relaxation for farmers.
  • To increase the tax on imported foreign clothes.
  • To release political prisoners.
  • To cut short military budget and high salary of top officials.
  • To dissolve the secret surveillance wing formed to watch Indians.
  • To start coastal shipping service.
  • To implement prohibition of liquor.

Gandhiji gave top priority to reducing salt tax. There are various reasons why Gandhiji selected salt as a powerful weapon against the British.

  • Salt tax constituted two fifth portion of the income collected by the British through taxes.
  • This tax was a heavy burden for the poor people.
  • The British government burned small scale indigenous salt production.
  • There was three fold hike on salt price.
  • The demand for lifting salt tax was a slogan suitable to inspire all segments of the society.

Question 10.
Prepare a note on the Quit India Movement.
Answer:
The Quit India Movement was the last popular protest organized by the Indian National Congress under the leadership of Gandhiji. Quit India was yet another popular movement like civil disobedience movement.

It was a mass movement based on the ideology of non-violence (Ahimsa) meant to force the British to leave the country offering complete freedom to Indians. Various factors that caused Quit India movement are

  • Reluctance of the British to implement constitutional reforms in India.
  • Public disgust with price hike and famine
  • The assumption that the British would be defeated in the second world war.
  • As a part of this movement, Gandhiji called for the following.
  • Princely states shall recognize the sovereignty of their people.
  • Farmers shall not pay land tax.
  • Government officials shall disclose their loyalty to Indian National Congress without resigning their positions.
  • Without quitting their position in the army, soldiers shall disobey orders to shoot and kill Indians.
  • If possible, students shall boycott education till attaining freedom.

Struggle and Freedom Extended Activities

Question 1.
Prepare a short note on the life of Gandhiji in South Africa.
Answer:
Gandhi was 24 when he arrived in South Africa in 1893 to work as a legal representative for the Muslim Indian Traders based in the city of Pretoria. He spent 21 years in South Africa, where he developed his political views, ethics and political leadership skills.In South Africa, Gandhi faced the discrimination directed at all colored people.

He was thrown off a train at Pietermaritzburg after refusing to move from the first class. He protested and was allowed on first class the next day. Travelling farther on by stagecoach, he was beaten by a driver for refusing to move to make room for a European passenger.

He suffered other hardships on the journey as well, including being barred from several hotels. The magistrate of a Durban court ordered Gandhi to remove his turban, which he refused to do.

The government successfully repressed the protesters, but the public outcry over the harsh treatment of peaceful Indian protesters by the South African government forced South African leader Jan Christiaan Smuts to negotiate a compromise with Gandhi, Gandhi’s ideas took shape, and the concept of Satyagraha matured during this struggle.

Struggle and Freedom Orukkam Questions and Answers

Question 1.
List down the reasons that helped Gandhiji to gain the trust and recognition of the common people.
His priests in south Africa made him famous.
Answer:

  • Gandhiji became familiar to the Indians after his involvement in addressing the problems of the Indian expatriates in South Africa.
  • His protests in South Africa made him famous.
  • Gandhiji was very popular because he lived among the common people and his food and clothing was similar to that of the common man in India and he spoke in their language.
  • Common people found in Mahatma Gandhi a savior who could solve their problems.

Question 2.
Complete the table.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom 1
Answer:
a. Farmers in Champaran,
b. 1917,
c. Gujarat,
d. 1918,
e. Peasant struggle in Kheda,
f. Gujarat.

Question 3.
List down the result of the Early struggle of Gandhiji in India.
The struggle he took up porpoised his ideologies and method of protest.
Answer:

  • Till his entry into the political scenario, national movement was confined to the educated section of the society.
  • His methods of protest attracted the laymen to the movement.
  • The city centric national movement spread to rural areas.
  • Gandhiji became a national leader acceptable to all strata of the society.

Question 4.
Complete the word web given below.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom 2
Answer:

  • Students Shall boycott English schools.
  • Lawyers Shall boycott Courts.
  • The Public Shall boycott foreign products.
  • Denial of tax.
  • Returning the British awards and prizes.
  • Boycott elections.

