Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics

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Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics

Statistics Textual Questions and Answers

Textbook Page No. 193

Plus Two Teacher Salary Kerala Question 1.
The weight of 6 players in a volleyball team are all different and the average weight is 60 kilograms.
i. Prove that the team has at least one player weighing more than 60 kilograms.
ii. Prove that the team has at least one player weighing less than 60 kilograms.
Answer:
i. Total weight of 6 players = 60 × 6 = 360 kg
The team contains players having weights 60, less than 60 or greater than 60. If the weights of all the players are less than 60, the average will also be less than 60. This is not possible. Therefore there will be at least one player having weight greater than 60.

ii. If the weight of all the players are greater than 60, the average will also be greater than 60. Therefore there will be at least one player having weight less than 60.

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Statistics 9th Class Question 2.
Find two sets of 6 numbers with average 60, satisfying each of the conditions below:
i. 4 of the numbers are less than 60 and 2 of them greater than 60.
ii. 4 of the numbers are greater than 60 and 2 of them less than 60.
Answer:
Total sum = 60 × 6 = 360
i. 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 120

ii. 5, 15, 70, 80, 90, 100
Other ways are also possible.

Chapter 13 Maths Class 9 Question 3.
The table shows the children in a class, sorted according to the marks they got for a math test.

Marks Children
2 1
3 2
4 5
5 4
6 6
7 11
8 10
9 4
10 2

Calculate the average marks of the class.
Answer:
Total number of children is 45. Repeated addition can be written as multiplication.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics 9
Average mark = \(\frac { Total }{ Number }\) = \(\frac { 297 }{ 45 }\) = 6.6

10th Maths Solution Question 4.
The table below shows the days in a month sorted according to the amount of rainfall in a locality

Rainfall(mm) Days
54 3
56 5
58 6
55 3
50 2
47 4
44 5
41 2

What is the average rainfall per day during this month?
Answer:

Rainfall(mm) Days Total
54 3 54 × 3 = 162
56 5 56 ×5 = 280
58 6 58 × 6 = 348
55 3 55 × 3 = 165
50 2 50 × 2=100
47 4 47 × 4 =188
44 5 44 × 5 = 220
41 2 41 × 2 = 82
Total 30 1545

The average of the rain fall per day during that month = \(\frac { Total rain fall }{ Number of days }\)
= \(\frac { 1545 }{ 30 }\) = 51.5mm

Solutions Maths Question 5.
The details of rubber sheets a farmer got during a month are given below.

Rubber (Kg) Days
9 3
10 4
11 3
12 3
13 5
14 6
16 6

i. How many kilograms of rubber did he get a day on average in this month?
ii. The price of rubber is 120 rupees per kilogram. What is his average income per day this month from selling rubber?
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics 10
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics 11
i. Average Quantity of rubber per day = \(\frac { 381 }{ 30 }\) = 12.77kg
ii. . If the price is Rs. 120 per kg, then average incomeperday = 12.7 × 120 = Rs.1524

Textbook Page No. 197

Statistics Class 9 Question 1.
Find different sets of 6 different numbers between 10 and 30 with each number given below as mean:
i. 20
ii. 15
iii. 25
Answer:
i. The mean of 6 numbers is 20.
ie; sum = 6 x 20= 120 (Write 3 pairs with sum 40)
i.e., 15, 25, 18, 22, 19, 21

ii. The mean of 6 numbers is 15
i.e; sum =6 x 15=90
(Write 30 pairs with sum 3)
12, 18, 13, 17, 14, 16

iii. Mean is 25
sum = 25 x 6 = 150
(Write 50 pairs with sum 3)
22, 28, 23, 27, 24, 26

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HSSLive Statistics Question 2.
The table below shows the children in a class, sorted according to their heights.

Height(cm) Number of children
148 – 152 8
152 – 156 10
156 – 160 15
160 – 164 10
164 – 168 7

What is the mean height of a child in this class?
Answer:

Height (cm)

No. of children Mid Value

Total Height

148 -152 8 150 150 × 8 = 1200
152 -156 10 154 154 × 10 = 1540
156 -160 15 158 158 × 15 = 2370
160 -164 10 162 162 × 10 = 1620
164 -168 7 166 160 × 7 = 1162
Total 50 7892

Mean height = \(\frac { Total height }{ No of children }\)
= \(\frac { 7892 }{ 50 }\) = 157.84 cm

Natural Rubber Sheets Question 3.
The teachers in a university are sorted according to their ages, as shown below.

Age Number of Persons
25 – 30 6
30 – 35 14
35 – 40 16
40 – 45 22
45 – 50 5
50 – 55 4
55 – 60 3

What is the mean age of a teacher in this university?
Answer:

Age No.of persons Midvalue Total
25 – 30 6 27.5 165
30 – 35 14 32.5 455
35 – 40 16 37.5 600
40 – 45 22 ‘42.5 935
45 – 50 5 47.5 237.5
50 – 55 4 52.5 210
55 – 60 3 57.5 172.5
Total 70 2775

Mean age = \(\frac { Total age }{ No of persons }\)
= \(\frac { 2775 }{ 70 }\) = 39.64

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HSSlive Maths Question 4.
The table below shows children in a class sorted according to their weights.

Weight (kg) Number of children
21 – 23 4
23 – 25
25 – 27 7
27 – 29 6
29 – 31 3
31 – 33 1

The mean weight is calculated as 26 kilograms. How many children have weights between 23 and 25 kilograms?
Answer:
Let’s prepare the table for finding the mean by considering the number of children in the group 23 to 25, as ‘x’.

Weight (kg)

No.of children Mid value

Total weight

21 – 23 4 22 22 × 4 = 88
23 – 25 X 24 24 × x = 24x
25 – 27 7 26 26 × 7 = 182
27 – 29 6 28 28 × 6 = 168
29 – 31 3 30 30 × 3 = 90
31 – 33 1 32 32 × 1 = 32
Total 21 + x 560 + 24x

Mean weight = 26 kg
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics 1
i.e; the number of children having weight between 23 to 25 is 7.

Statistics Exam oriented Questions and Answers

Question 1.
The details of rubber sheets got for a month by a farmer are given in the table.

Rubber (kg) No. of days
7 3
8 4
9 5
10 6
11 ?
12 4
13 3

During this month he got an average of 10 sheets per day. If so in how many days did he get 11kg per day ?
Answer:

Rubber (kg) Days Total weights (kg)
7 3 7 × 3 = 21
8 4 8 × 4= 32
9 5 9 × 5 = 45
10 6 10 × 6 = 60
11 X 11 × x= 11x
12 4 12 × 4 = 48
13 3 13 × 3 = 39
Total 25 + x 245 + 11x

Let ‘x’ be the number of days in which he got 11 kg rubber sheet.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics 2
∴ He got 11 kgs of sheets for 5 days.

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Question 2.
In a factory, there are workers belonging to four categories. The average income and the number of workers in each category are given. What is the mean income when all the workers in the four categories are combined?

Class No.of workers Average income (Rs)
I 12 6000
II 16 8000
III 8 9500
IV 4 11000

Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics 3
Mean income = \(\frac { 320000 }{ 40 }\)
= Rs. 8000

Question 3.
The daily wages of 10 workers in a factory are given below.
400, 350, 450, 500, 400, 500, 350, 500, 350, 450
If one more person is joined, the mean becomes Rs. 450. What is the daily wage of the new person?
Answer:
Total wages of 10 workers = 4250 Total wages of 11 workers= 11 × 450 = Rs. 4950
Wage of the 11th person = 4950 – 4250

Question 4.
Find 10 different numbers between 10 and 30 whose mean is 20.
Answer:
Given mean is 20
Sum 20 × 10 = 200.
We have to find 10 different numbers whose sum is 200 (for this find 5 pairs of sum 40)
(15, 25) (16, 24) (17, 23) (18, 22) (19, 21)
The numbers are 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25

Question 5.
A table categorizing the workers in an office on the basis of their salary is given below.

Salary (Rs) Number of workers
15000 -18000 1
18000 – 21000 3
21000 – 24000 5
24000 – 27000 4
27000 – 30000 1
30000 – 33000 1

Find the mean of salary.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics 4
Mean income = \(\frac { 349500 }{ 15 }\)
= R.s 23300

Question 6.
i. Find the mean of natural numbers from 1 to 100.
ii. What is the mean of even numbers from 1 to 100? What is the mean of odd numbers?
iii. What is the difference between the means of the first 100 even numbers and odd numbers?
iv. What is the difference between the means of the first 200 even numbers and 200 odd numbers?
Answer:
Sum of the natrural numbers from 1 to n = \(\frac n{ n + 1 }{ 2 }\)
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics 5
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics 6
Sum of the first 100 odd numbers
= 1002 = 100 × 100
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics 7
In general, the difference between the means of n even numbers and n odd numbers is always 1.

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Question 7.
A table tabulating the players in a cricket team on the basis of their age is given below.

Age Number of players
21 1
22 2
25 3
26 3
29 2
30 1

Calculate the mean age of the players?
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics 8
Mean age of players = 306/12 = 25.5

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions

You can Download Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Part 1 Chapter 3 help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions

Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions Textual Questions and Answers

Activity -1

Given below is a table showing the mass of the reactants and the products when hydrogen combines with chlorine to form hydrogen chloride in two situations.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 1

HSSlive chemistry redox reactions Question 1.
Write down the total mass of the reactants and also the total mass of product in the above experiment.
a) Situation 1: …………………
b) Situation 2: ……………….
Answer:
a) Total mass of reactants 73g products 73g
b) Reactants 146g products 146 g

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Activity-2

Given below is a table showing the mass of the reactants and the products when hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water, in two situations.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 2

what is redox reaction class 10 Question 2.
Write down the total mass of the reactants and the total mass of product in the above experiment.
a) Situation 1:
b) Situation 2:
Answer:
a) Reactants 18 g, Product 18 g
b) Reactants 36 g, Products 36 g

Question 3.
What is the relation between the total mass of the reactants and the total mass of products?
Answer:
Both are equal.

State The Law Of Conservation Of Mass

In a chemical reaction mass is neither created nor destroyed. This is the law of conservation of mass.
This law was proposed by the scientist Antoine Lavoisier. That is, the total mass of the reactants will be equal to the total mass of the products.

Activity-3

redox reaction and rate of chemical reaction Question 4.
A piece of magnesium is burned in air. What do you observe?
Answer:
It burns with sparkling light

Name the reducing agent in given below chemical reaction Question 5.
What is the white powder formed?
Answer:
Magnesium oxide (MgO)

Question 6.
Which are the reactants here?
Answer:
Mg and O2

chemical reaction equalizer Question 7.
Which is the product?
Answer:
MgO

redox reactions questions and answers Question 8.
Note down the number of atoms in the reactant side and the number of atoms in the product side in the table below.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 3
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 4

Question 9.
Is the number of atoms of each element equal on both sides?
Answer:
No

Question 10.
The number of which atom is not equal on both sides?
Answer:
O

Question 11.
How many product molecules are needed to equalize the number of oxygen atoms on both sides?
Answer:
2

Question 12.
How will you represent two molecules of magnesium oxide?
Answer:
2 MgO

Question 13.
Now, is the number of magnesium atoms equal on both sides?
Answer:
No

Question 14.
How many magnesium atoms are needed in the reactant side to equalize the number of magnesium atoms on both sides?
Answer:
2

Question 15.
Then how can you rewrite the above equation?
Answer:
2 Mg + O2 2MgO

Question 16.
Is the total number of atoms of each element in the molecules present in the reactant side and that in the product side equal in this equation?
Answer:
Yes

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Question 17.
What is balancing of equations?
Answer:
Equalizing the number of atoms of each element in molecules in the reactant side and that in the product side is called balancing of equation.
Zn + HCl → ZnCl2 + H2
Tabulate the total number of atoms of each elements in the reactant side and that in the product side of the above reaction.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 5

Question 18.
How many Zn atoms are there in the reactant side and in the product side?
Answer:
1 each

Question 19.
Which are the atoms showing a difference in their number?
Answer:
H and Cl

Question 20.
In order to make them equal on both sides how many molecules of HCI should be taken as reactant.
Answer:
2
Now rewrite the equation
Zn + HCl → ZnCl2 + H2

Question 21.
Balance the chemical equation H2 + O2 → H2O
Answer:
Step I: H2+ O2 → H2O
Step II: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O

Question 22.
Balance the chemical equation Al + O2 → Al2O2
Answer:
Step I: 2Al + O2 → Al2O3
Step II: 2Al+ 3O2 → 2Al2O3

Question 23.
Balance the chemical equation H2 + O2 → H2O
Answer:
Step I: H2 + O2 → 2H2O
Step II: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O

Question 24.
Some chemical equations are given below. Note down the number of reactant atoms and that of product atoms in the table given below.
1. C + O2 → CO2
2. N2 + H2 → NH3
3. 2H2 O2 → 2H2O + O2
4. SO2 + O2 → SO3
5. BaCl2 + H2SO4 → BaSO+2HCl

No. Reactant atoms Product atoms
1 C-1, O-2 C-1, O-2
2 N-2, H-2 N-1,  H-3
3 H-4, O-4 H-4, O-4
4. S-1, O-4 S-1, O-3
5. H-2, S-1, O-4, H-2, S-1,O-4,
Ba-1 Cl-2 Ba-1, Cl-2

Balance the equations which are unbalanced
Answer:
1. N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3
2. 2SO2 + O2 → 2SO3

Oxidation And Reduction

Question 25.
The electronic configuration of magnesium and chlorine are 2, 8, 2 and 2, 8, 7 respectively. How many electrons does a magnesium atom donate? What charge will it get?
Answer:
2, two positive (2+)

Question 26.
Let us complete the equation for this process,
Mg → Mg2+ + ……………
Answer:
Mg → Mg2+ + 2e

Question 27.
How many electrons are accepted by each chlorine atom? What will be the charge acquired by each atom?
Answer:
One 1 Cl1-

Question 28.
Complete the equation of this process.
Cl + 1e
Answer:
Cl + 1e → Cl1-

Question 29.
What are oxidation and reduction?
Answer:
Oxidation is the process of loss of electrons. Reduction is the process of gain of electrons. The atom which loss electron is called the reducing agent and the atom which gains electron is called the oxidizing agent.

Question 30.
In the above chemical reaction, which atom is oxidized?
Answer:
Sodium

Question 31.
Which atom is reduced?
Answer:
Chlorine

Question 32.
Which is the oxidizing agent in this chemical reaction?
Answer:
Chlorine (Cl)

Question 33.
Which is the reducing agent in this chemical reaction?
Answer:
Sodium (Na)

Question 34.
Analyze the following equations and list the oxidized atom, reduced atom, oxidizing agent and reducing agent.
a) Mg + F2 → MgF2
b) 2Na + Cl → NaCl
Answer:
a) Oxidized atom — Mg
Equation of oxidation — Mg → Mg2+ + 2e
Reduced atom — F
Equation of reduction — F + e → F
Oxidizing agent — F
Reducing agent — Mg

b) Oxidized atom — Na
Equation of oxidation — Na → Na + 1e
Reduced atom — Cl
Equation of reduction — Cl+ 1e → Cl
Oxidizing agent — Na
Reducing agent — Cl

Question 35.
Analyse the following equations and complete the Table given below.
1. Mg → Mg2+ + 2e
F+ le → F
2. Na → Na++1e
Cl + 1e → Cl
3. Fe → Fe2++ 2e
O + 2e → O2
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 6
Answer:

Equation of oxidation Reducing agent Equation of reduction Oxidizing agent
Mg → Mg2++ 2e Mg F + 1e→ F F
Na → Na++1e Na Cl + 1e → ClCl Cl
Fe → Fe2++ 2e Fe O + 2e → O2- O

Oxidation Number

Oxidation number of an atom in a molecule is the formal charge assigned on the atom if all the bonds in the substance arc considered to be ionic.

Question 36.
Consider the equation H2 +Cl2 → 2HCl What is the oxidation number of hydrogen in H2?
Answer:
O

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Question 37.
What is the oxidation number of chlorine in Cl2?
Answer:
O

Question 38.
In this reaction, does the oxidation number of hydrogen increase or decrease?
Answer:
Increases

Question 39.
What change takes place in the oxidation number of chlorine?
Answer:
Decreases

Question 40.
What are oxidation and reduction on the basis of change in oxidation number?
Answer:
The process in which the oxidation number increases is called oxidation.
The process in which the oxidation number decreases is called reduction.

