Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 7 India after Independence

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Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 7 India after Independence

India after Independence Text Book Questions and Answers

Independent India took its birth by facing many challenges. India’s partition and the subsequent communal riots and refugee problems were the most disastrous problems. The integration of around 600 princely states and the reorganization of states were other problems faced by independent India. In order to become a federal state, India had to settle these problems in an urgent manner peaceful and tactical settlement of these problems helped India for its later development.

Independent India 10th Class Question 1.
Discuss the circumstances. that led to the flow of refugees in independent India.
Answer:
Followed by the division of nation there was flow of refugees from India to Pakistan and from Pakistan to India. Along with this, there were religious conflicts in many places. As the conflicts intensified many people left the place and became refugees. There were around 10 million refugees traveled by walk, bullock carts, and train. This issue of refugees was effectively solved by the new administration in the independent India.

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10th Standard in India Question 2.
Discuss the role of the Constitution in protecting India’s democracy.
Answer:
Our Constitution came into effect on 26th January 1950. Thus India becomes a republic on that day. As per the Constitution, the first general election in the country took place in 1951-52. The independent and impartial election was a great success of Indian democracy even though several Asian and African countries, attained independence along with India deviated from the democratic values. India still remains to be a strong democratic country. This is just because our Constitution is
simply the custodian of our democracy.

10th Class Social Independent India Question 3.
Why language considered as criteria formation of states?
Answer:
After the integration of kingly states, the next major issue faced by India was the formation of states. There were demands and agitations from various parts of the country for language-based state formulation. Potti Sreeramulu undertook a hunger strike demanding the formation of Andhra Pradesh for the Telugu speaking population. He lost his life in the process. Finally, Andhra Pradesh was formed in 1953.

This intensified the demand for language-based state formation. Government then constituted state reorganization commission under the chairmanship of Fassal Ali. On the basis of the report of this commission, State Reorganization Act was passed in 1956. As per this Act, 14 states and 6 union territories came into existence. Independent India achieved progress in many fields. By adopting a mixed economic system and introducing five year plans India strengthened its basic sectors. India achieved tremendous progress in agricultural and industrial fields. In the field of science also India had enviable growth. By reading the importance of national education in the progress of a nation, the rulers of India implemented innovative reforms in education. ‘

Operation Blackboard Aims Question 4.
Conduct a discussion on the economic development of independent India.
Answer:
India followed a mixed economic system comprising the features of socialism and capitalism. As part of economic planning, India started five-year plans. This helped the development of agricultural and industrial sectors as well as eradication of poverty. Education scenario also developed. With the foreign aid, iron and steel industries were set up in different places. Heavy irrigation projects and dams played significant role in India’s economic advancement. Dams contributed water for irrigation and energy production for industry was made easier. With the development of irrigation facilities, agricultural production in the country increased.

India After Independence Notes Question 5.
Point out the peculiarities of independent India’s economic development.
Answer:

  • Mixed economy
  • Planned economy
  • Five-year plans
  • Foreign aided iron and steel industries
  • Heavy and large dams
  • Increased agricultural production.

Operation Blackboard Aims at Question 6.
Prepare a picture album based on Indian achievements in space research.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard History Solutions Chapter 7 India after Independence 1
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard History Solutions Chapter 7 India after Independence 2

Radhakrishnan Commission Question 7.
How did the achievements in scientific field help India’s development?
Answer:
Independent India achieved remarkable progress on science and technology fields. Science and technology has very significant role in India’s agricultural as well as industrial developments. Several research institutions and five Indian Institution of technologies were set up in India soon after independence. India also gained rapid progress in medical education, biomedical engineering, nuclear science, biotechnology, health, transportation, oceanic research information technology, space research, etc. All these developments lead to overall development of the country.

Problems Faced by India After Independence Question 8.
Evaluate the achievements of independent India in the education sector.
Answer:
Independent India tried to develop an indigenous education policy government-appointed different commission at different times to study our education system and make recommendation. Dr. Radhakrishnan Commission, Dr. Lakshmana Swami Muthaliar Commission, Dr. D. S. Kothari Commission, etc., were important among them. A natural Education Policy was formulated in 1986 with aim of leading the country to 21st century. In 2009, the Government of India passed an Act making education a fundamental right. Similar schemes for education development include SSA, RMSA, etc.