Question 5.
List down the examples of how the Indian Society responded to Gandhiji’s appeal for Non-cooperation.
Farmers in Awadh referred to pay taxes.
Answer:

  • The Tribal groups in northern Andhra entered the forests and collected the forest produces violating the forest laws.
  • Farmers in Uttar Pradesh refused to carry the luggage of the colonial officials.
  • Workers struck work.
  • Lawyers boycotted courts.
  • Students quitted colleges and schools run by the British.
  • The public including women, burnt foreign clothes on the streets.

Question 6.
Write down some examples for Gandhiji’s constructive programmes.
People made indigenous products.
Answer:

  • Spin khadi cloth using Charka.
  • Establish National Schools.
  • Popularized Hindi.
  • Inspired people to participate actively in eradicating accountability.

7. Complete the Diagram.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom 3
Answer:

  • To declare 50% tax relaxation for farmers.
  • To increase the tax on imported foreign clothes.
  • To release political prisoners.
  • To cut short military budget and high salary of top officials.
  • To dissolve the secret surveillance wing formed to watch Indians.
  • To start coastal shipping service.
  • To implement prohibition of liquor.

Question 8.
List down the reasons why Gandhiji selected salt as a powerful weapon against the British.
The tax was a heavy burden for the poor people.
Answer:

  • Salt tax constituted two fifth of the income collected by the British through taxes.
  • This tax was a heavy burden for the poor people.
  • The British government banned small scale indigenous salt production.
  • There was three fold hike on salt price.
  • The demand for lifting salt tax was a slogan.
  • Suitable to inspire all segments of the society.

Question 9.
Complete the following time line.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom 4
Answer:
A. 1919.
B. Lahore session of Indian National.
C. 1942.

Question 10.
Find out the factors that caused the Quit India Movement.
Public disgust with price hike and famine.
Answer:

  • Reluctance of the British to implement constitutional reforms in India.
  • Public disgust with price hike and famine.
  • The assumption that the British would be defeated in the second world war.

Question 11.
Complete the following Diagram.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom 5
Answer:

  • If possible, students shall boycott education till attaining freedom.
  • Government officials shall disclose their loyalty to Indian National Congress without resigning their positions.
  • Without quitting their positions in the army, soldiers shall disobey orders to shoot and kill Indians.
  • Princely states shall recognize the sovereignity of their people.

12. Complete the table.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom 6
Answer:
a. Abhinar Bharat Society.
b. Bareender Kumar Ghose, Pulin Bihari Das.
c. Ghadar party.
d. Suryasen.

Question 13.
Complete the following table.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom 7
Answer:
a. Swaraj Party.
b CR Das and Mothilal Nehru.
c. Bhagat Singh Chandra Sekhar Azad, Guru and Sukh Dev.
d. 1928.
e. Congress Socialist Party.
f. 1934.

Question 14.
List down the main objectives of the All Indian Trade Union Congress.
To participate actively in the Indian freedom struggle.
Answer:

  • To Participate actively in the Indian freedom struggle.
  • To facilitate Indian working class to cooper ate with the working class outside India.
  • To organise and act as a working class.

Question 15.
Complete the table.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom 8
Answer:
a. Bengal.
b. Telengana Struggle.
c. Bombay.

Question 16.
Complete the following word web.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom 9
Answer:

  • To divide Punjab and Bengal.
  • To form a separate country in Muslim majority area as per the Muslim wish.
  • To appoint a commission to determine the borders in Punjab and Bengal.
  • To conduct a referendum to determine whether to add North West frontier province to Pakistan or not.

Struggle and Freedom Evaluation Questions

Question 1.
Which Act resulted in the Jalianwala Bagh Messacre?
Answer:
Anti-Rowlatt Act.

Question 2.
Which incident forced Gandhiji to Stop the Non-cooperation movement.
Answer:
Chauri chaura Incident.