Question 41.
During the formation of hydrogen chloride, which atom was oxidized?
Answer:
H

Question 42.
Which is the reducing agent?
Answer:
Cl

Question 43.
Which atom was reduced, during this reaction?
Answer:
Cl

Question 44.
Which is the oxidizing agent?
Answer:
H

Question 45.
Analyze oxidation numbers in the given equation and list the oxidizing agent and reducing agent in the table given below.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 7
Answer:
Oxidizing agent – O
Reducing agent-C

Question 46.
Analyze the oxidation number and note down the oxidizing agent and reducing agent in the following reaction.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 8
a) Oxidation number of which atom is increased?
b) The oxidized atom is
c) Oxidation number of which atom is decreased?
d) The reduced atom is
e) Oxidizing agent
f) Reducing agent
Answer:
a) Na
b) Na
c) Cl
d) Cl
e) Na
f) Cl

Question 47.
Analyze the following equation fill-up the blanks.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 9

Question 48.
The oxidation number of zinc increases/decreases from … to…
Answer:
0 to +2

Question 49.
The oxidized atom is…
Answer:
Zn

Question 50.
The oxidation number of hydrogen increases/decreases from …. to
Answer:
+1 to 0

Question 51.
The reduced atom is …
Answer:
H
Here HCI is the oxidizing agent and Zn is the reducing agent. „

Question 52.
How do you determine the oxidation number of sulfur in H2 SO4?
Answer:
Oxidation state of hydrogen = +1
Oxidation state of oxygen = -2
Let the oxidation state of sulphur be ‘x’ We know the sum of oxidation states of all atoms in a compound is zero. Therefore,
[2×(+1)] + x + (4x – 2) = 0
(+2) + x + (-8) = 0
x – 6 = 0
x = +6

Question 53.
Find the oxidation number of Mn in KMnO4 (oxidation number of K is +1, oxidation number of O is -2)
ANswer:
Oxidation state of potassium = +1
Oxidation state of oxygen = -2
Let the oxidation state of Mn be ‘x’.
1 x (+1) + x + 4(-2) = 0
(+1) + x + (-8) = 0
x – 7 =0
x = +7

Question 54.
Find the oxidation number of Mn in MnO2, Mn2O3 and Mn2O7
Answer:
MnO2
Mn + 2x -2 = 0
Mn + 4 = 0
Mn = +4

Mn2O3
2Mn + 2x -2 = 0
2Mn + -4 = 0
2 Mn = +4
Mn = +2

Mn2O7
2Mn + -2×7 = 0
2Mn + -14 = 0
2Mn = +14
Mn = +7

Question 55.
What is Redox reaction?
Answer:
The process of oxidation and reduction take place simultaneously. Hence these two reactions together are known as redox reaction.
Examples:
H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl
Mg + F2 → MgF2
2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl

Question 56.
What are the methods usually adopted to make firewood burn faster? ‘
Answer:
1. Provide more air
2. Split up into small pieces
3. Make firewood dry

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Question 57.
Describe an experiment to prove that nature of the reactants affects the rate of chemical reaction.
Answer:
Materials required for the experiment.
Zn, Mg, dil. HCl arid test tubes.
Procedure:
Take equal volume of dil. HCl in two test tubes. Add Zn to one and Mg of same mass to the other. Hydrogen gas is produced in both the test tubes. Rate of reaction is faster in the test tube containing Mg.

Question 58.
Write an experiment to prove that concentration of reactants affect the rate of reactions.
Answer:
Materials required: Mg, dil. HCl, Con. HCl and test tubes.
Procedure: Take magnesium ribbons of equal mass in two test tubes. Add concentrated HCl to one test tube and dilute HCl to the other in equal volume

Question 59.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 10
Write your observation
Test tube 1: ……………
Test tube 2: …………..
Test tube 1: Reaction is faster in con. HCl
Test tube 2: Reaction rate is slow

Question 60.
Why rate of reaction increases when concentration increases?
Answer:
As the concentration of reactants increases, the number of molecules per unit volume and the number of effective collisions increase. Consequently the rate of reaction increases.

Question 61.
What is the relation between rate of reaction and surface area? Write an experiment to prove it.
Answer:
Take equal volume of dil. HCI in two beakers. Add a small piece of marble into one and marble powder of equal mass into the other. Reaction rate is greater when marble powder is used. Rate of reaction increases when surface area increases

Question 62.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 11
Is there any difference in the rate of reaction in the two beakers?
Answer:
Reaction rate is greater when powdered marble is used.

Question 63.
What about the concentration of acid in both the reactions?
Answer:
Same

Question 64.
Is there any difference in the mass of the marble?
Answer:
No

Question 65.
What about the surface area of marble?
Answer:
Different

Question 66.
In which case is the chance for greater number of acid molecules to get in contact with marble, in a given time?
Answer:
If marble is powdered

Question 67.
What is the change in the rate of collision when surface area increases?
Answer:
When surface area increases rate of reaction also increases.

Question 68.
What will happen to the rate of this reaction if marble is further crushed or powdered?
Answer:
Will increase

Question 69.
Why rate of reaction increases when surface area increases?
Answer:
When solids are made into small pieces or powder, their surface area increases. As a result the number of molecules undergoing effective collision also increases. Hence the rate of reaction increases.

Question 70.
Write an experiment to prove the relation between temperature and rate of reaction.
Answer:
Materials required: Sodium thiosulphate, hydrochloric acid, water, boiling tube, spirit lamp. Procedure: Prepare dilute solution of sodium thiosulphate in a beaker. Take equal volumes of this solution in two boiling tubes. Heat one boiling tube for some time. Add dilute hydrochloric acid in equal amounts in both the boiling tubes.
Observation: Reaction is faster in heated test tube.

Question 71.
In which of the boiling tubes is the precipitate formed faster?
Answer:
In heated test tube

Question 72.
What is the color of the precipitate formed?
Answer:
Pale yellow

Question 73.
What is Threshold Energy?
Answer:
To take part in a chemical reaction, molecules should attain certain minimum kinetic energy. This energy is called threshold energy.

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Question 74.
Write an experiment to prove the influence of catalysts in a chemical reaction.
Answer:
Take some hydrogen peroxide solution in a test tube. Show a glowing incense stick into the test tube.
What is the observation? Is there any difference occurring in the way in which the incense stick bums? No . ‘
Now add some manganese dioxide (MnO2) into the test tube. Again show the glowing incense stick. Observation:
Glowing incense stick flares up now.

It indicates that when manganese dioxide is added, the rate of reaction increases and oxygen is formed faster. Filter the solution using a filter paper when the reaction is completed.

The substance remaining in the filter paper is manganese dioxide itself When examined carefully it becomes clear that there is no change in its amount or property. The presence of manganese dioxide has increased the rate of the reaction. Manganese dioxide acts as a catalyst in this reaction.

Question 75.
What are catalysts?
Answer:
Catalysts are substances which alter the rate of chemical reactions without themselves undergoing any permanent chemical change.

Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions Additional Questions and Answers

Magnesium combines with chlorine to form magnesium chloride. The equation is given below
Mg + Cl2 → MgCl2

Question 1.
Write down the electronic configuration of magnesium and chlorine
Answer:
Mg – 2, 8, 2
Cl – 2, 8,7

Question 2.
How many electrons are donated by magnesium? Write the chemical equation for this process
Answer:
2, Mg → Mg2+ +2e

Question 3.
How many electrons are accepted by chlorine?
Answer:
1, charge – ve

Question 4.
Write the chemical equation.
Answer:
Cl + 1e → cl

Question 5.
Explain oxidation, reduction, oxidizing agent and reducing agent?
Answer:

  • Oxidation is the process by which the removal of electrons.
  • Reduction is the process by which the addition of electrons.
  • In the above process, magnesium reduces chlorine by donating electrons to it hence magnesium is the reducing agent. In this process since chlorine oxidizes magnesium by accepting electrons it is considered as the oxidizing agent.

Question 6.
From the given chemical equation identify the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent by writing the chemical equation of oxidation and reduction
(i) Mg + F2 → MgF2
(ii) 2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl
Answer:
(i) Mg → Mg2+ + 2e (Oxidation)
F + 1e → F (Reduction)
Here magnesium is the reducing agent and fluorine is the oxidising agent.
(ii) Na → Na+ + 1e (Oxidation)
Cl + 1e → Cl (Reduction)
Here sodium is the reducing agent and chlorine is the oxidizing agent.

Question 7.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 12
In the formation of hydrogen chloride does the oxidation number of hydrogen increase or decrease?
Answer:
The oxidation number of hydrogen increases from 0 to +1

Question 8.
Whether the oxidation number of chlorine decrease or increase?
Answer:
The oxidation number of chlorine decreases from 0 to — 1.

Question 9.
Based on oxidation number which is the oxidizing agent and reducing agent?
Answer:
H2 is the reducing agent and Cl2 is the oxidizing agent.

Question 10.
What is meant by Redox reaction?
Answer:
A process in which the increase in oxidation number is the oxidation and decrease in oxidation number is the reduction. A process in which both oxidation and reduction takes place is the redox reaction. The molecule in which the atom whose oxidation number decreases during the process is the oxidizing agent and that in which oxidation number of an atom increase is the reducing agent.

Question 11.
In the following chemical reactions which is the oxidizing agent which is the reducing agent? Analyze the oxidation number and find out?
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 13
Reducing agent – C
Oxidising agent – Cl2

Question 12.
Given below is the equation of the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid also indicating the oxidation number.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 14
Analyze and find the following:
Answer:
In this process, oxidation number of zinc increases from 0 to +2.
Oxidation number of hydrogen decrease from +1 to 0 The reducing agent is zinc and oxidising agent is HCl.

Question 13.
Calculate the oxidation number of‘S’ in H2 SO4?
Answer:
Oxidation number of hydrogen = +1
Oxidation number of oxygen = -2
Let the oxidation number of ‘S’ be x
The sum of the oxidation numbers of all the Elements in a compound is zero,
Hence
[2x (+1] + x + 4 x (-2] = 0
2 + x – 8 = 0
x = +8 – 2
x = +6
ie., oxidation number of ‘S’ in H2 SO4 is +6.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 14.
Find the oxidation number of the ions in ionic compound?
The charge of ions in ionic compound is the oxidation number. Eg. In FeCl2 the oxidation number of Fe is +2 and FeCl3 is +3.

Let Us Assess

Some chemical equations are given below.
C + O2 → CO2
CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O
N2 + O2 → NO
CaCO2 → CaO + CO2
H2 + l2 → Hl
Fe + HCl → FeCl2 + H2
CO2 + C → CO
a) Which of these are balanced equations?
b) Balance the unbalanced equations.
c) Which among these are redox reactions?
Answer:
a) C + O2 → CO2
CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 +2 H2O
CaCO3 → CaO +CO2
b) N2 + O2 → 2NO
H2 + l2 → 2Hl
Fe + 2HCl → FeCl2 + H2
CO2 + C2CO
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 15

Question 2.
The chemical reaction between marble and dilute HCl is given.
CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O +CO2
a) Which gas is formed here? How can you identify this gas?
b) Suggest any two ways you would choose to increase the rate of this chemical reaction. Explain the reason.
Answer:
a) Carbon dioxide (CO2). Show a burning splinter in the gas. It will get extinguished.
or
Show a glass rod dipped in clear lime water into the gas. The lime water will turn milky
b) 1) Use powdered marble
2) Use concentrated HCl
3) Heat the mixture.

Question 3.
Sulfur pieces do not react with cold concentrated nitric acid. But sulfur powder reacts.
a) Explain the reason why the rate of chemical reaction is increased here?
b) Suppose you want to increase the rate of reaction again. Which way you would choose? Give reason.
Answer:
a) When surface area increases rate of effective collision increases. So the rate of reaction increases.
b) Heat the mixture.
When temperature increases more molecules will get threshold energy. So rate of effective collision and rate of reaction increases.

Question 4.
Small amounts of phosphoric acid is usually added to hydrogen peroxide to prevent its decomposition?
a) What is the function of phosphoric acid here?
b) By which name are these type of substances known?
c) Which substance would you add to increase the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide?
Answer:
a) Slow down the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide
b) Negative catalyst
c) Manganese dioxide

Extended Activities

Question 1.
Find the oxidation number of the elements which are underlined in the compounds given below. Among these find out the elements which show variable oxidation numbers.
MnO2, Mn2O7, K2Cr2O7, KCrO3, MnCl2, MgO, MgCl2, Al2O3,AlCl3
(Hint. Oxidation number 0 = -2, Cl = -1, K = +1)
Answer:
MnO2 Let x be the oxidation number of Mn
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 16
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 3 Redox Reactions and Rate of Chemical Reactions 17

Question 2.
Some apparatus and chemicals are given.
Zn, Mg, dilute HCl, CaCO3, test tube, water.
a) Design an experiment to prove that the nature of reactants can influence the rate of reaction.
b) Write the equations for the chemical reactions.
c) Write the expression for the rate of the reaction.
a) Take equal volume of dil HCl in two test tubes. Add a piece of Mg m to one of them. Add a piece of Zn of equal mass to the other.
Observation:- Mg reacts faster with dil. HCl than Zn. This is due to the difference in the chemical nature of Mg and Zn.
b) Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 +H2
Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2
c) Rate of a chemical reaction \(=\frac{\text { amount of reactants used up }}{\text { time }}\)
= \(\frac{\text { amount of product formed }}{\text { time }}\)

HSSLive.Guru

Question 3.
The experiments conducted by two students are given below.
Experiment 1: 2 mL of sodium thiosulphate solution is taken in a test tube, heated and to it 2 mL of HG solution is added.
Experiment 2:2 mL of sodium thiosulphate solution is taken in a test tube and to it 2 mL of HC1 solution is added.
a) In which experiment is the precipitate formed quickly? Justify your answer.
b) Write the balanced equation for the reaction.
Answer:
a) ln heated test tube.
When temperature increases more molecules get threshold energy. So rate of effective collision increases and rate of reaction increases.
b) Na2 S2O3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + SO2 + S

Question 4.
Some materials available in the laboratory are given below. Magnesium ribbon, marble powder, marble pieces, dilute HCl, concentrated HCl.
a) Which materials will you choose for the preparation of more CO2 in less time?
b) Write the balanced chemical equation of the reaction.
Answer:
a) Marble powder and concentrated HCl CaCO3 + 2 HCl → CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 India, the Land of Synthesis

You can Download India, the Land of Synthesis Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 India, the Land of Synthesis

India, the Land of Synthesis Textual Questions and Answers

India the Land of Synthesis Questions 1.
The sufis helped to maintain relations among different religious during ………. and ………. periods.
Answer:
Sultanate and Mughal

Bhakti Movement in Kerala Question 2.
Complete the table.

Sufi saints Place
1. Baba Farid Ayodhan
2.
3.
4.
5.

Answer:

Sufi saints Place
1. Baba farid Ayodhan
2. Sayyid Muhammed Jesudaras Gulbarga
3. Shah alam Bukhari Gujarat
4. Bahaudheen Sakaria Multan
5. Shaikh Shihabudeen Suhrawardi Sathette

Class 9 Social Science India, the Land of Synthesis Kerala SCERT Solutions Question 3.
Mention the features of early Bhakti traditions.
Answer:

  • Its propagators were the saints who were Bhakti poets.
  • Challenged the conservative Brahmanictraditions.
  • Provided representation to the lower castes and women.
  • Rendered contributions in the field of culture and music.

Question 4.
Where did Bhakti movement emerged at first?
Answer:
Tamil Nadu

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Kerala Chronicle Question 5.
Discuss the role played by Alwars and Nayanars in propagating the Bhakti movement in South India.
Answer:
The Bhakti movement emerged at first in Tamil Nadu. This movement was led by the Alwars and the Nayanars. The always were Vaishnavites and the Nayanars, Saivites. They composed and propagated devotional songs. Both the Alwars and the Nayanars opposed caste inequalities. Among them there were women saints also. The woman saint Andal was one of the famous Vaishnavite saints. Another woman saint Karakkal Ammayarwasa Saivite.

Question 6.
Prepare a flow chart showing ideas of Virasaiva movement.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 India, the Land of Synthesis 1

Synthesis Pride Question 7.
Name the leader who made tremendous contribution to Vachana Sahityam
Answer:

  • Basavanna
  • Allamaprabhu
  • Akka Mahadevi

Popular Literature Syllabus Question 8.
Examine the role of the idea of Kabir in promoting religious harmony among different sections of people.
Answer:
A part of the Doha (meaningful couplets) of Kabir, who was an important figure in the Bhakti Movement is given above. He reminds that the Hindu and the Muslim are two wares made out of the same soil and he tried to promote brotherhood between Hinduism and Islam. The aim of Kabir was to propagate a religion of love uniting people of all castes and religions.

He strongly opposed all discriminations on the basis of caste, religion, class, family and wealth. He focused on the unity of humanity and vehemently opposed caste system and untouchability. He rejected idol worship, pilgrimages and bathes in holy rivers. He was not in favor of forsaking family life for accepting sainthood. The ideas of Kabir developed through discussions and deliberations on the basis of the Bhakti – Sufi traditions.

Keraliya Kalakal in Malayalam Language Question 9.
Name the women who were active in Bhakti movement.
Answer:

  • Mirabai
  • Lalded
  • Bhahinabai
  • Akka Mahadevi

9th Standard Social Science Book in Kannada Question 10.
Prepare a note on the ideas of Guru Nanak.
Answer:
Guru Nanak was another preceptor who focused on the idea of monotheism. He tried to combine the ideas of Hinduism and Islam. He was a spokesman of the ideals of religious tolerance and universal brotherhood. He opposed the rituals of both Hinduism and Islam. He said that one has to maintain purity in character and behavior to reach God. He vehemently opposed idol worship and pilgrimages.