After attaining freedom from a colonial hegemony. India formed an anti-imperialist movement called the Non-Aligned movement by joining hands with those who had such experience like India. The policy of non-alignment was the watchword of India’s foreign policy designed by Jawaharlal Nehru. Independent India adopted a foreign policy which was anti-imperial, anticolonial and giving emphasis to Panchsheel. Its ultimate aim was world peace.

Development of Education in India After Independence Question 9.
How far the values of nationalist movements reflected in India’s foreign policy? Examine, IP Independent India accepted the policy formulated by Indian National Congress during the period of freedom struggle. Jawaharlal Nehru was the chief architect of the policy. Given below are the important principles of India’s foreign policy.

  • DB agreement towards colonialism.
  • Belief in united nations organization
  • Peaceful co-existence
  • Panchsheel principles
  • Emphasis on the foreign aid
  • Non-alignment

Chapter 7 Process Question 10.
Examine the present foreign policy of India and discuss whether there in any change in its basic principles.
Answer:
Disintegration of Soviet Union, End of Cold War, New Economic Policy, Unipolar world under USA, etc. made changes in India’s foreign policy.

Question 11.
What were the important challenges India had to face at the time of independence?
Answer:
India had to face several challenges at the time of independence. Important among them were:

  • Religious riots and problems of refugees
  • Unification of kingly states
  • Rearrangement of states on the basis of language
  • Formation of democratic system
  • Economic growth.

Question 12.
Prepare a note on the integration of princely states.
Answer:
This was the most crucial issue faced by independent India. In union cabinet, Sardar Vallabhbhai Pate! was in charge of the portfolio relating to states. Patel and V.P. Menon prepared an instrument of accession. Due to agitation of people and practical approach of the government, majority of princely states signed this agreement and joined in Indian Union. However Hyderabad, Kashmir and Junagad refused to join in Indian union. Later by some compromise and military reorganization of states.

Question 13.
Prepare a note on the formation of Indian Constitution.
Answer:
Even before the attainment of independence, the Cabinet Mission had recommended of a constituent assembly. In 1976, a constituent assembly was constituted as Dr. Rajendra Prasad as its chairman. A Drafting Committee was appointed to write down the Constitution under the leadership of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. Finally, after long series of discussions and debates, the Constitution was formed. On 26th January 1950 independent India’s Constitution came into existence and India became a republic.

Question 14.
Explain the progress in space research of India after independence.
Answer:

  • Indian National Committee for Space Research was set up — 1962.
  • Space Science and Technology Centre — Thumba
  • First Indian Satellite — Aryabhata — 1975
  • National Remote Sensing Agency
  • Physical Research Laboratory
  • Missile Technology
  • India’s First Moon Mission — Chandrayaan — 2008
  • Mars Mission — Mangalyaan

Question 15.
Explain the features of National Policy on Education 1986.
Answer:

  • The National Education Policy of 1986 was formulated with the objective of leading India to new millennium major recommendations of the policy include:
  • Give priority to primary education and higher education
  • Implement operation blackboard schemes in order to make primary education universal and enhance physical facilities of schools.
  • Establish Navodaya Schools in each district.
  • Encourage education of girl.

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Question 16.
Prepare a table showing the cultural institutions of independent India.
Answer:

Institutions Functions/ Objectives Head Quarters
Sangeet Natak Akademy Aims at encouraging music and drama New Delhi
Lalithakala Akademy Aims at encouraging Indian arts within and outside India New Delhi
Sahitya Akademy Aims at improving Indian literature New Delhi
National School of Drama Established under Sangeetha Natak Akademy to encourage drama New Delhi
National Book Trust of India Aims to Publish books at low cost. Encourage reading of of Indian and foreign books. New Delhi

Question 17.
Point out the Principles of India’s Foreign Policy.
Answer:

  • Belief in United Nations Organization
  • Peaceful co-existence
  • Panchsheel principles
  • Emphasis on the foreign aid
  • Non-alignment

Question 18.
Why was conflicts intensified in Calcutta, Bihar, Navokali, Delhi, Punjab, and Kashmir at the time of partition of India?
Answer:
These places formed the boundary of India in the East and West. Since these places shared boundary with Pakistan, conflicts intensified there.

