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Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 3 Simple Nutrients into Cells
Simple Nutrients into Cells Textual Questions and Answers
…………. carrying hormones to their target tissues.
State whether true or false.
a) Blood transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide.
b) Plasma is the straw yellow colored fluid.
c) Albumin regulates blood pressure.
d) Fibrinogen synthesizes antibodies for immunity.
Prepare a word wheel related to the functions of blood
……..carried nutrients to the cell
………. regulates the body temperature.
‘Nutrients formed as a result of digestion reach cells.’ – How do they reach cells.
Blood carried nutrients formed as the result of digestion to the cells.
Blood is a tissue.
What are the important parts of blood?
Fluid part named plasma and blood cells.
Complete the table.
|Disc-shaped||No definite shape||….a……..|
|Transport of respiratory gases||……..e…….||…….f……..|
|Disc-shaped||No definite shape||No definite shape|
|Transport of respiratory gases||Immunity||blood clotting|
List the various types of blood cell
- Red blood cells
- White blood cells
Plasma is the straw yellow colored fluid that constitutes 55% of blood. Blood cells are found in plasma. The simpler molecules formed as a result of digestion namely glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol, etc. reach cells through the plasma.
Prepare a flow chart relation the components of plasma.
Plasma constitutes …………. % blood.
Blood cells are found in the
Where is the heart situated?
The heart is situated slightly tilted towards left in between the two lungs behind the sternum in the thoracic cavity.
Human heart is of shape.
State whether true or false.
Size of one’s heart is equal to the size of one’s fist.
Heart is covered by the double-layered membrane called
Complete the table
|Bicuspid valve||…… a ……||1. Helps blood to enter the left ventricle from the left atrium.
2. Prevents the backward flow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium.
|….. b …..||Between the right atrium and the right ventricle||1. ………
|Pulmonary Valve||…. e …..||1. Prevents the backward flow of blood from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle|
|….. f …..||Where the aorta originates||1. Helps blood enter the aorta
2. …… g ……..
a) Between the left atrium and left ventricle
b) Tricuspid valve
c) Prevents backward flow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium.
d) Helps blood to enter the right ventricle from the right atrium.
e) Between right ventricle and pulmonary artery
f) Aortic valve
g) Closes off the lower left chamber that holds the oxygen-rich blood before it is pumped out to the body.
What is pericardial fluid? What is its main function?
Pericardial fluid is filled in between the pericardial membranes. Its main function is to reduce friction between the membranes during the heartbeats.
Consider the following functions of the heart and identify the parts performing them.
a) Carries blood to lungs.
b) Carries blood to various parts of the body.
c) Brings blood from the lungs.
d) Carries blood from various parts of the body.
a) Pulmonary artery
c) Pulmonary vein
d) Vena cava
…….. regulate the flow of blood through the heart.
The valves of the left ventricle is the tickest one. What may be its reason?
The wall of the left ventricle is the thickest one because it needs to pump blood to most of the body, while the right ventricle fills only the lungs.
What are the major valves of the heart?
Pulmonary valve, Tricuspid valve, Aortic valve, Bicuspid valve.
Complete the table listing the characteristics of different types of blood vessels.
Up Wall: Thick wall, thin wall, wall is formed of single layer of cells and minute pores on the wall
Valves: No valves, valves are seen, no valves
Blood transportation: High speed and high pressure, low speed and low pressure, low speed and low pressure
………. carries blood to the heart
………. carries blood from the heart
What are capillaries?
Capillaries are the thin vessels that connect veins ” and arteries together.
State whether true or false
a) There are minute pores on the capillary walls
b) Artery carries blood to the heart
c) Vein transports blood in low speed and high pressure
d) Valves are seen in veins.
e) Artery carries blood in high speed and high pressure
What is the function of vein?
Vein carries blood to the heart
Small arteries spilt into
Capillaries unite to form
Working Of Heart
What is pacemaker?
Initiation of the contraction and relaxation of the heart and regulation of the heartbeat are carried out by the special muscles of SinoArtial Node (SA node) at the anterior part of the right atrium. This part is called pacemaker.
Complete the following diagram
- Left atrium
- Tricuspid valve
- Bicuspid valve
- Right ventricle
- Pulmonary artery
Complete the illustration.
a) Pulmonary vein
b) Right atrium
d) Left ventricle
………. helps to maintain the level of oxygen in the blood.
Prepare a flow chart relating the circulation of blood.
Define Double circulation.
The same amount of blood passes through the heart twice. This type of circulation is called double circulation. It includes pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation. Double circulation helps to maintain the level of oxygen.
What is pulmonary circulation?
The blood circulation that starts from the right ventricle to the lungs and from there to left atrium is called pulmonary circulation.
What do you mean by systemic circulation?
The circulation that starts from the left ventricle and ends in the right atrium after calculating throughout the whole body is called systemic circulation
Differentiate veins and portal veins.
Veins are the vessels that carry blood from various organs to the heart. But certain veins do not reach the heart and they carry blood from organ to organ. They are called portal veins.
……. is an example for portal system.
Hepatic portal system.
Prepare a flowchart showing the Hepatic portal system.
Which is the center of metabolism?
Explain the functions of Liver.