He promoted a middle path which permitted spiritual life along with the responsibilities of a householder. The prayer songs known as ‘Shabad’ were the contribution of Nanak. He strongly opined that all human beings are equal and hence there is no need of caste distinction among them. He instructed his followers to have food from the common kitchen (lunger). He also instructed that the people from all castes could take food from the lunger. The ideas of Nanak later led to the emergence of Sikhism.

Question 11.
What are the changes brought about by the Bhakti movement in the social system of India?
Answer:
Even though the Bhakti Movement evolved with the aim of dedication to God, it created certain qualitative changes in the Indian social system. The propagators of the Bhakti cult, through their words and songs, maintained that everyone was equal in front of God.

This strengthened the concept of social equality against caste discriminations. The idea of gender equality also began to take shape. The idea of social equality got wide popularity since the Movement was led by low caste people like Thiruppana Alwar, Kabir, and Lalded. Regional languages developed. Evil practices were questioned.

Question 12.
Complete the table.

Languages Works/Branches of literature Authors
Bengali
Marathi
Oriya
Telugu
Tamil
Kannada
Malayalam

Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 India, the Land of Synthesis 2
Question 13.
Conduct a seminar on the topic the cultural life of medieval India/Areas to be considered:
1. Regional languages
2. Music
3. Painting and architecture.
Answer:
Growth of Regional Languages:
The propagators of the Bhakti – Sufi movements spread their ideas through their vernacular languages. This was to enable the common people to understand them. This resulted in the growth of the regional languages. The two forms of Hindi – Braj (Vrije language) and Awadhi were used as spoken languages. Many languages such as Punjabi, Kannada, Telugu, Oriya, Assamese, Marathi, Bengali, Sindhi and Malayalam evolved during this period. In almost all parts of the country, Persian was the court language of the medieval period. Hence many Persian words can be found in many regional languages.

Out of the relationship between Persian and Hindi, a new language, Urdu, came into being. Urdu is the most important example of the cultural synthesis of India during the medieval period. Urdu, which was spoken in the Deccan, was. strongly influenced by the languages such as Telugu and Marathi. Gradually Urdu became the most popular spoken language of the towns. In the Western Coast, merchants used Arabic. Soon it began to influence the regional languages of that area. Because of the influence of the Arabic language, a new mixed dialect, Arabi – Malayalam, evolved in Kerala.

People also used Sanskrit during the Middle Ages. Sanskrit was used in the court of Vijayanagara on festive occasions. Sanskrit prevailed as the language of higher education. The popular literature of Sanskrit such as the Puranas, Ramayana and the Mahabharata were available in the regional languages. The Persian literature influenced some poets and writers of the period. The most notable Persian writer of the period was Amir Khusrau. His love towards India and the pride of being an Indian is clearly revealed through the content of his works.

During this period a large number of Indian works were translated into Persian language,. Ramayana, Mahabharata, Atharvaveda, Upanishads, etc. belong to this category. The historic chronicle of Kalhana, Rajatarangini, was translated into Persian during the reign of the Kashmir king, Zain-ul-abin.

Hindi received tremendous impetus during the medieval period. Ramananda and Kabir delivered their moral advice in Hindi. The dohas of Kabirwere the finest example of Hindi literature. The Sursagar of Surdas, Ramacharitamanes of Tulsidas, the Bhajans of Mirabai and Padmavati of Malik Muhammed Jayasi enriched Hindi language.

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Music:

It was during the medieval period that music was enriched with different forms. Considerable progress was attained by the Carnatic music, the musical style of South India. The famous Carnatic musician of the period was Naik Gopal. A large number of musicians migrated from Deccan to North India during the medieval period. During the same period, a new music style evolved in North India, due to the influence of Persian music. It came to be known as the Hindustani music. Amir Khusrau, who lived in the Sultanate period was one of the famous Hindustani musicians of the Sultanate period.

Amir Khusrau received training in different aspects of Indian music from the Carnatic musician, Naik Gopal. The medieval rulers were patrons of this category of music. New forms of music emerged during this period. The techniques of Persia were experimented in Indian music. The singing styles such as Khayal and Thumri got popularity. Many musical instruments like sitar, sarangi, tabala, etc.also became popular. The special interests of some Sufis in singing also were responsible for this. It was through the Sufi saints that Khayal and Gazal became widespread in India.

The musical works of Sanskrit were translated into Persian during this period. The work on Music Ragadarpan was translated into Persian during the regime of Firoz Shah Thuglaq. Emperor Akbar was a great lover of music. Abul Fazl states that 36 musicians were patronized by Akbar. The most famous among them was Tanzen. The Durbar raga, which enriched the Hindustani music was his contribution. The work Sangeeta Ratnakaram authored by Sarngadevan of the 13th century was an important contribution of medieval India to music. The camatic music of South India was influenced by the Persian and Arabic music during the Vijayanagara rule.

Architecture and Painting:

Architecture and painting attained progress in India during the medieval period. Itwasduringthe medieval period that the new styles of architecture such as Dravida, Nagara, Indo- Persian, etc. developed. The blending of different sculptural styles was a specialty of the age.

The painting style that came into vogue during the Mughal period is known as miniature painting. This is the style of drawing pictures like the pictures in books. It was a combination of both Indian and Persian styles.

The Mughal Emperor Humayun contacted Persian artists, and Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdu Samad wer brought to his court. The Mughal style of painting was developed by them.

Painting competitions were organized in the royal institutes (Kharkhana) during the region of Akbar. people from different sections participated in them. The stories of Mahabharata were completely compiled into a series of paintings called Raznama by Daswant Who lived during the period of Akbar. Indian subjects and natural scenes gradually became the themes of painting. The painters of the period showed their proficiency in drawing the pictures of birds and animals. The quality of paintings increased considerably during the reign of Jahangir. Bishandas and Abul Hassan were the greatest painters of the period. Kalyandas was a painter during the period or Shajahan.

There were groups of painters during the medieval period. They were from many parts of India such as Gujarat, Kashmir, Deccan, etc. Their paintings were influenced by their respective regional styles. Their paintings were based on the themes of the puranas and stories of both India and Persia. The wall paintings of that time were also remarkable. The wall paintings on the Tanjore temple during the period of the Cholas were an, important feature of medieval painting. The Rajasthani style was another style developed during this period. It was a combination of the traditional and the Mughal styles of painting.

The cultural synthesis shaped in medieval India brought many changes in the history of India. The greatest models of this synthesis wer Din-i-llahi and Sikhism emerged from among the people. The new styles introduced in the fields of architecture, painting, literature, and music enriched the mixed culture of India. People from different regions of India, followers of different religions and institutions did make their contributions to this cultural synthesis.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 14.
Explain the features of Sufi movement in the medieval period.
Answer:
The Sufis were those who showed reluctance to luxurious life and gave predominance to spiritual life. They consider devotion as a means to reach close to the God.
They preached to respect all human beings. The Sufi saint was known as Pir or Shaikh and his follower Murid. The residences of the Sufis are known as Khanqahs. The devotional songs reciting in the Sufi centers are the Qawwalis.

Question 15.
Match the following table

A B
Ezhuthachan Kannada
Appar Marathi
Amoghavarshan Tamil
Varnana Pandit Malayalam

Answer:

A B
Ezhuthachan Malayalam
Appar Tamil
Amoghavarshan Kannada
Varnana Pandit Marathi

Question 16.
How did Urdu language emerge?
Answer:
Out of the relationship between Persian and Hindi, Urdu came into being.

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 Climate Change is not Hysteria – It’s a Fact

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Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 Climate Change is not Hysteria – It’s a Fact

Climate Change is not Hysteria – It’s a Fact Textual Questions and Answers

Let’s revisit and reflect

Climate Change is Not Hysteria It’s a Fact Question and Answer Question 1.
Why did the people march in the streets of New York?
Answer:
The people marched in the streets of New York to show their concern for climate change and demanding solutions for the climatic crisis.

HSSLive.Guru

Climate Change is Not Hysteria Its a Fact Notes Question 2.
What is the attitude of human beings towards climate change?
Answer:
Human beings don’t take climatic change as a serious issue. They think it is just an imaginary thing and it would go away somehow.

Question 3.
What are the ‘undeniable climate events’ that are happening now?
Answer:
The undeniable climate events are: extreme weather events, increased temperatures and melting ice sheets from West Antarctic and Greenland.

Climate Change is Not a Hysteria Lesson Plan Question 4.
What is the difficult task that we face?
Answer:
The difficult task we face is finding solutions for the climate change.

Question 5.
What happens when an ecosystem collapses?
Answer:
When an ecosystem collapses, the economy itself will die.

Question 6.
What is the scope of renewable energy in future?
Answer:
The scope of renewable energy is good. It is achievable and it is a good economic policy.

Climate Change is Not Hysteria It’s a Fact in Malayalam Question 7.
Solving the crisis is a question of our survival. Explain.
Answer:
Clean air and water and a liveable climate are essential for our survival. But we have the crisis of climate change threatening us. We have to solve this. crisis

Climate Change is Not Hysteria It’s a Fact Question 8.
Why is the present the ‘most urgent of times’?
Answer:
The present is the most urgent of times because there is a wanton destruction of our collective home. Unless we take action now, it will be too late.

Activity -1

Your school is celebrating National Science Day on the 28th of February. You are the convenor of the Science Club. Prepare a notice.

ST. GEORGE HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL
EDAPPALLY
SCIENCE CLUB

15 January 2019

NOTICE

The Science Club is celebrating the National Science Day on 28th February 2019. The Inaugural meeting will be at 10.00 a.m. The famous Environmentalist Fr. Joy Peenickaparambil has kindly agreed to be our Chief Guest. Our Municipal Counsellor Jose Pathadan and K.J. Joseph will offer felicitations. Our winners of the National Level Science Competitions will be honored in the meeting.

There will be an exhibition showing some of the highlights from the lives of C.V. Raman and Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam. There will also be extensive coverage of the Lunar Missions undertaken by India.
All of your cordially invited.
Sd /
Rahul Binoy Convenor

Activity – 2

a) Prepare a few posters to make people aware of the necessity for preserving nature and protecting the environment.
Answer:
Captions for the Posters:

  • Avoid Using Plastic Bags
  • Don’T Use Dangerous Pesticides Like Endosulfan
  • Don’T Litter The Place
  • Don’T Cut Down Trees
  • Plant Trees

b) It has been decided to invite a famous ecologist to inaugurate the Science Exhibition in your school. As the school leader, you are asked to invite him. Prepare an e-mail to invite the scientist.
Answer:
mehboobsaithu@hotmail.com
Sub: Invitation to inaugurate science exhibition
Dear Sir,
I am Riya of Class IX and I am the school leader of S.N. Higher Secondary School, Irinjalakuda. We are planning to hold a science exhibition to promote the study of science among students. The exhibition will have exhibits that show the growth of science in India. There will be pictures of the Indian Scientists and their short biographies. We will also trace the origin and growth of India’s space programmes.

As a leading personality in the scientific field, we request you to inaugurate the Exhibition. The time for the inaugural meeting is 10.00 a.m. on Wednesday, the 30th July 2019. The Venue is the school auditorium.

We hope you will kindly accept our invitation and grace the occasion with your presence.
Tanking you,
Yours sincerely,
Trishelle

HSSLive.Guru

Hysteria Meaning in Malayalam Question 1.
The scientist has accepted your invitation. At the inaugural function of the science exhibition, you have to make the welcome speech. Prepare the script.
Distinguished Chair and eminent guests,
Answer:
As the school leader, I have great pleasure in making this welcome address. First and foremost I welcome our Chief Guest Mr. Mehboob Saithu who is a well-known figure in our midst. Although his concentration is on Agriculture, he has special interests in the scientific field. We have read many of his articles about Science and Scientific Growth and how science has revolutionized agriculture. I can say he continues with the Green Revolution making our country selfsufficient in food. He also takes a keen interest in the space missions of India.

I also welcome our eminent speakers on this occasion. Mrs. Sonia Varghese is well known to you as the Chairperson of the Municipality. Mr. Ahmed Sultan is also well-known to you as the prominent businessman of our town. I heartily welcome both of them.

Now I welcome the headmaster and the teachers to this inaugural meeting. In fact welcoming them would be almost redundant as they are the real hosts of this event, But for the sake of formality, I welcome them. I also welcome all of you for coming and making this event successful.

Thank you all.

Language Activities

a) Look at the sentences given below.
We must discuss this calmly.
The commotion dies slowly.
I strongly oppose this plan.
Identify the structure of the sentences and write them below
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 Climate Change is not Hysteria - It’s a Fact 1
Answer:

Noun Phrase Verb phrase VP Constituents
We must discuss. this calmly Aux+Verb+ NP+Adverb
The commotion dies slowly VP + Adverb
I strongly oppose this plan. Adv+V+NP(object)

b) Complete the table given below using adverbs from the play, ‘Listen to the Mountain.’ How do they enrich the play?
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 Climate Change is not Hysteria - It’s a Fact 2
Answer:

curiously proudly contemptuously
doubtfully haughtily certainly

c) Study the following sentences from the play, ‘Listen to the Mountain.’
1. Rudrappa and Kannan are talking excitedly.
2. Dixit and Sagar look around in panic.
3. They are starting work tomorrow
What do you understand about the adverbs which are underlined?
Do they answer ‘how/when/where?’
Answer:
The adverb excitedly, around and tomorrow shows how, where and when things happened.
Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. They tell us how, when and where things happen.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 Climate Change is not Hysteria - It’s a Fact 3

d) Write some sentences with adverbs :
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 Climate Change is not Hysteria - It’s a Fact 4
Answer:

How When Where?
She drives fast. They came yesterday Place it there
He walks slowly The meeting will start soon Keep it here.
Kareena dances well. My father is coming tomorrow. He went everywhere with his dog.

Activity 2

Read the following sentences.
1. We are building a hotel here. A five star hotel.
2. We are bringing the labourers, of course. A few hundred.
3. They are playing football.
4. He is reading a novel.
Identify the verb phrases and fill in the blanks appropriately.

VP Function
1. are building 1.
2. 2. planned future action
3. 3. continuous action
4. 4.

Answer:

VP Function
1. are building 1. planned future action,
2. are bringing 2. planned future action
3. are playing 3. continuous action
4. is reading 4. action going on now

a) Identify the planned future actions from the sentences
1. The Prime Minister is arriving tomorrow to visit the flood-affected areas.
2. Geetha is going to the market.
3. We are going on a tour next week.
4. Rahul and Kabeer are playing chess
Answer:
1. is arriving tomorrow.
2. are going on a tour next week.

HSSLive.Guru

b) Rewrite the sentences using am/is/ are+ verb +ing.
1. Trucks and lorries will arrive with cement, bricks, and marble tomorrow.
2. The villagers will stage a peaceful protest the next day
3. We will submit a petition to the Collector tomorrow
Answer:
1. Trucks and lorries are arriving with cement, bricks, and marble tomorrow.
2. The villagers are staging a peaceful protest the next day.
3. We are submitting a petition to the Collector tomorrow.

Activity – 3

Which of the following statements are true? Tick the correct ones. Justify your answer.
1. The time of the action is mentioned in both the sentences.
2. The tense form used in each sentence is different.
3. The actions in both the sentences are complete.
Answer:
1. False.
2. True.
3. True

a) Look at the following words and expressions. Some of them go only with sentences in the simple past tense. And others with the present perfect. Arrange them under the given titles.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 Climate Change is not Hysteria - It’s a Fact 5
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 Climate Change is not Hysteria - It’s a Fact 6
Answer:

With sentences in present perfect With sentences in simple past
ever yesterday
many times one year ago
before previous year
never last week
already at that moment
yet that day
so far one day

Note : Some of the words like before, never, once, so far, etc. can be used with present perfect as well as the simple past.

Activity – 4

The grandmother in the play ‘Listen to the Mountain’ gives certain instructions to the headmaster.
You must talk to the children.
Find out what they feel about it.
Don’t put ideas into their heads.
Just tell them everything.
These instructions can be converted into requests of different types.
e.g. You must talk to the children.
Please talk to the children.
Could you please talk to the children?
Would you mind talking to the children?

a) Convert the other instructions into requests in different ways.
Answer:
Please find out what they feel about it.
Could you please find out what they feel about it?
Would you mind finding out what they feel about it?

You should not put ideas into their heads.
You should desist from putting ideas into their heads.
Be careful not to put ideas into their heads.

Please tell them everything.
Could you please tell them everything?
Would you mind telling them everything?

b) Imagine that the grandmother advises /warns the headmaster.
How would the sentences be then?
You had better talk to the children.
You had better find out what they feel about it
had better + verb (for advice/recommendation/suggestion/warning)

c) There are many people who are not concerned about the environment. How would you advise them?

Rainfall is less nowadays.
You had better plant more trees.
Water scarcity is a serious problem, …………………… not wastewater.
We get vegetables with toxic residue from the market ………
Answer:
Rainfall is less nowadays. → You had better plant more trees.
Water scarcity is a serious problem. → You had better not wastewater.
We get vegetables with toxic residue from the market. → You had better grow your own vegetables.
You are getting fat. → You had better reduce your weight.
You are getting low marks. → You had better spend more time with your books.