Question 3.
Analyse the significance of non-cooperation movement in the Indian National Movement.
Answer:
The First national level struggle by the Indian National Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi was the non-cooperation movement.The confidence gained from the anti-Rowlatt j protest motivated Gandhiji to declare non-cooperation against the British. Some of the examples of how the Indian society responded to Gandhiji’s appeal for non-cooperation.

  • Farmers in Awadh refused to pay taxes.
  • The tribal groups in northern Andhra entered the forests and collected the forest produces violating the forest laws.
  • Farmers in Uttar Pradesh refused to carry the luggage of the colonial officials.
  • Workers struck work.
  • Lawyers boycotted courts.
  • Students quieted colleges and schools run by the British.
  • The public, including women, burnt foreign clothes on the streets.

In addition to his appeal for non-cooperation, Gandhiji motivated the people to participate in constructive programmes. Inspired by this, people began to make indigenous products, spin khadi cloth using charka, establish national schools and popularity Hindi.

Students who boycotted English education were attracted to national educational institutions. Along with these activities, Gandhiji inspired people to participate actively in eradicating accountability.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 4.
Evaluate the decisions of the Lahore session.
Answer:
The Lahore session of the Indian National Congress held in 1929 under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru was a turning point in the history of freedom movement in India.

  • The session declared that the ultimate aim of Indian freedom struggle was to attain freedom (Pooma Swaraj) for the country.
  • It also resolved to start the civil disobedience movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.

Question 5.
Analyse the role played by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian National Movement.
Answer:
Gandhiji entered Indian national movement with his rich experience and knowledge of regional struggle in various parts of the country. His protest against the Rowlatt Actencated by the British paved the way for it.

In the pretext of preventing extremist activities, the British Parliament passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919 limiting the civil rights. The committee which recommended this Act was led by Sir Sydney Rowlatt. Hence, the act was known as Rowlatt Act. As per this act any person could brarrested and imprisoned without trial.

When the protests against this Act failed. Gandhiji suggested starting Sathygraha Vigorously reacting to his proposal, people in various part of the country went to the streets anosiarteo demonstration and strikes. But the government resorted to oppressive measures towards the public protest.

The worst example of the British approach to public protest was the massacre at Jallianwala Bagh in 1919. The masscare at Jalianwala Bagh intensified the protests at the natio nal level. Gandhiji said: If the battle of Plassey laid the foundation for the British rule, Jallianwala Bagh shook the foundation.

Question 6.
Complete the following table.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom 10
Answer:
1-d,
2-c,
3 -a,
4-b.

Question 7.
Evaluate the contributions of the organisations and leaders to the Indian National Move ment who differed from Gandhian Methods and ideologies.
Answer:
Many such movements and persons who had difference of opinion towards the Gandhian approach to the struggle for independence also played crucial roles in attaining freedom for our country. Their objective was also nothing but India’s freedom from colonial cinches.

C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru, who opposed Gandhian idea of boycott movement, formed the Swaraj Party in 1923. They argued for making legislative assemblies as platforms for raising our voices instead of boycotting them and they contested elections.

Gradually, the opposition to Gandhian method of struggle intensified. Revolutionaries from Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar gathered in Delhi and Formed the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association in 1928.

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Question 8.
Explain the demands of the kissan manifesto.
Answer:

  • Reduce 50% of land tax and lease charge.
  • Write off debts.
  • Cancel feudal taxes.
  • Ensure minimum wage for agricultural workers.
  • Recognize peasant unions.

Question 9.
Analyse the role played by Subash Chandra Bose in the Indian Freedom struggle.
Answer:
At various stages of the national movement Subash Chandra Bose expressed his difference of opinion on Gandhian ideas of struggle. Quitting the congress he formed a political party called forward bloc.

He took the charge of the Indian National Army (INA) formed by Rash Bihari Bose to attain freedom for India. He formed a provisional government for free India in Singapore, with the aim of forcing British to quit India.

The Indian National Army had a women wing called the Jhansi Regiment. Captain Lekshmi, a keralite was in charge of this regiment with the support of the Japanese army the Indian National Army marched to the east west border of India and hoisted Indian flag in Impala.