Question 19.
‘Even after independence, there was foreign aggression in India’. Substantiate.
Answer:
European countries like fame and Portuguese has their colonial sports in India even after India’s independence. These places became independent by forceful military actions. Given below the details.

Country Area of aggression Unified to India in
France Pondicherry, Mahi, Karackel, Yanam 1954
Portugal Goa, Daman, Diu 1961

Question 20.

A B
Dr. Rajendra Prasad State reorganization
V.P. Menon Nuclear field
Fassel Ali Constituent Assembly
Dr. Raja Ramanna Integration of kingly states

Answer:

A B
Dr. Rajendra Prasad Constituent Assembly
V.P. Menon Integration of kingly states
Fassel Ali State reorganization
Dr. Raja Ramanna Nuclear field

Question 21.
List the iron and steel industries started in India with foreign aid. Name the countries helped in their set up.
Answer:
Bhilai — Soviet Union
Bokaro — Soviet Union
Rourkela — Germany
Durgapur — Britain

Question 22.
What was the visible change in Indian economy since 1990’s?
Answer:
Instead of public sector, private sector gained priority.

Question 23.
List the following chronological order.
1. India became Republic
2. Cabinet Mission
3. Panchsheel Principles
4. Dr. Radhakrishnan Commission.
Answer:
1. Cabinet Mission
2. Dr. Radhakrishnan Commission
3. India became Republic
4. Panchsheel Principles

Question 24.
Prepare a table showing important education com-missions of Independent India, their objectives and recommendations.
Answer:

Commissions Objectives Recommendations
Dr. Radhakrishnan Commission (1978) Study on University education Start vocational institutions Give importance to girls’ education Formation of UGC
Dr. Lakshmana Swami Muthaiiar Commission (1952) Study on Secondary education Implement 3 lan­guage programme Education commission at secondary level Teacher training
Dr. D.S. Kothari Commission Recommen­dation of educations national model Implement 10+2+3 model.
Vocational education at secondary level Emphasis to moral value education.

Question 25.
Explain Panchsheel Principles.
Answer:
Panchsheel agreement was signed between India and China in 1954. The principles are

  1. Mutual respect of each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty
  2. Mutual non-aggression
  3. Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs
  4. Equality and mutual
  5. Peaceful co-existence

Question 26.
Match the following tables suitably

A B
Jawaharlal Nehru Nuclear Energy Commission
Dr. D.S. Kothari State Reorganization
Homi J. Bhava Panchsheel principles
K.M. Panicker 10+2+3 model.

Answer:

A B
Jawaharlal Nehru Panchsheel principles
Dr. D.S. Kothari 10+2+3 model
Homi J. Bhava Nuclear Energy Commission
K.M. Panicker State Reorganization

Question 27.
Name the first Indian state formed on the basis of language.
Answer:
Andhra Pradesh.

Let Us Assess

Question 28.  (Qn. Pool-2017)
What were the major problems faced by India? When she got independence?
Answer:
Partition, influx of refugees, communal riots, integration of princely states, reorganization of states.

Question 29. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Write a short note on the integration of princely states into Indian Union.
Answer:

  • There were around six hundred princely states in pre-independent India.
  • The princely states were given the option to join any union.
  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was the Union Minister for the Department of States.
  • V.P. Menon was the Secretary of the Department of States.
  • Patel and V.P. Menon prepared an Instrument of Accession.
  • Princely states had to hand over their control over defence, information, and communication, external affairs to the Government of India.
  • All princely states except Junagarh, Hyderabad, Kashmir joined in the Indian Union.
  • Later on these states were integrated into the Indian union through conciliation talks and military interventions under the initiative of Patel and V.P. Menon led the process.