Activity – 5

a) Read the paragraph given below and guess the meaning of the words underlined.

Sagar called on Narayan and spoke to him of his decision to put up a new hotel in Dharmagiri. But Narayan could foresee its dangers and he put it across to his mother. His ninety-year-old mother couldn’t put up with this news. So she told Narayan to do something to put an end to Sagar’s programme. Hearing this, Narayan explained the dangers to Sagar and he turned down Sagar’s proposal. Yet, Sagar was not ready to cancel his project. Therefore, Narayan called a meeting of the villagers and they together put their mind to start a protest.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 Climate Change is not Hysteria - It’s a Fact 7
Answer:

A. Word/phrase B. Meaning
called on visited
put up build
put it cross communicated
put up with tolerate
put an end stop
turned down ejected

b) Look at this expression.
go away – neglect
Find out similar expressions and their meanings from the lessons ‘Listen to the Mountain’ and ‘Climate Change is not Hysteria’.
Answer:
From Listen to the Mountain:
knocked down — demolished
pour into — come in large numbers
get things moving — make things happen
put up — build
bring in — get
come up — start, grow
care for — think about, worry about
get on — continue, proceed

Climate Change is not hysteria – it’s a fact:
looked at — considered
go away — vanish, disappear
depend on — rely on

c) Read the headlines given below. Identify the phrasal verbs and guess their meanings. You may refer to a dictionary.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 Climate Change is not Hysteria - It’s a Fact 8
Answer:

Headlines Phrasal Verbs Meaning
Jazz legend passes away in sleep passes away dies
Youngsters urged to give up smoking give up stop
Bomb goes off in town goes off blasts
Government ready to take on new projects take on start
Prime Minister calls on President to discuss security issues calls on visit

d) The following is a questionnaire enquiring into the study habit of one among your friends. Discuss the meaning of the phrasal verbs used in the questions and write down the answers. Add a few questions of your own, using phrasal verbs.
1. At what time do you usually get up?
2. How much time do you take to review your previous day’s lessons?
3. Which subjects are hard to keep up with?
4. Do you jot down notes in the class?
5. Do you look up unfamiliar words in a dictionary?
6. Do you finish off your work in time?
7. Do you cheer up your friends when they are down?
8. How do you while away your leisure time?
9. Do you stay up late, the night before the exam?
Answer:
1. get up — wake up
2. take to — use.
3. keep up with — understand, study, follow
4. jot down — write quickly
5. lookup — search, find out
6. finish off — complete
7. cheer up — encourage
8. while away — pass, spend
9. stay up — keep awake

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e) Collect a few phrasal verbs and use them in sentences of your own. Topics: family, everyday life, sports, study, etc.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 Climate Change is not Hysteria - It’s a Fact 9
Answer:

Phrasal verbs Sentences
Put up with Narayan cannot put up with the behavior of
Sagar
put up We are putting up another building close to our home.
get up I get up at 6 in the morning.
get into I got into some trouble the other day with my boss.
take away Problems take away the pleasure of life.
put on I  try to put on a different dress each day.
close down Our shop was closed down last week.
prefer to I prefer coffee to tea
bring up The matter was brought up for discussion.
insist on My father insists on hard work.

Activity 6

Let’s edit

Here is an excerpt from a speech by Yugratna Srivastava, a 13-year-old Indian girl, which was delivered at the U N Summit on Climate Change on 22 September 2009. Some errors have been made by a pupil while copying it. These are underlined. Correct the errors.

The Himalayas are melting, the polar bears are dying. Two of every five people (a) doesn’t have access to clean drinking water. The earth’s temperature (b) are increasing. We (c) have losing the untapped information and potential of plant species. The Pacific’s water level (d) risen. Is this what we (e) are go-to hand over to our future generations? We (f) receive a clean and healthy planet from our ancestors and we are (g) gift a damaged one to our successors. Is there any justice in this? Honorable Excellencies, we need to call for action now. We (h) have protect the earth not just for us but for our future generations.
Answer:
a. don’t have
b. is increasing
c. have lost
d. has risen
e. are going
f. received
g. gifting
h. have to protect

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 2 Chapter 3 Tolstoy Farm

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Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 2 Chapter 3 Tolstoy Farm

Tolstoy Farm Textual Questions and Answers

Tolstoy Farm 9th Class Question 1.
Who were the inmates of the Tolstoy farm?
Answer:
The inmates of the Tolstoy Farm were people of different religions. They were Hindus, Muslims, Parsis, and Christians.

Tolstoy Farm Question 2.
Why couldn’t Gandhiji appoint special teachers for Indian students?
Answer:
He could not appoint special teachers because he could not afford to pay them decent salaries. Moreover, he did not like the existing system of education. He wanted to experiment something new.

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Active Maths 2 Solutions Chapter 3 Question 3.
What did Gandhiji regard as the proper foundation for the education of the children?
Answer:
He regarded character building as the proper foundation for the education of the children.

Labour India Class 2 Kerala Syllabus Question 4.
Who assisted Gandhiji in literary training?
Answer:
Mr. Kallenbach and Sjt. Pragji Desai.

Question 5.
What training was given to children of all ages in the farm?
Answer:
The children of all ages in the farm were given moral training.

HSSlive Training 9th Class Question 6.
What were the different types of works in the Tolstoy Farm?
Answer:
The different kinds of work in the Tolstoy Farm were cooking, digging pits, felling timber, lifting loads and gardening.

Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm Summary Question 7.
Why was illness scarce on the farm?
Answer:
Illness was scarce in the Farm because the inmates got good exercise by doing the various jobs there. The jobs included cooking digging pits, felling timber, lifting loads and gardening.

Question 8.
How did Gandhiji introduce vocational training in Tolstoy Farm?
Answer:
He introduced vocational training in the Tolstoy Farm by teaching the inmates how to make shoes and also carpentry

Question 10.
What made learning a cheerful experience for children in the farm?
Answer:
Active participation in the work by the teachers made learning a cheerful experience for the children in the Farm.

Let’s revisit and reflect

Question 1.
In ‘Tolstoy Farm’, there is reference to various skills. Identify them and fill in the bubbles.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 2 Chapter 3 Tolstoy Farm 1
Answer:
cooking, shoemaking, carpentry, gardening

Question 2.
You must be familiar with Gandhiji’s concept of education:
‘By Education, I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in the child and man, body, mind and spirit.’
How far is it true with the learning experiences in the Tolstoy Farm? Write your answer in a short paragraph
Answer:
Gandhiji said, “By education, I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in the child and man, body, mind, and spirit.” This is quite true with the learning experiences in the Tolstoy Farm. The priority in the Farm was culture of the heart and the building of character. Moral training was common there. Kallenbach and Sjt. Pragji Desai gave the students literary training. Training of the body was also essential.

There were no servants in the Farm and all the work was to be done by the inmates. Kallenbach was fond of gardening and he had some experience in it. Those who were not busy in the kitchen had to help in the garden. Children happily did the job of digging pits, cutting trees and lifting loads. Some were not happy and tried to avoid work. They were also given training in shoe-making and carpentry. Thus the body, mind and spirit of the inmates were taken care of.

Activity -1

‘…there were no servants on the farm and all the work, from cooking down to scavenging, was done by the inmates’, says Gandhiji.

Poor Adjective Question 1.
What is your opinion about this practice?
Answer:
I think this practice is very good because it will bring dignity of labour. It will show that any work can be done by anybody and there is nothing called ‘high’ or ‘low’ work. It also will make the people healthy as they get plenty of physical exercises.

Haritha Keralam, Organic Farming, Biodiversity Park and Swatch Bharath Drive are some of the programmes in schools. They require the active participation of all students. They also include work that some people may hesitate to do.

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Question 2.
Do these programmes promote dignity of labor among children?
Answer:
Yes, they do.

Question 3.
What are your views? Conduct a group discussion and prepare a write-up based on the main points.
Answer:
Haritha Keralam is an Umbrella Mission which includes Waste Management, Organic Farming, and Water Resources Management. It has an ambitious outlook to address the issues of piling waste, impending drought and health hazards due to the consumption of pesticide-treated vegetables and in general, the agricultural dependency of the State. The Haritha Keralam Missiorraimsto integrate the 3 most important and inter-related sectors:

Household-level segregation and safe disposal of organic waste through feasible options like composting, biogas, arrangements for institutional waste disposal, re-use, recycling and safe disposal of non-degradable and electronic waste are given priorities. Rejuvenation of tanks, ponds, streams, and rivers are the focus in the water resource sector.

The thrust in promoting organic agriculture will be to produce safe to eat vegetables and fruits to make the state self-sufficient within the next 5 years.

Biodiversity is a contraction of biological diversity. Biodiversity reflects the number, variety, and variability of living organisms. It includes diversity within species (genetic diversity), between species (species diversity), and between ecosystems (ecosystem diversity).

Swatch Bharat Drive is a nation-wide campaign in India. It aims to clean up the streets, roads, and infrastructure of India’s cities, towns, and rural areas. The objectives of Swatch Bharat include eliminating open,n defecation through the construction of household-owned and community-owned toilets and establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring toilet use.

Run by the Government of India, the mission aims to achieve an “open-defecation free” India by 2 October 2019, the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi, by constructing 90 million toilets in rural India. The mission has two thrusts: Swatch Bharat Abhiyan (‘rural’), which operates under the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation; and Swatch Bharat Abhiyan (‘urban’), which operates under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

Activity 2

Gandhiji says, ‘It was my intention to teach every one of the youngsters some useful manual vocation.’
List out the vocational skills mentioned in the text and complete the following:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 2 Chapter 3 Tolstoy Farm 2
Answer:

Vocational skills acquired from
Tolstoy Farm
The jobs related to the vocational
skills
Carpentry Carpenter, Furniture Designer,
Interior Decorator
Shoemaking Cutting leather, stitching, making shoes and repairing them
Gardening Preparing the land, Planting, nurturing seedlings, watering, giving manure, protecting the plants from harmful insects and others.
Cooking Cooking different kinds of food, cleaning, knowledge of diet

Everyone can benefit out of this type of vocational education as it provides an opportunity to learn a skill or trade. Discuss. Everyone can benefit out of this type of vocational education as it provides an opportunity to learn a skill or trade. It helps one to earn a living. It helps one to have self-employment. One does not have to go from one place to another looking for a job. In self-employment, you become your own master. You can also work when it is convenient to you as the working hours are not fixed. Learning trades bring in self-sufficiency.

A child learning such vocational skills will be able to do various electrical, carpentry and plumbing repairs himself. It not only bring you monetary profit but also satisfaction. Vocational education is essential for a country like India where there are lakhs of people who have no employment. By using their skills wisely people can have better lives and they can help in the overall prosperity of the country. Learning such skills promote the dignity of labor. In India we certainly divide workers as white-collar and blue-collar. People who do white-collar jobs are supposed to be better than those who do blue-collar jobs. This is a wrong idea. Any honest job has its own dignity.

Activity 3

Collect pictures, photographs, newspaper cuttings, cartoons, caricatures and other materials related to the main events in the life of Gandhiji. Using these, prepare an album about Gandhiji. You may give suitable captions and short descriptions, wherever required.

Language activity

a) Read the following sentences from ‘Maternity’.
1. The child was condemned to die of hunger.
2. The women gave vent to various cries of horror.
3. She pressed the baby to her heart.
4. Mikali’s heart trembled with joy.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 2 Chapter 3 Tolstoy Farm 3
Answer:

1. The child was condemned to die of hunger
2. The women gave vent to various cries of horror.
3. She pressed the baby to her heart.
4. Mikali’s heart trembled with joy.

b) Now, read the passage below and identify the subjects and predicates.

The little child was crying for milk. Mikali had no money in his pocket to buy milk. The poor boy approached the women around. All the women in the camp who saw the child gave vent to cries of horror. A kind Chinese woman finally gave it milk.

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 2 Chapter 3 Tolstoy Farm 4
Answer:

Sentence Subject (Noun phrase) Predicate (Verb phrase)
1. The little child was crying for milk The little child was crying for milk
2. Mikali had no money in his Mikali had no money in his
3. The poor boy approached the women around, The poor boy approached the women around,
4. All the women in the camp who saw the child gave vent to cries of horror. All the women in the camp who saw the child gave vent to cries of horror.
5. A kind Chinese woman finally gave it milk. A kind Chinese woman finally gave it milk.

In a typical sentence, a Noun Phrase (NP) is immediately followed by a Verb Phrase (VP). A noun phrase can be a noun, a pronoun or a group of words that does the function of a noun. A verb phrase consists of a helping verb or a main verb which may or may not be followed by other words.

Let’s split the subject and predicate parts of the first sentence.
The little child was crying for milk.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 2 Chapter 3 Tolstoy Farm 5
The headword of the noun phrase is a noun. The other words are used to give additional information about the headword. Thus the obligatory element in a noun phrase is the noun. Any other element is optional.

Determiner

Articles, possessives, and demonstratives which come before a noun are called determiners.

Articles: a, an, the
Possessives: my, our, your, his, her, their, its, Gandhiji’s, etc.
Demonstratives: this, that, these, those

Now, let’s have a look at the following sentence.
All the women in the camp who saw the child gave vent to cries of horror.
Identify the noun phrase and the verb phrase

Pre-determiners or pre-articles are those items which come before the determiner in an NP. Words and phrase like ‘half’, ‘half of’, ‘all’, ‘all of’ etc. are called pre-determiners.

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a) The structure of the noun phrase of a sentence can be:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 2 Chapter 3 Tolstoy Farm 6
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 2 Chapter 3 Tolstoy Farm 7
Answer:

A B
Women noun
The women article + noun
All the women pre-determiner + article + noun
All the women in the camp pre-determiner + article + noun + prepositional phrase
All the women in the camp who saw the child pre-determiner + article + noun + prepositional phrase+ relative clause

b) Analyze the subject part of the other sentences in the passage given above in the same way and identify the constituents. Work with your partner and write down the ideas you have discussed.
Answer:
The little child – article → adjective noun Mikali -noun
The poor boy – article → adjective → noun
All the women in the camp who saw the child – pre-determiner → article → noun → prepositional phrase → relative clause
A kind Chinese woman – article →> adjective → adjective → noun

c) What are your conclusions?
Answer:
1. A sentence has two parts.
2. The subject part is usually a noun phrase.
3. The noun phrase may consist of ……………..
4. The predicate is usually…..
Answer:

  1. A sentence has two parts.
  2. The subject part is usually a noun phrase.
  3. The noun phrase may consist of pre-determiner → determiner → adjective → noun → prepositional phrase → relative clause
  4. The predicate is usually a verb phrase.

d) Let’s see what a verb phrase consists of
Look at the picture and identify the verb phrase in the sentences given below.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 2 Chapter 3 Tolstoy Farm 8
Answer:

  1. left the pool.
  2. left the pool in the morning.
  3. was waiting for its prey.
  4. killed the duckling.
  5. took rest at the pond.
  6. died

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Now, read the sentences again and identify the verb phrases along with its constituents.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 2 Chapter 3 Tolstoy Farm 9

Now, read the sentences again and identify the verb phrases along with its constituents.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 2 Chapter 3 Tolstoy Farm 10
Answer:

A B
Verb phrase died
Verb phrase + noun phrase left the pool
Verb phrase + prep.phrase was waiting for its prey
Verb phrase + noun phrase + prep.phrase left the pool in the morning
Verb phrase + noun phrase killed the duckling
Verb phrase + noun phrase + prep. phrase took rest at the pond

Make sentences of your own with the following constituents in the verb phrase given below.
1. VP —
2. VP + NP —
3. VP + NP + PREP. PHRASE —
4. ………………..
5. ……………….
6. ……………….
Answer:

  1. VP — Joe came.
  2. VP + NP — Joe killed a rat.
  3. VP+NP+Pre Phrase — Joe killed a snake with a stick.
  4. VP — Rosy smiled.
  5. VP + NP — Rosy read a book.
  6. VP+NP+Pre Phrase — Rosy read a book in the morning.

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis

You can Download Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Part 2 Chapter 5 help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis

Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis Textual Questions and Answers

Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis Question 1.
How can make our external environment garbage-free?
Answer:
We can made our external environment garbage free by processing reusing or recycling waste material.

Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis Question 2.
Different by-products are formed as a result of many …. in the cells.
Answer:
Metabolic activities

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The Main Excretory Product in Human Beings is Question 3.
What are the main excretory products in human beings?
Answer:
Carbon dioxide, water, and nitrogenous compounds.

Homeostasis Bodybuilding Question 4.
………. carries excretory products to excretory compounds.
Answer:
Blood

Synthesis of Urea in Liver Takes Place by Question 5.
Complete the flow chart of the waste materials formed inside the cells reach excretory organs?
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis 1
Answer:
a) Tissue fluid
b) Blood

Excretory Organs

Biology Class 9 Chapter 5 Question 6.
Name the organs that help to remove waste materials from blood and maintain homeostasis?
Answer:
Liver, Lungs, skin, and kidney

HSSlive in Class 9 Question 7.
Complete the illustration.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis 2
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis 3

Liver – The Waste Processing Unit

Question 8.
What is the function of liver?
Answer:
Liver converts harmful substances entering the body and those produced inside the body into harmless substances. Synthesis of urea from ammonia is an example for this.