Question 10.
Evaluate the significance of salt satyagraha.
Answer:
Gandhi gave top priority to reducing salt tax due to a variety of reasons. The reasons why Gandhiji selected salt on a powerful weapon against the British are

  • Salt tax constituted two fifth portion of the income collected by the British through taxes.
  • This tax was a heavy burden for the poor people.
  • The British government banned small scale indigenous salt production.
  • There was three fold hike on salt price.
  • The demand for lifting salt tax was a slogan suitable to inspire all segments of the society.

Inspired by the call of Gandhiji people in various parts of the country started to produce salt on their own, violating the British regulations.

Question 11.
Arrange the following incidents chronologically.
1. Jallianwala Bhagh Massacre.
2. Lahore Session.
3. Chouri-Choura Incident.
4. Champaran Satyagraha.
Answer:

  1. Champaran Satyagraha – 1917.
  2. Jalianwala Bagh Massacre – 1919.
  3. Chouri-Chaura Incident – 1922.
  4. Lahore Session – 1929.

Struggle and Freedom SCERT Questions And Answers

Question 1.
Which were the early struggles in India in which Gandhiji was involved? What change did happen in the national movement through these struggles?
Answer:

  • Champaran struggle, 1917
  • Ahmedabad Cotton Mill strike, 1918
  • Peasant struggle in Kheda, 1918
  • Gandhian methods of struggle and ideologies became popular.
  • The ideology of national movement spread to the villages.
  • Common people were attracted to the national movement.
  • Gandhiji became acceptable to all as a national leader.

Question 2.
People’s protest against the act which violated civil rights resulted in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. Which was that Act?
Answer:
Rowlatt Act – 1919

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Question 3.
How did Gandhiji respond to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre?
Answer:
“If the Battle of Plassey laid the foundation for the British rule, the Jallianwala Bagh shook the foundation.”

Question 4.
How did people respond to Gandhiji’s appeal for non-cooperation?
Answer:

  • Farmers in Awadh refused to pay taxes.
  • The tribal groups in northern Andhra violated the forest laws.
  • Workers started strike.
  • Women burnt foreign clothes on the streets.
  • Lawyers boycotted the courts.

Question 5.
Along with Non-cooperation, constructive programmes were also given importance. Elucidate.
Answer:

  • People began to make indigenous products.
  • Spun Khadi cloth.
  • Started national schools.
  • Popularized Hindi instead of English.

Question 6.
Why did Gandhiji travel across India with the Khilafat leaders and propagate his ideologies?
Answer:

  • To spread anti.
  • British feeling to the nook and comer of India.
  • To intensify Hindu.
  • Muslim unity.

Question 7.
Why did Gandhiji stop non -cooperation mov. ement after the Chauri-Chaura incident
Answer:
The people of Chauri-Chaura village in Uttar Pra desh set ablaze the police station. This is known as the Chouri-Choura incident. This incident disappointed Gandhiji as people turned to violence and he withdrew the Non-cooperation movement.

Question 8.
Which session of the Congress declared that Poorna Swaraj is the ultimate aim of Indian freedom struggle? Who was the chairman of this session?
Answer:
The Lahore session of 1929, Jawaharlal Nehru.

Question 9.
Complete the diagram.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom 11
Answer:

  • To implement total prohibition of liquor.
  • To lift tax on salt.
  • To declare 50% tax relaxation for farmers.
  • To release political prisoners.
  • To increase tax on imported foreign clothes.
  • To cut short military budget and high salary of the military officials.

Question 10.
Why did Gandhiji select salt as a powerful weapon as part of the Civil Disobedience movement?
Answer:

  • Salt constituted two fifth of the income Collected by the British through taxes.
  • Three fold hike on salt price.
  • The tax was heavy burden for the po r people.
  • The British government banned small scale indigenous salt production.
  • Being an issue common to all Gandhiji selected salt as a powerful weapon.

Question 11.
What did Gandhiji achieve through Salt Satyagraha?
Answer:

  • Secured massive support of the people.
  • Proved that any trivial issue can be snowballed into a popular strategy.
  • Sensitized the public in very sim pie way to the exploitation of the British.