Question 30.
Examine the circumstances that led to linguistic-based state formation.
Answer:
After the integration of kingly states, the next major issue faced by India was the formation of states. There were demands and agitations from various parts of the country for language-based state formulation. Potti Sreeramulu undertook a hunger strike demanding the formation of Andhra Pradesh for the Telugu speaking population. He lost his life in the process. Finally, Andhra Pradesh was formed in 1953.

This intensified the demand for language-based state formation. Government then constituted state reorganization commission under the chairmanship of Faisal AN. On the basis of the report of this commission, State Reorganization Act was passed in 1956. As per this Act, 14 states and 6 union territories came into existence.

Question 31.
‘Independent India achieved remarkable progress in science and technology’. Examine this statement.
Answer:
The following flow chart depicts the achievements * India attained during the period after independence
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard History Solutions Chapter 7 India after Independence 3

Question 32.
Write a note on the formation of Indian Constitution?
Answer:

  • ln 1946 the Cabinet Mission proposed to form a Constituent Assembly.
  • Dr. Rajendraprasad was appointed as the Chairman of Constituent Assembly.
  • Appointed a drafting committee with Dr. B.R. Ambedkar as Chairman.
  • The Constitution came into effect on 26th January 1950.

Question 33 (Qn. Pool-2017)
Explain the advancement in space research in independent India.
Answer:

  • Thumba rocket launching station.
  • Indian National Committee for Space Research.
  • Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in 1969.
  • The launching of the satellite Aryabhatta in 1975.
  • Chandrayaan-2006

Question 34. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Explain the features of the National Policy on Education 1986.
Answer:

  • Focus on primary and continuing education.
  • Universalise primary education
  • Starting Navodaya Vidyalayas in every district.
  • Encouraging girl’s education.

Question 35. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Make a list of the fundamental principles of India’s foreign policy.
Answer:

  • Panchsheel Principles
  • Non-alignment
  • Anti-racist
  • Emphasis on the necessity for foreign aid

India after Independence Model Questions

Question 36. (Qn. Pool – 2017)
Which was the provision incorporated in the Instrument of Accession concerning the princely states?
Answer:
The princely states had to hand over their control over defence, external affairs, and information and communications to the Government of India.

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Question 37. (Qn. Pool-2017)
List out the territories that were acceded to the Indian union through military operations and popular protests?
Answer:
A. Popular Protests-Pondicherry, Karakkal
B. Military operations-Goa, Daman,
Mahe, Yanam – French settlements
Diu – Portughese settlements

Question 38. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Examine the circumstances that led to the formation of the first unilingual state of Andhra Pradesh.
Answer:
After independence there emerged demand for linguistic reorganization of states. In 1953 Potti Sreeramulu started fast for the formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh for Telugu speaking people. He died in 1953. It was followed by strong protest demanding formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh. Thus in 1953 the first unilingual
state of India, Andhra Pradesh was formed.

Question 39. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Who were the members of the commission to reorganize Indian states?
Answer:
Fazl Ali, Hrudaya Nath Kunzru, K.M. Panikkar.

Question 40. (Qn. Pool-2017)
What is meant by mixed economy?
Answer:
Mixed economy is a combination of both socialist and capitalist economic systems.

Question 41. (Qn. Pool-2017)
How did the five-year plans help the economic growth of India?
Answer:

  • Agriculture and industrial sectors flourished.
  • Eradication of poverty.
  • Improvement in education sector.
  • Formation of iron and steel industrial firms.
  • Major dams.

Question 42. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Name the foreign countries that assisted the settings up of following iron and steel industrial firms in India. (Bhilai, Bokaro, Rourkela, Durgapur)
Answer:

  • Bhilai — Soviet Union
  • Rourkela — Germany
  • Durgapur — Britain
  • Bokaro — Soviet Union

Question 43. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Name the two agencies that develop satellites in India.
Answer:

  • National Remote Sensing Agency
  • Physical Research Laboratory.