Question 9.
…………….. are formed by the breakdown of protein.
Answer:
Amino acids

Question 10.
What are the uses of amino acids?
Answer:
Amino acids are used for the synthesis of various substances like proteins, enzymes etc. which are used for bodybuilding.

Question 11.
What is the most harmful by-product formed by the metabolism of amino acid?
Answer:
Ammonia

Question 12.
Prepare a note on the synthesis of urea.
Answer:
Amino acids are formed by the breakdown of proteins. As a result of the metabolic activities of amino acids, several nitrogenous by-products are formed. The most harmful among these is ammonia. The ammonia formed in tissues diffuses into blood through tissue fluids and blood transports it to the liver. In liver with the help of certain enzymes, ammonia combines with carbon dioxide and water to form urea.

Question 13.
Write down the chemical equation of the synthesis of urea.
Ammonia + carbon dioxide + water → urea

Formation Of Sweat

Question 14.
How is sweat formed from blood?
Answer:
Blood passes through the capillaries excess water and minerals enter the sweat glands. This is eliminated as sweat through the body surface.

Question 15.
What are the components of sweat?
Answer:
Urea, salt, and water

Question 16.
Which is the largest organ in our body?
Answer:
Skin

Question 17.
What do you mean by sweat gland?
Answer:
Sweat gland is a long coiled tube that opens to the surface of the skin.

Question 18.
The lower portion of the sweat gland is rich in
Answer:
Capillaries

Question 19.
……… helps in regulating our body temperature.
Answer:
Sweating

Kidneys

Question 20.
What are the main functions of kidney?
Answer:
Kidneys are vital organs which help in maintaining homeostasis by filtering waste products like urea, salts, vitamins, other harmful substances, etc. from blood. When blood passes through the kidneys, the waste materials present in it are filtered.

Question 21.
Prepare a short note on the position and size of the kidney?
Answer:
Human beings possess a pair of kidneys, situated on both sides of the vertebral column adjoining the muscles in the abdominal cavity. They are bean-shaped and are about 11 cm long, 5 cm broad and 3 cm thick. Each kidney is covered by a strong but soft membrane.

Question 22.
Illustrate kidney and its parts.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis 4

Question 23.
Complete the illustration of kidneys and associated parts.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis 5
Answer:
a) bean-shaped and are located in the abdominal cavity on either side of the vertebral column.
b) Renal artery
c) Renal vein
d) Ureters

Internal Structure of Kidney

Question 24.
Internal structure of kidney
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis 6

Question 25.
Analyze illustration given below and prepare table including the parts and peculiarities of nephron.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis 7
Answer:

Parts Peculiarities
Bowman’s capsule The double-walled cup­shaped structure at one end of the nephron. The space between the two walls is called capsular space.
Afferent vessel The branch of renal artery which enters the Bow­mann’s capsule.
Glomerulus The region where afferent vessel enters the Bow­mann’s capsule and splits into minute capillaries.
Efferent vessel The blood vessel that comes out of Bowman’s capsule.
Peritubular capillaries Blood capillaries seen around the renal tubules as the continuation of the efferent vessel.
Renal tubule The long tubule which connects the Bowman’s capsule and the collecting duct.
Collecting duct The part where renal tubules enter. Absorption of water takes place.
Urine is collected and is carried to the pelvis.

Question 26.
……… are the structural and functional units of kidneys.
Answer:
Nephrons

Question 27.
Where is Bowmann’s Capsule of nephrons distributed?
Answer:
Cortex

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Question 28.
What is capsular space?
Answer:
It is the space between the double walls of the Bowman’s capsule.

Question 29.
Blood capillaries seen around the renal tubules as continuation of the efferent vessel are ………..
Answer:
Peritubular capillaries

Question 30.
………… helps the ultrafiltration.
Answer:
Glomerulus

Formation of urine

Question 31.
List out the process of formation of urine.
Answer:

  • Ultrafiltration
  • Reabsorption and secretion
  • Absorption of water

Question 32.
What are the characteristic that help in ultrafiltration?
Answer:
This process is supported by the high pressure developed in the glomerulus, due to the difference in the diameter of afferent vessel and efferent vessel

Question 33.
How is urine formed?
Answer:
When blood flows through the glomerulus, ultrafiltration takes place through its small pores. The glomerular filtrate formed as a result of this is collected in the capsular space. When glomerular filtrate flows through renal tubeless to the collecting duct, essential components are reabsorbed to the peritubular capillaries. The absorption of excess water from the glomerular filtrate takes place in the collecting duct. What is left behind is urine.

Question 34.
Prepare a table relating to the different components of the glomerular filtrate and urine.
Answer:

Components of glomerular filtrate Components of urine
Water Water-96%
Glucose Urea-2%
Amino acids Sodium chloride
Sodium, potassium Potassium chloride
calcium ions, vitamins Calcium salts
Urea, uric acid creatinine, etc Phosphate, Uric acid
Creatinine etc. – 2%

Question 35.
Urine is temporarily stored in the
Answer:
Urinary bladder

Question 36.
State whether true or false
Washing out of germs inside the urinary tract also
takes place during the process of micturition.
Answer:
True

Question 37.
How does avoiding timely urination affect our body and list out the healthy habits to be followed?
Answer:
Avoiding urination for a long time prevents the expulsion of bacteria that may be present in the urinary tract and urinary bladder. This causes infection in the inner membrane of the urinary bladder.
Females are more susceptible to urinary tract infections when compared to males.
1) Frequent urination
2) Drink plenty of water
3) Keep the personal hygiene

Question 38.
Prepare a flow chart on the role of kidneys in maintaining homeostasis
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis 8

Kidney Diseases

Disease Reason Symptoms
Nephritis inflammation of kidneys due to infection or intoxication. Turbid and dark-colored mine, back pain, fever, oedema on face and ankle
Kidney stone Deposition of crystals of calcium salts in kidney or urinary tract. Pain in the lower abdomen, blockage of mine, dizziness, vomiting
Uremia Different types of kidney diseases, nephritis. diabetes. Irigli’s blood pressure. Anemia, loss ol body weight, dizziness suffocation, dianitoea production of urine stops gradually.

Haemodialysis
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis 9

Question 39.
What do you mean by hemodialysis?
Answer:
Haemodialysis is the process proposed by modern medicine for the removal of wastes from the blood when both the kidneys become non-functional. In this process, blood is pumped into an artificial kidney called haemodialyser and is purified.

Question 40.
Who designed the first artificial kidney?
Answer:
William Johann Kolff in 1944.

Kidney Transplantation

When both kidneys of an individual get damaged completely a fully functioning kidney should be received from a donor to save life. Kidney of a healthy person who died in an accident or of a completely healthy person can be transplanted after considering the matching of blood groups and tissues.

Excretion In Other Organisms

Diversity in Excretion:

Question 41.
Prepare a table about the excretory organs and excretory products of different organisms?
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis 10
Answer:

Organism Excretory product Excretory organ
Amoeba Ammonia, excess water in the body No special excretory organ, contractile vacuoles function as excretory organs.
Earthworm Urea, ammonia, water Special structures called nephridia collect excretory products from body cavity and eliminate through pores in the body surface.
Insects Uric acid Malpighian tubules seen along with digestive tract. They separate excretory products and eliminates along with digestive wastes.
Fishes Ammonia Kidneys filter the wastes and eliminate directly to water
Frog Urea Nitrogenous wastes filtered by kidneys are excreted in the form of urine.
Reptiles and birds Uric acid Kidneys filter waste products and eliminate along with digestive wastes.

Question 42.
What are the methods of the excretion in plants?
Answer:
Stomata, hydathodes, formation of heartwood, abscision of leaves.

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Question 43.
Illustration related to the excretion in plants.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis 11

Let Us Assess

Question 1.
Glucose, amino acids, etc. found in the glomerular filtrate are absent in urine. Why?
Answer:
When glomerular filtrate flows through renal tubules to the collecting duct, essential components are reabsorbed to the peritubular capillaries. So glucose and amino acids are absent in urine.

Question 2.
The steps involved in the formation of urine are given below. Arrange them in the correct sequence.
1. Collects urine
2. Ultrafiltration takes place
3. Reabsorption of ions takes place towards this part from renal tubules.
4. Collects glomerular filtrate
5. Excess urea is secreted here from peritubular capillaries.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis 12
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis 13

Question 3.
Alcoholism is a bad habit which should be avoided. Analyze this statement relating it to the health of liver.
Answer:
The detoxification of alcohol in our body is done by liver cells. As a result liver cell become damaged.

Question 4.
Based on the similarities in major excretory materials, arrange the following organisms properly in the table given below
Frog, Amoeba, Human beings, Fish, Birds, Insects
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis 14
Answer:

Ammonia Urea Uric acid
Amoeba Frog Birds
Fish Human Insects

Question 5.
Observe the figure and answer the questions.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Excretion to Maintain Homeostasis 15
Answer:
a) A) Afferent vessel
B) Efferent vessel
b) When blood flows through the glomerulus, ultrafiltration takes place through its small pores. This process is supported by the high pressure developed.in the glomerulus, due to the difference in the diameters of afferent versel and efferent vessel.

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Hindi Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 अंदर के और बाहर के

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Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard Hindi Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 अंदर के और बाहर के (व्यंग्य लेख)

अंदर के और बाहर के Summary in Malayalam and Translation

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Hindi Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 अंदर के और बाहर के 1
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Hindi Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 अंदर के और बाहर के 2
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Hindi Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 अंदर के और बाहर के 3

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Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Hindi Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 अंदर के और बाहर के 4
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Hindi Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 3 अंदर के और बाहर के 5

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts

You can Download Wave Motion Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Part 2 Chapter 5 help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts

Acids, Bases, Salts Textual Questions and Answers

Learning Activities

classify these salts as acidic, basic, or neutral Question 1.
What are the methods used to identify acids and alkalies
Answer:
Using indicators like litmus, phenolphthalein and methyl orange.

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Question 2.
Find the characteristics of the substances given in the table below using litmus papers.

Substance Change in the color of litmus Characteristics
Vinegar
Lime water
Soap solution
Hydrochloric acid

Answer:

Substance Change in the color of litmus Characteristics
Vinegar Blue turns red .Acidic
Lime water Red litmus turns blue Alkaline
Soap solution Red litmus. turns blue Alkaline
Hydrochloric acid Blue litmus turns red Acidic

Question 3.
Take a small piece of zinc in a test tube as shown in the figure. Add 2ml of dilute hydrochloric acid using a dropper. Show a burning match stick at the mouth of the test tube. Record the observation.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 1
Answer:
Burn with a ‘pop’ sound

Question 4.
What would be the reason?
Answer:
Hydrogen gas liberated burns

Question 5.
Now complete the chemical equation of this reaction
Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + …………..
Answer:
Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2
Acids react with reactive metals to form hydrogen gas

Question 6.
Take some calcium carbonate (marble pieces) in a boiling tube as shown in figure. Add dilute hydro¬chloric acid to it through a thistle funnel. Pass the evolving gas through clear lime water taken in a test tube.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 2
Which is the gas that comes out through the delivery tube?
Answer:
Carbon dioxide

Ques 7.
What is your observation when this gas is passed through clear lime water?
Answer:
LimeWater turns milky
When acids react with carbonates, carbondioxide(CO2) gas is liberated.

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Question 8.
From the characteristics given below, find out those suitable for acids and put (✓) Mark.
1. Have alkaline taste.
2. Turn blue litmus red
3. React with carbonates to form carbon dioxide gas
4. Soapy to touch
5. Liberate hydrogen on reaction with highly reactive metals like Mg and Zn
6. Have sour taste
7. Turns red litmus blue
Answer:

  1. Have alkaline taste.
  2. Turn blue litmus red (✓)
  3. React with carbonates to form carbon dioxide gas (✓)
  4. Soapy to touch
  5. Liberate hydrogen on reaction with highly reactive metals like Mg and Zn (✓)
  6. Have sour taste (✓)
  7. Turns red litmus blue

Question 9.
The name of some familiar acids and their chemical formulae are given in the table below. Complete the table.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 3
Answer:

Name of acid Chemical formula
Hydrochloric acid HCI
Nitric acid HNO3
Carbonic acid H2CO3
Sulphuric acid H2SO4

Question 10.
Which component is responsible for the common properties of acids
Answer:
H

Question 11.
Chemical equations showing the formation of oppositely charged ions when hydrochloric acid (HCI) and nitric acid (HN03) dissolve in water are given.
HCI → H++Cl
HNO3 → H++ NO
a) Which are the ions present in HCl solution?
b) Which are the ions present in HNO3 solution
c) Which is the ion common to both?
Answer:
a) H+ and Cl
b) H+ and NO3
c) H+

Question 12.
What is acids?
Answer:
Acids are substances which can increase the concentration of hydrogen (H+) ions in an aqueous solution.

Question 13.
List the acids that are present in lime juice, curd, tamarind, vinegar.
Answer:
Lime juice — Citric acid
Curd — Lactic acid
Tamarind — Tartaric acid
Vinegar — Acetic acid

Question 14.
Write the chemical equation for the ionization of HCl.
Answer:
HCl → H++Cl

Ques 15.
How many hydrogen ions are released when one molecule of HCI is ionized?
Answer:
one H+

Question 16.
What is the basicity of an acid?
Answer:
The number of hydrogen ions that can be donated by one molecule of an acid is its basicity.
If the basicity is 1, it is called monobasic acid.

Question 17.
Write the ionization equation of nitric acid (HNO3) and find its basicity.
Answer:
HNO3 → H+ +NO3
Basicity -1

Question 18.
Write the chemical equation for the ionization of the sulphuric acid (H2S04)
Answer:
H2SO4 → H+ + HSO4 (bisulphate ion)
HSO4 → H+ + SO24 (sulphate ion)

Question 19.
How many hydrogen ions are released when one molecule of H2SO4 gets ionized? What is its basicity? ’
Answer:
Two H+ ions basicity = 2
It the basicity of an acid is 2,
it is said to be a dibasic acid.

Question 20.
Complete the ionization equation of phosphoric acid (H3PO4).
H3PO4 → ………… + PO34(Phosphate ion)
Answer:
H3PO4 → 3H+ + PO34 (Phosphate ion)

Question 21.
What is the basicity of H3PO4?
Answer:
3
If the basicity is 3,
the acid is called a tribasic acid.

Ques 22.
The chemical formulae of some acids are given in the box. Pick out monobasic and dibasic acids.
H2CO3, HNO3, H3PO4, H2SO3, HCI, H2SO4
Answer:
Monobasic: HNO3, HCI
Dibasic: H2CO3, H2SO3, H2SO4

Question 23.
How do you make soda water? Write the equation of this reaction.
Answer:
CO2 is dissolved in water to make soda water.
H2O + CO2 → H2CO3 (Carbonic acid)

Question 24.
Complete the equation of dissolution of SO2 in water.
………… + ………….. → H2SO3 (sulfurous acid)
Answer:
SO2 + H2O → H2SO3 (sulfurous acid)
CO2, SO2 and NO2 are non-metallic oxides. Generally, compounds formed by the reaction of non-metallic oxides with water are acidic.

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Question 25.
What is acid rain?
Answer:
In industrial areas and townships, the chances of air pollution are very high. In such regions, gases like SO2 and NO2 reach the atmosphere in larger amounts. These gases dissolve in rainwater and reach the soil as acids. This is known as ‘acid rain’.

Question 26.
What are the environmental problems caused by acid rain?
Answer:

  • Plants lose their ability to produce carbohydrates through photosynthesis as their leaves are de- strayed.
  • Severe acid rain destroys the greenery of a region.
  • The acidic nature of water causes the death and destruction of fish and corals.

Question 27.
What measures are to be taken against the environmental issues caused by acid rain?
Answer:

  • Reduce the excessive use of fossil fuels.
  • Before using fossil fuels, remove sulfur compounds from them as far as possible.

Question 28.
Burn a neatly rubbed and cleaned magnesium ribbon. Record the observation. What would be the white powder obtained?
Answer:
Magnesium burns brightly and a white powder is formed. The white powder formed is magnesium oxide (MgO)

Question 29.
Take the product in a watch glass and add two or three drops of water. Find its nature using litmus paper.
Answer:
Red litmus turns to blue. MgO is alkaline in nature.

Question 30.
Write the chemical equation of this reaction.
MgO + H2O → Mg(OH)2
magnesium hydroxide

Question 31.
Take some water in a beaker, add some quick lime (calcium oxide) and stir it. Take some clear solution in a test tube from the beaker and add a drop of red litmus solution.
a) What do you observe?
b) What is the substance formed when calcium oxide reacts with water? Complete the chemical equation of the reaction.
CaO + H2O → ……………
c) What do you infer about the nature of this substance from this litmus test?
Answer:
a) The solution turns to blue
b) CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2
c) Ca(OH)2 is alkaline in nature

Question 32.
Are MgO and CaO metallic oxides or non-metallic oxides?
Answer:
Metallic oxides
Metallic oxides generally exhibit characteristics of bases. The bases that dissolve in water are called alkalies.