Question 12.
Which struggle was organised in India against the British for constitutional reforms? As part of this, what direction did Gandhiji give to the people?
Answer:

  • Quit India Movement, 1942,
  • Farmers shall not pay land tax.
  • Princely state shall recognize the sovereignty of the people.
  • The soldiers shall disobey the order to shoot the Indians.
  • Government officials shall disclose their loyalty to Indian National Congress without quitting their positions.
  • If possible, students shall boycott education till attaining freedom.

Question 13.
Many organisations and people who differed from Gandhian methods and ideologies had played a significant role in India’s National struggle. Write any three such organisations and explain their activities.
Answer:
Swaraj party, Motilal Nehru, C R Dascon tested to the legislative assemblies and made legi slative assemblies platforms for raising the voice.

Hindustan Socialist Republican Association Bhagat Singh, Chandrasekhar Azad, Raj Guru and Sukh Dev were at the helm of this organisation. They planned to overthrew the colonial government through military action and establish a federal republic of Indian states. To show protest against the attempt to pass laws curtailing civil rights, threw bombs at the central legislative assembly.

Forward Bloc was formed by Subhash Chandra Bose. He took the leadership of I N A formed by Rash Bihari Bose. He formed a provincial government of India in Singapore with an aim of forcing the British to quit India. With the Support of the Japanese army, the Indian National Army marched to the north eastern border of India and hoisted the Indian flag in Imphal.

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Question 14.
Which were the labour and peasant organisations formed after the Russian Revolution? What were their major objectives?
Answer:

  • Ahmedabad Textile Association Madras Lab our Union.
  • All India Trade Union Congress.
  • To organise and act as a working class.
  • To facilitate Indian working class to cooperate with the working class outside India.
  • To participate actively in the Indian freedom struggle.

Question 15.
Who prepared the Farmer’s Manifesto? Write any three demands included in it.
Answer:
All India Kisan Samithi conference held in Bombay prepared the Farmer’s Manifesto.

  • Reduce 50%of land tax and lease charge.
  • Write off debts.
  • Cancel feudal taxes.
  • Ensure minimum wage for agricultural workers.
  • Recognize peasant unions.

Question 16.
Which plan proposed that Punjab and Bengal should be portioned? Write other two recommendations of this plan.
Answer:

  • Mount Batten Plan.
  • To form a separate country in Muslim majority area as per their wish.
  • To appoint a commission to determine the borders in Punjab and Bengal.

Question 17.
Which were the three major struggles organised under the leadership of Gandhiji during the freedom struggle of India? Explain each of them.
Answer:

  • Refusal to pay taxes.
  • Boycott of foreign clothes.
  • Returning the British awards and prizes.
  • Boycott elections.
  • Lawyers shall boycott courts.

Result:

  • Boycotted foreign clothes.
  • Started spinning Khadi clothes.
  • Started national school.
  • Popularized Hindi.

Salt Satyagraha:

  • To lift tax on salt.
  • Declare 50% tax relaxation for farmers.
  • Release political prisoners .
  • Start coastal shipping service.
  • Implement total prohibition of liquor.

Result:
Strong protest arose in different parts of India against the salt tax.

Quit India Movement:

  • Farmers shall not pay land tax.
  • Princely states shall recognize the sovereignty of the people.
  • The soldiers shall disobey the order to shoot the Indians.
  • Government officials shall disclose their loyalty to Indian National Congress without quitting their positions.
  • If possible students shall boycott education till attaining freedom.

Question 18.
What is the significance of the Kheda movement?
Answer:
The struggle was against the British decision to collect tax from the people who were in misery due to drought and famine. As a result of this Government agreed to reduce tax.

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Question 19.
Which were the national schools started during the Non co-operation Movement.
Answer:

  • Kashi Vidya Pith.
  • Gujarat Vidya Pith.
  • JamiaMillia.

Question 20.
What did Gandhiji aim by Civil disobedience?
Answer:
With the civil disobedience movement, Gandhiji meant to disobey all anti democratic civil laws made by the British government.