The nutrients that are formed by digestion undergo many changes in the liver. They include storing of glucose as glycogen, releasing of energy from fatty acids, producing cholesterol, etc. Besides, specific defense cells in the liver destroy the pathogens that enter the blood from the digestive tract.
Heart, Pulse, Blood Pressure
What do you mean by systole?
Contraction of the chambers of the heart is termed as systole. During this phase, blood flows from atria to ventricles and from ventricles to outside.
After systole along with atria, ventricles also relax. This stage of relaxation is termed as diastole. In this phase, blood fills in the chambers of the heart.
One systole and the subsequent diastole together constitute a heartbeat. It takes about 0.8 seconds.
Explain systolic pressure and diastolic pressure.
About 70 ml of blood is pumped into the arteries during each heartbeat. The pressure exerted by this excess blood to the walls of the arteries is systolic pressure. It is about 120mm Hg (mercury). When the heart dilates fully the same amount of blood enters the heart. A low pressure felt in the arteries in this phase is known as diastolic pressure. It is about 80 mm Hg.
Which instrument is used to measure blood pressure?
Average heartbeat is
What is pulse?
The wave-like movement formed due to the contraction and relaxation of the heart is felt throughout the walls of the arteries is pulse.
State whether true or false.
Rate of pulse is equivalent to that of the heartbeat.
Carrying oxygen to cells is one of the major functions of ………
Oxygen is absorbed into the blood from
Variation In Blood Pressure
Differentiate between hypertension and hypotension.
The normal rate of blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg.The condition in which the blood pressure increases above the normal rate is disease condition called hypertension. This happens due to many reasons. Unhealthy habits such as excess use of salt and fat, smoking, lack of exercise. The condition in which the blood pressure rate goes below the prescribed rate is called hypertension. These hypotensions and hypertension may lead to stroke or heart attack.
From The Blood To The Cell
What is lymph capillary?
Besides blood capillaries, small vessels with their one end closed are seen’ in intercellular spaces. These are the lymph capillaries.
Tissue fluid that reaches the lymph capillaries is called ………
……….. is the largest organ in the Lymphatic system.
What is the main function of spleen?
Destruction of germs and inactive red blood cells is the main function of spleen.
Why does spleen known as the blood bank of body?
Since spleen stores blood in small quantities, it is also known as the blood bank of the body.
Name the blood bank of the body?
…… is the major production center of lymphocytes.
Lymphatic system participates in the defense mechanism of the body – substantiate.
The lymph nodes seen at intervals in the lymph ducts are the major production center of lymphocytes, a kind of white blood cells. When lymph passes through these nodes, the white blood cells destroy the pathogenic bacteria that are present in it. Thus lymphatic system participates itself in the defense mechanism of the body.
Define lymphatic system.
Lymphatic system consists of large and small lymph ducts, lymph nodes, lymph, and spleen,
Prepare a flow chart on how fatty acid and glycerol that are absorbed into the lymph from the small intestine reach cells.
Fatty acid and glycerol → Lacteals (Lymphs) → Small lymph ducts → Large lymph ducts → Venacava (Blood) → Heart
A Healthy Heart – Vital For Life
What are the factors that affect health of the heart?
Food habits, lack of exercise
Consumption of excess fatty food leads to the accumulation of fat in the arterial walls. This condition is called atherosclerosis. As a result of atherosclerosis, the inner diameter of the artery reduces. Moreover, the arterial walls become rigid, losing their elastic nature.
What is thrombosis?
The accumulated fat roughens the inner wall of blood vessels. Here platelets and RBCs may clump together to form blood clots, named thrombus. This condition is called
How we maintain the health of the heart?
Proper food habits and regular exercise play an important role in reducing the level of fat in blood. Thus we can maintain the health of the heart and the circulatory system.
The first heart transplantation was done by
Dr. Christian Bernard
Transportation In Plants
Complete the table
|Xylem||transports water and salt that roots absorb from the soil to the leaves.|
|Phloem||Transports food from the leaves to the rest parts of the plant.|
Conduction Through Xylem
Transportation of water takes place through ……… & ………..
Tracheids and vessels
What is transpiration?
Water is expelled from leaves due to evaporation. This process is called transpiration.
How does water reach the treetop through the xylem naturally?
This happens due to the combined action of many processes like transpiration, root pressure, cohesion, and adhesion.
The force of attraction between unlike molecules or the binding of a cell to another cell.
………… keeps the water drops on the surfaces of leaves and flowers in place.
…….. is the intermolecular attraction between like molecules.
Define cohesion in water?
Cohesion in water is a property of water that makes its molecules attracted to each other. A water molecule is made of one oxygen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms.
Differentiate between cohesion and adhesion.
Cohesion is the force of attraction between molecules of the same substance. But adhesion is defined as the force of attraction between different substances such as glass and water.
Transport Through Phloem
Which is the main part of the phloem?
Food is transported in the form of ……….. through the sieve tube.
……….. cells are seen along with sieve tubes, they also help in the transportation of food.
Let Us Assess
Choose the simple nutrients which are absorbed into blood from those given below.
A) Fatty acid
B) Amino acid
B) Amino acid
Observe the figure showing the transportation of water and minerals plants.
a) Identify the vascular tissues indicated by A and B.
b) Name the processes that help water absorbed by the roots to reach the leaves.
a) A ……. Xylem
B ……… Phloem
b) Transpiration, root pressure, cohesion and adhesion