Question 33.
From the oxides given below, find out the basic oxides. K2O, SO2, P2O5, MgO, CaO, NO2
Answer:
Basic oxides- K2O, MgO, CaO

Question 34.
Chemical names and formulae of some familiar alkalies are given in the table. Complete the table.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 4
Answer:

Chemical name of alkalies Chemical formula
Sodium hydroxide NaOH
Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2
Ammonium hydroxide NH4OH
Potassium hydroxide KOH

Question 35.
Can you find out the common factor in alkalies?
Answer:
OH

Bases and alkalies:
All bases are not alkalies. Water-soluble bases are called alkalies.
NaOH and KOH are alkalies. But even though Al(OH)3 and Cu(OH). are based, they are not considered as alkalies as they are not soluble in water. Metallic oxides are generally basic in nature. But a few of them have both acidic as well as basic character. Such oxides are called amphoteric oxides. Example Al,O3, ZnO
They can react with acids as well as bases.

Question 36.
Write the equation of the dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.
Answer:
NaOH → Na+ +OH (hydoxide ion)

Question 37.
Complete the given equation of the ionization of calcium hydroxide.
Ca(OH)2 → Ca+2 +……….
Answer:
Ca(OH)2→ Ca+2 + 2OH

Question 38.
Which is the common ion released when alkalies dissolve in water?
Answer:
OH-
Alkalies are substances which can increase the concentration of hydroxide (OH) ions in anaqueous solution.

Question 39.
Write common names of some alkalies, their chemical names and chemical formulae
Answer:

Question 40.
The equations representing the ionization of some acids and alkalies are given below. Fill in the blanks.
Answer:
HCl → H+ + Cl
KOH → K+ +OH
H2CO3 → 2H+ + CO32-
NH4OH → NH+4 + OH
HNO3 → H+ + NO3

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Question 41.
What is Arrhenius theory?
Answer:
According to Arrhenius theory, acids are substances which liberate H+ ions in aqueous solution and bases are substances which liberate OH- ions in aqueous solutions.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 5

Question 42.
What was the color of NaOH solution when phenolphthalein was added?
Answer:
Pink

Question 43.
Which nature of the NaOH solution is indicated here?
Answer:
Alkaline

Question 44.
What do you infer from the decrease in the intensity of colour of the NaOH solution on adding HCl?
Answer:
Concentration of NaOH is decreasing

Question 45.
When the color disappears completely will there be any NaOH left behind in the conical flask?
Answer:
No

Question 46.
Add a few drops of NaOH solution to the completely decolorized. What change can you observe? What will be the reason?
Answer:
Pink color reappears concentration of NaOH in-creases.

Question 47.
To this again add dilute HCl drop by drop and stir it. What do you observe?
Answer:
Pink color disappears

Question 48.
What are neutralization reactions?
Answer:
Acid and alkali react with each other to nullify their individual properties. Such chemical reactions are called neutralization reactions.

Question 49.
Write the chemical equation for the neutralization reaction between sodium hydroxide and dilute hydrochloric acid.
Answer:
NaOH + HCI → NaCI + H2O

Question 50.
You have already recorded the volume of HCI used for neutralization of 20 mL NaOH in the earlier experiment. Change the concentration of the acid and repeat the experiment. Is there any change in the volume of HCI?
Answer:
Yes

Question 51.
Can you find out more examples for neutralization reaction?
Answer:

  • Slaked lime is sprinkled in farms to reduce acidity
  • Antacids are used to remove acidity in the stom¬ach.

Question 52.
What happens when the acid level in the stomach is high?
Answer:
It increases the acidity of the stomach

Question 53.
What do we do in such situations?
Answer:
We take antacids.

Question 54.
What are antacids?
Answer:
The medicines used for reducing acidity in the stomach are known as antacids.

Question 55.
What types of substances are present in antacids?
Answer:
Alkaline

Question 56.
How do they work?
Answer:
They neutralize acid in the stomach.

Question 57.
Take equal quantities of dilute hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide solution and distilled water in three test tubes. Use red litmus paper and blue litmus paper to find out the nature of the solutions. Also, add two or three drops of phenolphthalein solution to the three test tubes. Record the observation and find out the nature of the substances.
Do you notice any color change in distilled water? What property of water is revealed here?
Answer:
No’, water is neutral

Question 58.
What happens to the amount of H+ ions when a little acid is added to water?
Answer:
Increase

Question 59.
What happens if alkali is added?
Answer:
Amount OH increases

Question 60.
What is pH value?
Answer:
Determination of pH value is the scientific method for finding the acidic/alkaline nature of substances. The Danish scientist Sorensen devised the pH scale for this. The pH scale was devised based on the H+ ion concentration in the solution.

Question 61.
Observe the pH scale and answer the questions given below. What is the pH value of the neutral solution?
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 6
Answer:
7

Question 62.
What is the nature of the solution having pH value more than 7?
Answer:
Basic

Question 63.
What is the nature of the solution having pH value less than 7?
Answer:
Acidic

Question 64.
What is pH scale?
Answer:
The pH scale is the method used to express the acidic /basic nature of a substance based on the amount of H ions present in their aqueous solutions.
On the basis of the pH scale, the pH value of a neutral solution is 7. The pH value of acids is less than

Question 65.
How the pH value can be find out using pH solution?
Answer:
Add a drop of pH solution to the solution whose pH is to be determined or dip the pH paper into it. The pH value of the solution can be determined by comparing with the pH color chart.

Question 66.
Find the pH value of the following substances using the pH paper and complete the table given below.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 7
Answer:

Name of Substance colour of pH paper pH value acid/ base
Vinegar Red less than 7 Acid
Lime water Blue more than 7 base
dil. Hydro­chloric acid Red less than 7 Acid
Water no colour change 7 neutral
Washing soda Solution Blue more than 7 base
Ammonia Solution Blue more than 7 base
Potassium nitrate solution no colour change 7 neutral
Sodium chloride solution no colour change 7 neutral

Question 67.
It is better to determine the pH of soil before farming? Why?
Answer:
The pH of soil is an important factor for crops. It is important to identify whether the soil of a region is suitable for a particular crop. Acidic soil is suitable for some crops while basic soil for a few others.

Question 68.
What are the products of the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution?
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 8

Question 69.
Name the products formed when the common component of an acid and the common component of an alkali combine together.
Answer:
H2O (water)

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Question 70.
Which is the positive ion present in sodium hydroxide? Which is the negative ion present in hydrochloric acid?
Answer:
Na+ Cl

Question 71.
Write the chemical formula of the compound formed by the combination of these two ions. Identify this substance.
Answer:
Na+ + Cl → NaCI

Question 72.
What is naturalization?
Answer:
Neutralization is the process in which acid and alkali react with each other to form salt and water. Acid + Alkali → Salt + water

Question 73.
Complete the equation for the reaction between dilute sulphuric acid (H2S04) and magnesium hydrox¬ide Mg(OH)2.
Mg(OH)2 + H2SO4 → + 2H2O
Answer:
Mg(OH)2 + H2SO4 MgSO4 + 2H2O

Question 74.
What are the products formed?
Answer:
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and water (H2O)

Question 75.
Identify the salts given in the table and find out the acids and alkalies required for the formation of salt
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 9
Answer:

Salt Chemical formula Acid Alkali
Magnesium chloride MgCl2 HCI Mg(OH)2
Calcium sulphate CaSO4 H2SO4 Ca(OH)2
Aluminium sulphate Al2(SO4)3 H2SO4 Al(OH)3
Sodium nitrate NaNO3 HNO3 NaOH
Potassuim ‘ phosphate K3PO4 H3PO4 KOH

Question 76.
Write the name and symbol of some positive ions and negative ions.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 10

Question 77.
Write the name and symbol of some positive ions and negative ions.
Answer:
Formula — Name
KOH — Potassium hydroxide
K2CO3 — Potassium carbonate
KHCO3 — Potassium bicarbonate
KNO3 — Potassium nitrate
K2SO4 — Potassium sulphate
KHSO4 — Potassium bisulphate
K3PO4 — Potassium phosphate
KH2PO4 — Potassium dihydrogen phosphate
Zn(OH)2 — Zinc hydroxide
ZnCO3 — Zinc carbonate
Zn(HCO3)2 — Zinc bicarbonate
Zn(NO3)2 — Zinc nitrate
ZnSO4 — Zinc sulfate
Zn(HSO4)2 — Zinc bisulfate
Zn3(PO4)2 — Zinc phosphate
Zn(H2PO4)2 — Zincdihydrogen phosphate
Fe(OH)2 — Ferrous hydroxide
FeCO3 — Ferrous carbonate
Fe(HCO3)2 — Ferrous bicarbonate
Fe(NO3)2 — Ferrous nitrate
FeSO4 — Ferrous sulfate
Fe(HSO4)3 — Ferrous bisulfate
Fe3(PO4)2 — Ferrous phosphate
Fe(H2PO4)2 — Ferrous dihydrogen phosphate
Fe(OH)3 — Ferric hydroxide
Fe2(CO3)3 — Ferric carbonate
Fe(HCO3)3 — Ferric bicarbonate
Fe(NO3)3 — Ferric nitrate
Fe2(SO4)3 — Ferric sulphate
Fe(HSO4)3 — Ferric bisulphate
FePO4 — Ferric phosphate
Fe(H2PO4)3 — Ferric dihydrogen phosphate
CuOH — Cuprous hydroxide
Cu2CO3 — Cuprous carbonate
CuHCO3 — Cuprous bicarbonate
CuNO3 — Cuprous nitrate
Cu2SO4 — Cuprous sulphate
CuHSO4 — Cuprous bisulphate
Cu3PO4 — Cuprous phosphate
CuH2PO4 — Cuprous dihydrogen phosphate
Cu(OH)2 — Cupric hydroxide
CuCO3 — Cupric carbonate
Cu(HCO3)2 — Cupric bicarbonate
Cu(NO3)2 — Cupric nitrate
CuSO4 — Cupric sulphate
Cu(HSO4)2 — Cupric bisulphate
Cu3(PO4)2 — Cupric phosphate
Cu(H3PO4)2 — Cupric dihydrogen phosphate
NHOH — Ammonium hydroxide
(NH4)2CO3 — Ammonium carbonate
NH4HCO3 — Ammonium bicarbonate
NH4NO3 — Ammonium nitrate
(NH4)2SO4 — Ammonium sulphate
NH4HSO4 — Ammonium bisulfate
(NH4)3PO4 — Ammonium phosphate
NH4H2PO4 — Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate
Mn(OH)2 — Manganous hydroxide
MnCO3 — Manganous carbonate
Mn(HCO3)2 — Manganous bicarbonate
Mn(NO3)2 — Manganous nitrate
MnSO4 — Manganous sulfate
Mn(HSO4)2 — Manganous bisulfate
Mn3(PO4)2 — Manganous phosphate
Mn(H2PO3)3 — Manganous dihydrogen phosphate

Question 78.
The name of few salts and their chemical formulae are given in the table. Complete the table adding names of more salts and write the positive ions and negative ions.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 11
Answer:

Nameof salt Chemical formula Positive ion Negative ion
Sodium Chloride NaCl Na+ Cl
Magnesium sulphate MgSO4 Mg2+ SO42
Calcium carbonate CaCO3 Ca2+ CO32
Sodium nitrate NaNO3 Na+ NO5
Aluminium sulphate Al2(SO4)3 Al3+ SO42

Question 79.
What is the number of positive ions and negative ions in a ‘molecule’ of NaCI?
Anaswer:
Positive ions 1, Negative ions 1

Question 80.
What would be the sum of the charges of the posi¬tive ions and negative ions in a ‘molecule’ of NaCI?
Answer:
1+ + 1 = 0 (zero)

Question 81.
Why slats are neutral in nature?
Answer:
Salts are electrically neutral. The sum of the charge of the positive ions and negative ions in a salt will be zero.

Question 82.
What are the method of writing chemical formulae of salts?
Answer:

  • While writing the chemical formula, first write the symbol of the positive ion and then the symbol of the negative ion.
  • Write the numbers indicating the charge of each ion as subscripts after interchanging them.
  • Simplify the subscripts and write them in the smallest whole-number ratio.

Question 83.
Write the different stages in writing the chemical formulae of compounds formed by the combination of magnesium ion (Mg3+) with phosphate ion (PO43-) and carbonate ion (CO32-)
Answer:
Mg2+ PO43
Mg2+CO32
Mg3 (PO4)2
Mg2/2 (CO3)2/2
MgCO3

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Question 84.
Some positive ions and negative ions are given in the table. Write the name and chemical formulae of the maximum possible salts formed by them.
Positive ion — Negative ion
Ca2+ (calcium ion) — Cl (chloride ion)
NH4+ (Ammonium ion) — SO42– (sulphate ion)
PO43– (Phosphate ion)
Answer:
1) Calcium chloride CaCl2?
2) Calcium sulphate CaSO4
3) Calcium phosphate Ca3(PO4)2
4) Ammonium chloride NH4Cl
5) Ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4
6) Ammonium phosphate (NH4)3PO4

Question 85.
Give example for some salts that are used as fertilizers.
Answer:

  • Ammonium sulphate.(NH4)2SO4
  • Potassium chloride KCl
  • Sodium nitrate NaNO3

Question 86.
We use various salts in our daily life. A list of some of these salts and their chemical formulae are given in the table. Analyze the table and complete.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 12
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 13
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 14

Let Us Assess

Question 1.
Complete the chemical equations for the following ionization equation.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 15
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 16

Question 2.
Identify the symbol from the box and write against their names.
SO32– , NO3 , HCO3, OH, CO32-, HSO4
Carbonate —
Bisulphate —
Sulfite —
Nitrate —
Hydroxide —
Bicarbonate —
Answer:
Carbonate → CO32
Bisulphate → HSO3
Sulfite → SO32
Nitrate → NO3
Hydroxide → OH
Bicarbonate → HCO3

Question 3.
a) Name the salt formed by the reaction between
magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and dil. hydrochloric acid (HCl).
b) Write the equation for the reaction
c) Which is the acid required for the preparation of magnesium sulfate?
Answer:
a) Magnesium Chloride
b) Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl MgCl2 + 2H2O
c) H2SO4 (sulphuric acid)

Question 4.
List the cation and anions of the substance given in the table.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 17
Answer:

Compound Chemical formula Cation Anion
Potasium Chloride KCl K+ Cl
Magnesium Chloride MgCl2 Mg2+ Cl
Sodium Nitrate NaNO3 Na+ NO3
Ammonium Chloride NHCl4 NH4 Cl
Aluminium Sulphate Al2(SO4)3 Al3+ C042
Calcium Phosphate Ca(PO4)3 Ca2+ PO43

Question 5.
A little distilled water is taken in a beaker.
A. What is the pH value of the distilled water?
B. What happens to the pH value when the following substances are added to the water? Justify your answer.
i) Caustic soda
ii) Vinegar
Answer:
A. Seven
B. i) pH value increases, solution becomes basic
ii) pH value decreases, solution becomes acidic

Question 6.
Match the column A, B, and C by identifying the correct chemical formulae and the use of the salts
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 18
Answer:

Salt Chemical Use
Washing soda Na2CO3.10H2C Manufacture of Glass
Gypsum CaSO4.2H2O Manufacture of cement
Blue vitriol CuSO4.5H2O Fungicide
Baking soda NaHCO3 Fire extinguisher

Question 7.
The pH values of some substances are given in the table. Analyze the table and answer the questions

Substance pH value
Vinegar 4.2
Limewater 10.5
Milk 6.4
Water 7
Toothpaste 8,7
Blood 7.36

a. Is blood acidic or basic in nature?
b. The pH value of pure milk is 6.4. Does the pH value increase or decrease when milk changes . to curd. Justify your answer
c. Among the substances given in the above table
(i) Which one is strongly basic?
(ii) Which one has weak acidic nature
Answer:
a) Basic
b) pH value decrease. Curd is lactic acid
c) i) Limewater
ii) Blood

Extended Activities

Question 1.
Organic acids are present in a number of substances we use in our daily life.
(eg. Tomato, orange, apple, grapes, curd, etc.) Identify the organic acids in each of them and tabulate.
Answer:
Tomato — oxalic acid
Orange — Citric acid
Apple — Malic acid
Grapes — Tartaric acid
Curd — Lactic acid, Butiric acid

Question 2.
Haven’t you conducted an activity to find the pH value of the soil related to different crops? Identify the pH values of soil samples collected from different places.
Prepare a list of the crops that are suitable for the soil of each area on the basis of its pH value
Answer:

Name of crop Suitable pH
Paddy 5-8
Coconut 5-8
Rubber 5-6.5
Tea 4.0-6.5
Coffee 4.5-5.5
Potato 5.2-7.5
Cocoa 5.5-7.0
Tobacco 5.5-6.00
Brinjal 5.5-6.50
Cucumber 6.0-7.5
Bitter gourd 6.0-7.5
Watermelon 6.5-70
Tapioca 5.5-7.0

Question 3.
a) Complete the equations of the ionization of phosphoric acid.
H3PO4 → H+ + H2PO4 (Dihydrogenphosphate ion)
H3PO4 → H+ + …………. (Hydrogenphosphate ion)
…….. → H+ + PO43- (phosphate ion)
b) How many types of salts can be formed by phosphoric acid? Why?
c) Write the chemical name of the following salts.
Mg(H2PO4)2
MgHPO4
Mg3(PO4)2
Answer:
a) H2PO4 → H+ + HPO42- (Hydrogenphosphate ion)
HPO42- → H + PO43- (phosphate ion)
b) It is tribasic
c) Magnessium dihydrogen phosphate Magnessium hydrogenphosphate Magnessium phosphate

Question 4.
Solution of sodium carbonate, potassium chloride, and ammonium sulfate are taken in separate beakers. Dip a litmus paper (red, blue) in each beaker.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 19
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 20
Answer:

Salt Colour of the litmus paper

Nature of the substance

A Red litmus turns Basic
to blue
B No color change Neutral
C Blue litmus turns to red Acidic

i) Observe the color change of litmus paper and tabulate.
ii) Name the acid and alkali that react to form each salt given above?
iii) Can you explain the color change of the litmus paper on the basis of the nature of the acid and alkali that react to form the salt?
(hint: Potassium chloride is a salt formed by the reaction between a strong acid and a strong alkali)

i) Salts formed by the reaction between a strong acid and a strong base will be neutral in nature, eg: KCI
ii) Salts formed by the reaction between a strong base and weak acid will be slightly basic eg: Na2CO3
iii) Salts formed by the reaction between a weak base and strong acid will be slightly acidic eg:(NH4)2SO4

Acids, Bases, Salts More Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Non-metalic oxides like CO2, SO2, and NO2 shows acidic nature, justify it.
Answer:
Compounds formed by the reaction of the above nonmetal oxide dissolves in water shows acidic character.