Question 21.
Who gave leadership to Dharasana struggle?
Answer:
Sarojini Naidu.

22. Who were the leaders of the Congress Socialist party?
Answer:
Jawaharlal Nehru,
Subhash Chandra Bose,
Arana Asaf Ali,
Jay Prakash Narayan.

Question 23.
What were the factors that forced Britain to give independence to India?
Answer:
Britain became economically weak, Freedom straggles were intensified in Asia and Africa, Soviet Union and America were against colonialism.

Struggle and Freedom Exam Oriented Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Who was the founder of Swaraj Party ?
Answer:
C.R Das and Motilal Nehru

Question 2.
Write the full form of AITUC?
Answer:
All India Trade Union Congress.

Question 3.
Who was in charge of Jhansi Regiment of INA?
Answer:
Captain Lakshmi

Question 4.
How is the Non-cooperation Movement different from other freedom movements led by Gandhiji?
Answer:
In all the three regional straggles Gandhiji adopted satyagraha. But the method of boycott was chosen in Non-cooperation Movement. The straggle for independence that was completely confined to the educated section extended to all the section of the people.

But when the police fired at the mob in Chauri Chaura in Uttarpradesh the villagers set fire to the police station and 22 policemen died. Gandhiji was disappointed and declared to suspend the Non-cooperation Movement.

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Question 5.
What are the results of Non-cooperation Movement.
Answer:

  • Gandhiji become the leader accepted by all.
  • People were united free of caste and religion.
  • Hindu-Muslim unity.
  • Boycott was successful.
  • The imported British textiles in 1921 -22 was 30% less than the previous years.
  • People gained confidence.
  • Indian textile growth strengthened.

Question 6.
How did Non-cooperation movement become the movement for all?
Answer:
Non-cooperation movement in 1921-22. People from all sections played an important role. Students boycotted English education and foreign textiles. Lawyers boycotted counts farmers workers and all sections of people took part in the straggle. Thus it become the movement for all.

Question 7.
Why did Gandhiji support the Khilafat Movement?
Answer:
During the activities of Gandhiji, Maulana Mohammad Ali and Maulana Shoukath Ali intensified the Khilafat Movement. By declaring the Khilafat Movement as a part of the Indian National Movement, Gandhiji ensured active participation of Muslims in the freedom straggle.

He traveled across India with Khilafat leaders and propagated his ideologies. As a result, anti- British feeling spread to every nook and comer of the nation.Hindu Muslim Unity was intensified.

Question 8.
How are the methods of rebellion different from Gandhian methods?
Answer:

  • Gandhiji’s principle was Ahimsa.
  • Others adopted violence.

Question 9.
Reasons for the movements formed away from Gandhian movements.
Answer:

  • Level measures adopted by British.
  • Results of rebellions in India.
  • Anti-human activities of British
  • Present measures adopted were not enough to attain freedom.

Question 10.
How did Rowlatt Act influence the Indian National Movement? Explain.
Answer:
The British Parliament passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919 limiting the civil rights. As per that Act, any person can be imprisoned without trial. Gandhiji suggested starting satyagraha. People in various part of the country went to the street and started demonstrations and strikes.

But the government resorted to oppressive measures to put down the public protest. The worst example of the British approach to public protect was the massacre at Jallian Bagh in 1919. The massacre at Jallianwala Bagh intensified the protest at the national level. This incident shook the foundation of the British rule in India.

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Question 11.
Prepare a note on Jallianwallabagh Massacre.
Answer:
The Rowlatt Act become rebellious in most of the parts in India. It was strengthened in Punjab. Dr. Satyapal, Dr. Sai-fudheen Kitchlew led the anti-Rowlett Act agitations in Punjab, and they were arrested. The people gathered in Jallianwallabagh peacefully.

General Dyer who was the chief of police, commanded to fire without warning. Hundreds of people were killed. Five thousand of them were deeply wounded. This National Movement strengthened among people.

Question 12.
List of freedom struggles led by Gandhiji.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom 12

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