Question 44. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Explain any two cultural institutions in India and their activities that aim for cultural development.
Answer:

  • Sangeet Natak Akademi, Aimed at the promotion of Drama and Music,
  • Lalit Kala Akademy – Promotion of Indian arts in India and abroad.
  • Sahitya Akademy – Promotion of Literature in Indian languages.
  • National School of Drama – Promotion of Drama, works under Sangit Natak Akademy.
  • National Book Trust of India – To make books available cost-effectively. To promote Indian books in India and abroad.

Question 45. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Arrange the following in chronological order.
1. Chandrayaan Mission
2. Formation of the ISRO
3. Launching of Aryabhatta
4. Formation of National Committee for Space Research.
Answer:

  1. Formation of National Committee for Space Research.
  2. Formation of the ISRO
  3. Launching of Aryabhatta.
  4. Chanrdrayaan Mission.

Question 46. (Qn. Pool-2017)
What was the aim of the Operation Blackboard Programme?
Answer:

  • Universalise primary education
  • Improve primary facilities in schools.

Question 47. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Which education commission recommended to establish 10 + 2 + 3 pattern of education?
Answer:
Kothari Commission

Question 48. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Make a list of the fundamental principles of India’s foreign policy.
Answer:

  • Panchsheel Principles
  • Non-alignment
  • Anti-racist
  • Emphasis on the necessity for foreign aid

Question 49. (Qn. Pool- 2017)
The Panchsheel Principles are the agreement signed by India and China in 1954.
What are its provisions?
Answer:

  • Mutual respect for each, other territorial integrity and sovereignty
  • Mutual non-aggression
  • Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
  • Equality and cooperation for mutual benefit.
  • Peaceful co-existence

Question 50. (Qn. Pool-2017)
‘Panchsheel Principles are provisions of mutual agreement.’ Substantiate.
Answer:

  • This agreement was signed between India and China.
  • This agreement was signed for maintaining mutual relationship.
  • Mutual non-aggression.
  • Other provisions being the mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
  • Each of the provisions of the agreement aimed for mutual relationships.

Question 51. (Qn. Pool-2017)
How did the construction of dams help in the economic modernization of India?
Answer:

  • Availability of water for agriculture.
  • Availability of electricity for industries
  • Increased agricultural production.

Question 52. (Qn. Pool-2017)
How did the five-year plans that started in 1951 help to the developmental process of India?
Answer:

  • Flourished agriculture and industrial sectors progress in poverty alleviation, energy production, and education.
  • Recent development in these fields may be mentioned.

Question 53. (Qn. Pool-2017)
The process of attainment of India’s freedom completed in 1961. How much is the statement valid?
Answer:
In 1947 Britain gave freedom to India. But regions like Goa, Daman and Diu were under Portuguese control while Pondicherry, Mahe, Yaman, and Karaikal were under French domination. In 1954 the French settlements were liberated while the Portuguese settlements were liberated in 1961. That is why it is said that India got complete independence in 1961.

Question 54. (Qn. Pool-2017)
What was the circumstances that forced the central government to form Andhra Pradesh State on Linguistic base?
Answer:
Satyagraha of freedom fighter Potti Sreeramulu and its effects.
Hunger strike which led later to the death of the freedom fighter Potti Sreeramulu.

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Question 55. (Qn. Pool-2017)
The major events in post-independent India are given below. Arrange them in chronological order.
1. India became Republic
2. Formation of the States, Reorganisation Commission.
3. The French settlements were acceded to the Indian Union.
4. The Portuguese quit India
5. First General Election in free India
Answer:

  1. India became a Republic
  2. First General Election in Free India
  3. Formation of the States, Reorganisation Commission.
  4. The French settlements were acceded to the Indian Union.
  5. The Portuguese quit India.

Question 56. (Orukkam 2017)
List the major challenges of post-independent India.
1. Flow of Refugees
2. …………..
Answer:

  1. Flow of Refugees
  2. Communal riots
  3. States’reorganisation
  4. Partition
  5. Integration of princely states.

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