Question 2.
Take quick lime (Calcium oxide) in a beaker containing water. Take a little of this in a test tube and show a red litmus paper.
Answer:
Red litmus paper turns to blue because calcium oxide dissolves in water to form calcium hydroxide. It is basic in nature.

Question 3.
Complete the equation of the reaction between calcium oxide and water.
Answer:
CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2

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Question 4.
What can be inferred about the nature of this substance from the litmus test?
Answer:
Alkaline nature

Question 5.
Classify the following oxides into acidic oxide and basic oxide
SO3, NO2, CaO, K2O P2O5, Na2O, CO2, MgO
Answer:

Acidic Oxide Basic Oxide
SO3 Cao
NO2 K2O
P2O5 Na2O
CO2 MgO

Question 6.
Try to write the chemical equation for the reaction of Fe with hydrochloric acid.
Answer:
Fe + 2 HCI → FeCl2 + H2

Question 7.
Analyze the chemical equation for the reactions taking place when hydrochloric acid dissolves in water.
Answer:
HCl → H+ + Cl
H+ + H2O → H3O+ (Hydronium ion)

Question 8.
Explain the basis of classification of acid into monobasic, Dibasic and tribasic acids.
Answer:
An acid molecule dissolves in water to liberate H+ ions. Based on this acids are classified into monobasic, Dibasic and tribasic acids. HCl is a monobasic acid.

Question 9.
Explain the dissociation of H2SO4
Answer:
H2SO4 → H+ + HSO4+ (Bisulphate ion)
HSO4– → H+ + SO42+ (Sulphate ion)

Question 10.
Classify the following acids into monobasic, dibasic and tribasic acids,
H2CO3, HNO3, H3PO4, H2SO4, HCl, H2S4
Answer:

Question 11.
During the rainy season, the farmers are using slaked lime in agricultural fields, give reason.
Answer:
To reduce the acidity of the soil.

Question 12.
Write the chemical formula of slaked lime.
Answer:
Calcium hydroxide – Ca(OH)4

Question 13.
Most of the alkalies are also known by the common names in addition to their chemical names. Caustic soda, milk of lime, milk of magnesia and caustic potash are the common names of some alkalies. Identify the chemical formula with the help of the given table.
Answer:

Question 14.
Observe the chemical equation of the dissolution of Sodium hydroxide in water.
NaOH → Na+ + OH (Hydroxide ion)
Now complete the given chemical equation for the ionization of Calcium hydroxide.
Ca(OH)2 → + ………. + …………..
Answer:
Ca(OH)2 → Ca+ + 2OH

Question 15.
Which is the common ion released when alkalies dissolved in water?
Answer:
OH

Question 16.
Difference between bases and alkalies?
Answer:
Bases are compounds that are opposite in acids in their characteristics.
Bases dissolving in water are alkalies. The metal hydroxide which dissolves in water functioning as strong alkalies.
Sodium hydroxide, Potassium hydroxide are alkalies, but Al(OH)3, Ca(OH)2 are bases.

Question 17.
What is meant by a neutralization reaction?
Answer:
An acid combines with alkali to nullify their individual properties. Such reactions are called neutralization reaction.

Question 18.
Give equation for the neutralization reaction of Sodium hydroxide with Hydrochloric acid.
Answer:
NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O

Question 19.
If we add small quantity of acid to water, what happens to the quantity of H+ ion?
Answer:
Quantity of H+ ion increases.

Question 20.
What change occurs when alkali is added?
Answer:
Quantity of OH+ ion increases.

Question 21.
Complete the table and find the pH value by using pH paper of the following substances.
Answer:

Question 22.
If the pH value increases whether acid or alkali character increases?
Answer:
Alkali character increases

Question 23.
If the pH value increases whether the H+ ion concentration decreases or increases?
Answer:
Decreases

Question 24.
The names of a few salts and their chemical formulas are given below. Find the cations & anions and complete the table.
Answer:

Question 25.
Can you find out the acid and alkali responsible for the formation of the salts given in the table from their chemical formula
Answer:

Question 26.
Prepare a table by writing the chemical formula of more salts that you are familiar with and also the names of the acid and alkalies from which they are formed.
Answer:

Question 27.
Find out how the chemical formula of the salts are written analyzing the table.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 21

Question 28.
Give the salts used as chemical fertilizers?
Answer;
Ammonium Sulphate – (NH4)2SO4
Potassium Chloride – KCl
Sodium Nitrate – NaNO3

Question 29.
a) Complete the chemical equation for the ionization of Phosphoric acid.
H3PO4 → H+ + H2PO4+
H3PO4+ → H+ + ……….
………. → H+ + PO43-
b) Based on the ionization equation given above Phosphoric acid is a tribasic acid? Justify it.
Answer:
a) H3PO4 → H+ + H2PO42-(Dihydrogen Phosphate ion)
H2PO4 → H+ + HPO42- (Hydrogen Phosphate ion)
HPO42- → H+ + PO43- (Phosphate ion)
b) In Phosphoric acid in aqueous solution number of H+ ion release is 3. Hence it is a tribasic acid.

Question 30.
Two solutions A and B having pH value 5 and 9, respectively. Which one shows acidic character and which one shows alkaline character. Why?
Answer:
A shows acidic character because the pH value is below 7, B shows alkaline character because the pH value is above 7.

Question 31.
List the cations and anions of the substances given in the table.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 22
Answer:

Substance Chemical formula Anion Cation
Potassium Sulphate K2SO4 SO42 Mg2+
Ammonium Nitrate NH4NO3 NO31- NH4+
Calcium Chloride CaCl2 Cl Ca2+
Magnesium Carbonate MgCO3 CO32 Mg2+

Question 32.
Some cations and anions are given. Write the chemical formula of all the salts possible by combining them.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 23
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 5 Acids, Bases, Salts 24

Question 33.
Name the salt formed by the reaction between Potassium hydroxide (KOH) and Nitric acid (HNO3).
Answer:
a) Potassium Nitrate
b) KOH + HNO3 → KNO3 + H2O

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 2 Listen to the Mountain

You can download Listen to the Mountain Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 2 help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 2 Listen to the Mountain

Listen to the Mountain Textual Questions and Answers

Read and respond (pages 86 – 92)

Listen to the Mountain Question Answer Question 1.
What does the grandmother say about her past?
Answer:
The grandrhother says that she was born at the turn of the century when there were no motorcars, no aeroplanes, no television, no movies, and much less noise. She has lived there all her life on the slopes of Dharmagiri. The river, trees, flowers, birds and animals are all her friends.

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Listen to the Mountain Class 9 Summary Question 2.
Why is Narayan shocked when he hears about Sagar’s project?
Answer:
Narayan is shocked when he hears about the multi-storeyed hotel which is going to be built with three hundred rooms. The surprising element is the village is a small one with only five hundred inhabitants. He is worried about the houses of the people there.

Question 3.
What are the arrangements made by Dixit for the new construction?
Answer:
Mr Dixit has got the permission from the government to build the hotel and Sagar’s firm has clinched the deal for constructing it. Dixit is a man with great influence. He has arranged everything, the labourers, lorries and materials forthe building.

9th Standard English Chapter Listen to the Mountain Question 4.
“You mean you will have slums here.” Why does Narayan make such a comment?
Answer:
Narayan gets annoyed when he hears about Sagar’s plan to put up temporary dwellings at the foot of the hill. So he makes such a comment.

Listen to the Mountain Activities Question 5.
What picture of Dixit does Sagar give?
Answer:
Mr Dixit is a multimillionaire, the owner of two dozen cinema houses, five luxury hotels, three drug companies and the biggest biscuit factory in India. He has also five mansions in different parts of the world.

Listen to the Mountain Question 6.
What is Kannan’s argument in favour of building a hotel on Dharmagiri?
Answer:
Kannan doesn’t see any harm in building a hotel on Dharmagiri. He believes that it will bring in tourists that, in turn, means money.

Listen to the Mountain Class 9 Activities Question 7.
“That is all the more reason why a hotel cannot be built there.” What does “All the more reason” refer to?
Answer:
‘All the more reason’ refers to the information about Dharmagiri which was given by Shastri. Shastri’s grandfather told him that the earth there could not hold a structure tallerthan thirty feet and that it would be dangerous to dig too deep for a foundation.

Question 8.
Comment on the expression “big people with small hearts.”
Answer:
The grandmother mocks at the rich people of the new generation by this comment. She complains about their selfish and money-minded attitude.

Review of the Play Listen to the Mountain Question 9.
How does the grandmother remind her grandson about his duties?
Answer:
The grandmother says that tomorrow’s world is children’s world and her grandson being the headmaster must talk to the children about the hazards the village is going to face. She also asks him to find out what they feel about it and not to put wrong ideas into their heads. The grandmother reminds her grandson about his duties as the school headmaster.

Let’s revisit and reflect(page 93)

Question 1.
Does the opening scene of the play arouse curiosity in the audience? Substantiate your answer analyzing the mode of presentation.
Answer:
The opening scene of the play does arouse the curiosity of the readers. The nostalgic narration of the grandmother, references to her life in the past, the beauty of nature, the present shocking news, etc. are quite appealing.

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Character Sketch of Sagar in Listen to the Mountain Question 2.
“Why will I come to a sleepy little dump like this if not for business?” Comment on the attitude of the building contractor.
Answer:
The building contractor is money minded and he is influenced only by business motives. He is least bothered about the beauty of nature or the life of the villagers.

Question 3.
Pick out the sentences showing the concern of Ramanna and Shastri about Dharmagiri. Is their concern reasonable?
Answer:
Ramanna : Why do we need a five-star hotel in this village?
Shastri : A multi-storied hotel can never come up on Dharmagiri. We have got to stop it. We cannot allow thoughtless people to ruin our beautiful mountain. Yes, Dharmagiri cannot support a building that big.
Yes, their concern is reasonable as development without any concern for the ecological system is suicidal.

Question 4.
“Do you village bumpkins know more than the engineers and architects from the big cities?” Sagar asked. What is the tone of the question? What could be the intention behind these words?
Answer:
Sagar tries to belittle the villagers because of their ignorance towards the new technologies in the field of construction. He intends to silence the people and make them passive.

Question 5.
Grandmother and the young villagers represent two generations. What difference do you find in their attitudes towards ecological issues? Pick out expressions that justify your answer.
Answer:
The.grandmother says she was born when there were no motor cars, airplanes, televisions and movies. There was much less noise. She has lived there all her life. She says, “The rivers, trees, flowers and birds are her friends” and she can’ stand their destruction.

But the young villagers don’t mind if the new five- star hotel is built there. They think rich tourists will come and that means a lot of money coming in. They too might get some money by doing things for the tourists. Kannan says, “if someone wants to build a grand hotel, I don’t see any harm. It will bring in tourists. Tourists mean money, and who does not need money?”

Activity -1 (Page. 90)

Kannan says, “Tourists mean money; and who does not need money?” Do you agree with Kannan? Discuss in groups and analyze the recent trends in tourism and its impact on our culture and economy. Prepare a write-up.

I agree with Kannan. But we should not try to get some money by destroying our ecology. Money is essential, but we should make sure that our development is sustainable without harming our environment.

Discuss in groups and analyze the recent trends in tourism and its impact on our culture and economy. Prepare a write-up.

Tourism and its impact on our culture and economy:

Tourism as an industry has been growing at a rapid pace. Technological advancements help people from different places and cultures interact with increasing ease. Tourism is one of the biggest and fastest-growing industries globally. Its benefits and the challenges, keenly observed by governments, affect the economic, socio-cultural, environmental and educational state of a nation.

The positive effects of tourism on a country’s economy include the growth and development of various industries directly linked with a healthy tourism industry, such a transportation, accommodation, wildlife, arts, and entertainment. This brings about the creation of new jobs and revenue generated from foreign exchange, investments and payments of goods and services provided The nature of the world economy shows that it is mostly people from developed nations who travel as tourists to the developing ones.

This results in a downward stream of cultural influences that in many cases has proven to be harmful, as foreign cultures are not in cohesion with the environment, economy and culture of the hosts. For example, it is common knowledge that most tourist destinations are plagued with prostitution. This has had dire consequences for the culture, economy, and health of these tourist coveting nations.

The environment can be badly affected by tourism. It spoils nature’s beauty. Visits of people in large numbers could mean huge amounts of trading and pollution. Polluting materials such as plastic waste and bottles are thrown carelessly. In the long run, they could be disruptive to the habitats of both faunal and floral life. The responsibility falls on hosts, who must make it a point to inform and educate visitors about the dangers posed by going against the advised codes of conduct, such as disposing of waste in a proper manner.

In the quest to provide facilities for tourists the environment has been affected in other ways. Large hotels and other facilities for tourists consume large amounts of power. In their quest to provide visitors with a long list of the ‘hip’ electronic comforts, a lot of power is used. The tourists themselves face several difficulties in getting visas and travel restrictions imposed by the host country. Another problem is security. In many places, tourists have become targets of criminal activities such as rape, kidnapping, and terrorism.

It is true that tourism has to be promoted as it is a means of livelihood for many. But it has to be promoted without adversely affecting our cultural values and our environment. Eco-tourism seems to be the need of the hour.

Debate:

Adebate is a structured argument. Two sides speak alternately for and against a particular contention usually based on a topical issue. Unlike the arguments you might have with your family or friends, each person here is allocated a fixed amount of time to speak. Any interference is carefully controlled. The subject of the dispute is often prearranged so you may find yourself having to support opinions with which you do not normally agree. You also have to argue as part of a team, being careful not to contradict what others on your side have said.

The Basic Debating Skills

Expressions to agree/disagree
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 2 Listen to the Mountain 1
Answer:

Agreeing with an opinion Disagreeing with an opinion
Of course. That’s different
You’re absolutely right. I don’t agree with you
Yes, 1 agree. However…
I think so too. That’s not entirely true
That’s a good point. On the contrary…
Exactly. I’m sorry to disagree with you, but
I don’t think so either Yes, but don’t you think
So do I That’s not the same thing at all
I’d go along with that. I’m afraid 1 have to disagree
That’s true. I’m not so sure about that.
Neitherdol. I must take issue with you on that
I agree with you entirely It’s unjustifiable to say that…
That’s just what 1 was thinking.
I couldn’t agree more.

Activity 2

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 2 Listen to the Mountain 2
Grandmother and Dixit share different views about development. Do you think grandmother’s view is outdated or that Dixit’s view is progressive? Conduct a debate on the topic, “Development can be a threat to Nature.”
Answer:
Arguments against Development:

  • A road through the rainforest will harm the habitat of endangered species.
  • Dams prevent free flow of water to places where it is needed. They also cause flooding.
  • Spills from oil rigs destroy marine organisms and leaves the sea polluted.
  • Thermal and atomic power stations are very dangerous as we saw what happened in Chernobyl and Three Mile Island.
  • Levelling hills and valleys create serious environmental problems.
  • Deforestation for cultivation and building homes and industries is dangerous.
  • Overuse of pesticides pollutes the earth and water; exhaust fumes from factories and vehicles pollute the air.
  • Global warming will bring in disasters like climatic changes; oceans will rise swallowing up island countries.
  • Industrial development distances man from nature and his life becomes artificial.
  • It spoils the beauty of nature. Green places become concrete jungles.
  • Overexploitation of natural resources will bring calamities in the future as they get exhausted soon.
  • Noise pollution can cause a lot of health problems.

Arguments for Development:

  • Roads even through forests make communication and transport easy.
  • Dams help to systematically irrigate lands by preserving water.
  • For economic development, industries are essential.
  • Modern amenities make life comfortable.
  • We can’t imagine a life without radio, television, cinema, computer and all the other modern amenities. Al this is made possible with development.
  • Development provides jobs to people.
  • Through the income, they get from developmental projects people can live comfortably.
  • It is development that has brought us structures like Burj Khalifa and the Twin Towers of Malaysia.
  • Development helps people to have comfortable homes with electricity and various home appliances that run on it.
  • Development should be sustainable.
  • Development should be planned for the benefit of people.
  • It is development that has helped us to soar into space and make ourChandrayan missions possible.

HSSLive.Guru

Activity – 3

“Finally the mountain spoke loud enough for everyone to hear. Nature always speaks if we care to listen.” How did Nature speak?
Prepare a conversation between you and Nature. Roleplay it in your class.
Answer:
Prepare a conversation between you and nature: (Roleplay it in your class.)
Nature: Son, by cutting that tree you are doing me a great harm.
I: I want the wood for my house, to make furniture and also to use as firewood.
Nature: Why don’t you look for substitutes?
I: Substitutes are expensive.
Nature: Son, by throwing plastic and other waste you are choking me.
I: What I will do with the plastic bags I get from shops. I can’t bum them because they say it is dangerous and so I throw them away.
Nature: Son, have you ever thought about the pollution you cause to my atmosphere through the exhaust fumes of your vehicles and factories.
I : Who cares about your pollution? How can we live without our vehicles and factories?
Nature: Do you know that you are destroying yourself by using a lot of dangerous pesticides?
I: If the insects bothers us, what choice do we have?
Nature: Son, I am patient. But there is a limit to my patience. I have my weapons like floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, and droughts. If you people go on doing things against me, one day I may have to use some of my weapons to teach you a lesson. So be warned

Activity – 4 (Page 91)

You might have noticed land leveling in your locality. Are you aware of the environmental hazards it may cause? Collect details from various sources and prepare an e-mail to be sent to the Minister for Environment, complaining about the issue.

e-mail:

Tips for e-mail
For most of us, email is the most common form of business communication. So it’s important to get it right. Although emails usually aren’t as formal as letters, they still need to be professional to present a good image of you and your company.

How to write a formal email:

Follow these five simple steps to make sure your
English emails are perfectly professional.

  • Begin with a greeting
  • Thank the recipient
  • State your purpose
  • Add your closing remarks
  • End with a closing

Question 1.
Begin with a greeting
Answer:
Always open your email with a greeting, such as “DearSusan”. If your relationship with the reader is formal, use their family name (e.g. “Dear Mrs. Kidangoor”). If the relationship is more casual, you can simply say, “Hi Sonia”. If you don’t know the name of the person you are writing to, use: “To whom it may concern” or “Dear Sir/Madam”.

Question 2.
Thank the recipient
Answer:
If you are replying to a client’s inquiry, you should begin with a line of thanks. For example, if someone has a question about your company, you can say, “Thank you for contacting ABC Company”. If someone has replied to one of your emails, be sure to say, “Thank you for your prompt reply” or “Thanks for getting back to me”. Thanking the reader puts him or her at ease, and it will make you appear polite.

HSSLive.Guru

Question 3.
State your purpose
Begin by stating your purpose. For example, “I am writing to enquire about…” or “I am writing in reference to …”
Answer:
Make your purpose clear early on in the email, and then move into the main text of your email. Remember, people want to read emails quickly, so keep your sentences short and clear. You’ll also need to pay careful attention to grammar, spelling, and punctuation so that you present a professional image of yourself and your company.

Question 4.
Add your closing remarks
Answer:
Before you send your email, it’s polite to thank your reader one more time and add some polite closing remarks. You might start with “Thank you for your patience and cooperation” or “Thank you for your consideration” and then follow up with, “If you have any questions or concerns, don’t hesitate to let me know” and “I look forward to hearing from you”.

Question 5.
End with a closing
Answer:
The last step is to include an appropriate closing with your name. “Best regards”, “Sincerely”, and “Thank you” are all professional. Avoid closings such as “Best wishes” or “Cheers” unless you are intimate with the reader. Finally, before you hit the send button, review and spell check your email one more time to make sure it’s truly perfect!

You might have noticed land leveling in your locality. Are you aware of the environmental hazards it may cause? Collect details from various sources and prepare an e-mail to be sent to the Minister for Environment, complaining about the issue.

Ministerenviron@hotmail. com
Sub: Levelling of ground near Azad Road

I am writing this letter to express my dissatisfaction with the land leveling going on in my locality. It is a matter of serious concern for all of us here. Widespread land leveling has caused problems that disrupt and alter the entire structure of the topsoil making it unfit for any cultivation. I understand the leveling is done to construct a pesticide factory there. It is a thickly populated area and a pesticide factory there would be hazardous to the health of the people and the environment Some greedy people are behind the whole project.

We would like to tell you that we shall not allow a pesticide factory to be built in our area which is famous for its rare flora and fauna. As the Minister, of Environment, you have a duty to listen to the voice of the people who are going to be affected by the proposed factory.

Hope you would look into the matter seriously and take immediate steps to stop the leveling.
Looking forward to hearing from you and thanking you,
Yours truly,
Liz

Activity – 5

Readers’ theatre:
Readers Theatre is a dramatic presentation of a written work in a script form. Readers read from a “script” and reading parts are divided among the readers. No memorization, costumes, blocking, or special lighting is needed. Presentations can easily be done in a classroom. Scripts are held by the readers. Through this activity, students have the opportunity to develop fluency and further enhance comprehension of what they are reading.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard English Solutions Unit 3 Chapter 2 Listen to the Mountain 3
You should pay attention to the following while reading aloud.

  • Good voice modulation
  • Correct pronunciation
  • Meaningful pauses
  • Right tone and expression

Identify the important scenes from the play “Listen to the Mountain’ and read them aloud with your friends. (You can use the summaries of the scenes to fill in the boxes with necessary changes.)

Activity 6

Collect pictures, poems, stories, news, etc. about man-made hazards. Write suitable captions and footnotes. Prepare a class magazine.

Tips:

  • Attractive cover page with a relevant title
  • Index
  • Foreword
  • Messages from distinguished personalities
  • Pictures, writings, etc

Listen to the Mountain Additional questions

a) Read the extract from the play ‘Listen to the Mountain’ and answer the questions that follow:
Sagar: (sitting) yes, thank You …………. Sagar: overlooking your village. (points to the mountain) fantastic, eh? (Page 97)

Question 1.
Describe the village
Answer:
It’s a small village, with only a small population of five hundred people. Right in the middle of the village is a river. It flows through the village and it has the cleanest water. There is a mountain, Dharmagiri, nearby. On the top, there is a temple which is 300 years old. From the top of the Dharmagiri mountain, one can view such a gorgeous and breathtaking view of the waterfalls, the trees, and the wildlife!

HSSLive.Guru

Question 2.
Pick out the sentence that tells Sagar is not pleased with the village.
Answer:
Why will I come to a sleepy little dump like this if not for business?

Question 3.
Find out a word from the passage which means, ‘belonging to an early stage of development.
Answer:
crude/Primitive.

b) Curtain rises. Backdrop of mountains, a stream, and trees. Dixit is seated on a chair on one side of the stage. Sagar is on the other side. Sound of lorries, drilling, and hammering can be heard. A procession of children and adults enters from the opposite side. The children in the front row display a banner: LISTEN TO THE MOUNTAIN. They present a petition to Dixit.

Dixit : (reading it) What is this nonsense? LISTEN TO THE MOUNTAIN! Here we are, all set to build the biggest hotel in the state, one of the best in the country, and you people talk

Question 1.
What picture of the grandmother do you get?
Answer:
Grandmother is very old with children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren. She is much concerned not only about the people of the village but also the flora and fauna of the village. She is concerned about the ecological balance of the nature.

Question 2.
Why did she ask her grandson to talk to the children?
Answer:
Her grandson is the local school’s headmaster. Tomorrow’s world is the world of children. Children should know about the hazards their village will have to face.

Question 3.
Find out an expression from the passage which shows that Sagar tries to belittle the villagers by referring to their ignorance’.
Answer:
Do you village bumpkins know more than the engineers and architects from the cities?’

Question 4.
Narayan has decided to stage a peaceful protest. Prepare a slogan for the protest.
Answer:
SAVE DHARMAGIRI, SAVE OUR LIVES!

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 6 The Biology of Movement

You can Download The Biology of Movement Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Part 2 Chapter 6 help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 6 The Biology of Movement

The Biology of Movement Textual Questions and Answers

The Biology of Movement Question 1.
Are exercise and games necessary?
Answer:
On physical strength increases as we involve in interesting exercises such as games. Exercise reduces mental stress and helps us to work energetically.

Question 2.
Prepare a note on how exercise is beneficial to the body?
Biology Answer:
Exercise helps us in many ways.
It increases blood circulation all over the body. Cardiac muscles become strong. More capillaries are formed in muscles. Increases the efficiency of muscles. Stored fat is broken down thereby reduces obesity. Sweats more and so more waste is eliminated through sweat. Exchange of respiratory gases becomes more effective. Vital capacity increases.

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Question 3.
‘Exercise helps our respiratory system more healthy.’ Do you agree with this statement? Substantiate your answer?
Answer:
Exercise increases our vital capacity and exchange of respiratory gases becomes more effective,

Involuntary Movements

Question 4.
Prepare a table about voluntary movements and involuntary movements?
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 6 The Biology of Movement 1
Answer:

Voluntary movements Involuntary movements
Hand movements Movement of tongue Leg movements Heart beat Lung’s movement Pulse rate

Biology Save my Exams Question 5.
What do you mean by voluntary movements?
Answer:
The movements which occur according to our will is called voluntary movements.

Question 6.
Define involuntary movements?
Answer:
The movements which are not controlled by our will is called involuntary movements.

Types Of Muscles

Question 7.
Which muscle make voluntary movements possible?
Answer:
Skeletal muscle

Question 8.
Striated muscle have cells
Answer:
Cylindrical

Locomotion and Movement Class 11 Question 9.
Where do you find smooth muscles in human body?
Answer:
Smooth muscles are seen in internal organs like the stomach, small intestine and in blood vessels.

Question 10.
Smooth muscles are also known as
Answer:
Nonstriated muscles

Skip Beat Chapter 1 Question 11.
Shape of smooth muscle is
Answer:
Spindle

Question 12.
Cardiac muscles are seen on the
Answer:
Walls of the heart

Biology Unit 6 Question 13.
…….. & ……… makes involuntary movements possible.
Answer:
Smooth muscle and cardiac muscle

9th Class Biology Question 14.
Skeletal muscle: Cylindrical shape
…………………..: Spindle shape
Answer:
Smooth muscle

Question 15.
Skeletal muscle: striated muscle
………………….: nonstriated muscle
Answer:
Smooth muscle

9th Standard Biology Question 16.
Different types of muscles and their characteristics. Prepare a table.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 6 The Biology of Movement 2

Muscles Fatigue

Question 17.
What do you mean by muscle fatigue?
Answer:
When we are engaged in continuous and strenuous exercises, lactic acid accumulates in the muscles due to anaerobic respiration. This increases acidity in muscles and slows down the action of many enzymes associated with muscle contraction. As a result, muscles get exhausted and temporarily lose their power of contraction. This condition is called muscle fatigue.

Bones and Movement

Question 18.
The human skeleton system consists of bones.
Answer:
206

Question 19.
Based on the position, the human skeleton can be divided into ………. & …………
Answer:
Axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton.

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Question 20.
Number of bones in the human skull is
Answer:
29

Question 21.
How many bones are there in human ribs?
Answer:
12 × 2 = 24

Question 22.
Hind limbs: 60 bones
………………: 26 bones
Answer:
Vertebral column

Question 23.
There are bones in the pelvic girdle of human beings.
Answer:
1 × 2 = 2

Question 24.
Muscles which contracts on folding the forelimb?
Answer:
Flexor muscle

Question 25.
Complete the illustration given below
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 6 The Biology of Movement 3
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 6 The Biology of Movement 4

Question 26.
Muscle which contracts on extending the forelimb?
Answer:
Extensor muscle

Question 27.
Muscle which relaxes on folding the forelimb?
Answer:
Extensor muscle

Question 28.
Muscle which relaxes on extending the forelimb?
Answer:
Flexor muscle

Question 29.
What is antagonistic muscle?
Answer;
A movement is effective and complete when muscles work in unison with bones. In forelimb, when one muscle contracts the other muscle relaxes. These types of muscles which are opposite in action are called antagonistic muscles.

Question 30.
The basis of almost all the movements of the body is the proper functioning’ of ………….
Answer:
Antagonistic muscles

Joints And Movements

Question 31.
Complete the table of skeletal joints. Which shows its position and peculiarities.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 6 The Biology of Movement 5
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 6 The Biology of Movement 6

Structure Of Joint

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 6 The Biology of Movement 7

Question 32.
…………. are the meeting place of two bones
Answer:
Joints

Question 33.
Explain the function of joints
Answer:
joints help in the movement of bones. Joints give more flexibility to bones to move. The nature of movements varies with the nature of joints.

Question 34.
…………. secretes synovial fluid
Answer:
Synovial membrane

Question 35.
…………. covers and protects the joints
Answer:
Capsule

Question 36.
…………. reduces friction between the bones
Answer:
Cartilage

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Question 37.
What is the function of synovial fluid?
Answer:
Synovial fluid functions as a lubricant between the bones.

Question 38.
What is the function of ligaments?
Answer:
Ligaments ensure that bones are not displaced and holds them in position.

Question 39.
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
Answer:
Skeletal system facilitating movements, maintains posture, helps in hearing, protects our internal organs from damage, produces blood cells and maintains the mineral homeostasis.

Skeletal And Muscular Disorders

Rheumatic Arthritis:

  • Caused by infection in joints, injuries, degenerative changes due to old age.
  • Damage to cartilage
  • Severe pain, incapable of moving joints

Dislocation:

  • Displacement of bones in joints
  • Damage to ligaments
  • Severe pain oedema and difficulty in movements

Sprain:

  • The stretching or breaking of ligaments
  • Severe pain and oedema

Osteoporosis:

  • A condition in which bones become brittle and cause fracture
  • This may be due to the deficiency of calcium, defects in metabolic activities and deficiency of Vitamin D

Muscular dystrophy:

  • A condition that leads to degeneration of muscles due to various reasons.
  • Muscles become weak
  • Generally, affect boys.

Skeleton Outside the Muscles

Organisms Parts of exoskeleton
Humans Nail, Hair
Reptiles Scales, Nail

Locomotion Without Skeleton

Question 40.
Different types of movement in organisms which move without skeleton.
Answer:

Organisms Different types of movement
Paramecium Cilia
Euglena Flagellum
Earthworm Circular muscles and longitudinal muscles setae

Locomotion And Movement

Movement is the displacement occurring in any part of the body. Displacement of the entire body is called locomotion

The diversity of locomotion in animal world:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 6 The Biology of Movement 8

Do plants move?

Question 41.
Plants exhibit movements in response to various
Answer:
Stimuli

Question 42.
What are the various stimuli which cause movements in plants?
Answer:
Light, gravity, water, touch, chemicals, etc. are the various stimuli which cause movements in plants.

Question 43.
Complete the table relating to the plant movement
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 6 The Biology of Movement 9
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 6 The Biology of Movement 10
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 6 The Biology of Movement 11

Question 44.
Identify the type of movement, roots grow towards water
Answer:
Hydrotropism

Question 45.
What do you mean by tropic movement?
Answer:
If the direction of plant movements is in accordance with the direction of stimulus it is called tropic movements.

Question 46.
Is there any relation between stimulus and the direction of movement in mimosa?
Answer:
No. Hence it is nastic movement.

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Question 47.
What do you mean by nastic movement?
Answer:
If the direction of plant movement is not in accordance with the stimulus, it is called nastic movement.

Question 48.
Write some examples for nasty plant movements from your surroundings.
Answer:
Movements of Mimosa pudica, prayer plant, venus flytrap, etc.

Let Us Assess

Question 1.
What is the reason for muscle fatigue?
a) Lack of glucose in muscle cells
b) Lack of oxygen in muscle cells
c) Increase in the level of carbon dioxide in muscle cells
d) cellular respiration ceases
Answer:
b) Lack of oxygen in muscle cells

Question 2.
Observe the figure and answer the following questions. What changes do you observe in the growth of root and stem in a plant, if it is kept stationary as shown in the figure for a few days? Why?
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 6 The Biology of Movement 12
Answer:
Roots grow towards gravity and the stem grows against gravity.

Question 3.
Identify the odd one giving reason
a) Coconut trees near a river bend towards the river
b) Root of trees near a well grows towards the well
c) Leaves of touch-me-not fold when we touch it
d) Roots of plants grows towards gravity
Answer:
Leaves of touch-me-not fold when we touch it because it is a nastic movement.