Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Breathing for Energy

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Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Breathing for Energy

Breathing for Energy Textual Questions and Answers

……… is essential for releasing energy from nutrients.
Answer:
Oxygen

Question 2.
Oxygen from the atmospheric air is taken into the body through the ………. system.
Answer:
Respiratory

Question 3.
List of important parts of the respiratory system in humans?
Answer:
Nostril, Nasal Cavity, Trachea, Bronchus, Bronchiole, Alveolus, Pleura, and Diaphragm

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Question 4.
……….. is the pathway which extends from the external nostrils to the internal alveoli.
Answer:
The respiratory tract

Question 5.
An opening through which air passes in and out of the body is called
Answer:
Nostril

Question 6.
……….. connects nostrils with the pharynx
Answer:
Nasal cavity

Question 7.
State whether true or false
There are no cartilaginous rings in the bronchioles
Answer:
True

Question 8.
Which part of respiratory system takes place in the exchange of gases?
Answer:
Alveoli

Question 9.
……… is the double-layered protective membrane of the lungs.
Answer:
Pleura

Question 10.
What is the function of pleura?
Answer:
Pleural fluid seen in between the membraneous layers prevents friction between lungs and walls of the thoracic cavity. ‘

Question 11.
Complete the word relation
Bronchus: cartilaginous rings
………..: no cartilaginous rings
Answer:
Bronchiole

Question 12.
……… is a long tube strengthened by ‘C’ shaped cartilaginous rings
Answer:
Trachea

Question 13.
Which is the muscular wall that separates thoracic and abdominal cavities?
Answer:
Diaphragm

Question 14.
Prepare a table of parts and functions of the respiratory system.
Answer:

Question 15.
Complete the flow chart of the pathway of atmospheric air from the nostrils to the alveoli
Answer:
Nostrils → Nasal cavity → Trachea → Bronchus Bronchiole → Alveoli

Atmospheric Air In To Lungs

Question 16.
What helps in variation in volume of the thoracic cavity?
Answer:
The combined working of intercostal muscles and the diaphragm help in increasing and decreasing the volume of the thoracic cavity.

Question 17.
In humans, tidal volume is about …….. ml
Answer:
500ml

Question 18.
Complete the table given below

Inspiration Expiration
1 Diaphragm
2 Ribs
3 Volume of thoracic cavity
4 Pressure in the thoracic cavity
5 Air

Answer:

Inspiration Expiration
1 Contracts and straightens Diaphragm relaxes
2 Raise Ribs lower
3 Increases Volume of thoracic cavity decreases
4 decreases Pressure in the thoracic cavity increases
5 enters in air expelled out

Question 19.
What is the surface area of the skin that covers the entire body?
Answer:
2 sq. mtrs

Question 20.
Surface area of both the lungs together turn up to be at least…. sq. mtrs.
Answer:
70

Exchange Of Gases In The Alveoli

Question 21.
How far is the structure of alveoli suitable for the exchange of respiratory gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide?
Answer:
Alveoli increase the respiratory surface area in lungs. The large surface area help in the easy exchange of respiratory gases.

Question 22.
Explain the exchange of gases in alveoli?
Answer:
Alveoli increase the respiratory surface area in lungs. This large surface area help in the easy exchange of respiratory gases. Alveoli are surrounded by numerous capillaries. The inner wall of the alveoli is always kept moist. During inspiration, the concentration of oxygen inside the alveoli is higher than that of blood capillaries whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide in blood capillaries is higher than that of alveoli. As a result oxygen from the alveoli diffuses to the capillaries and carbon dioxide from capillaries diffuses to the alveoli

Question 23.
The average amount of hemoglobin in a healthy man is
Answer:
15gm/100 ml blood

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Question 24.
15gm/100 ml blood : Haemoglobin: man
……… : Haemoglobin: Woman
Answer:
13 gm/100ml blood

Question 25.
Complete the flow chart given below
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Breathing for Energy 1
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Breathing for Energy 2

Question 26.
What is the compound formed by the combination of oxygen and hemoglobin?
Answer:
Oxyhaemoglobin

Question 27.
……….. is caused when the amount of hemoglobin in the blood decreases.
Answer:
Anemia

To Release Energy

Question 28.
What do you mean by cellular respiration?
Answer:
The process by which energy is released from glucose in cells is called cellular respiration.

Question 29.
Energy is released mainly from
Answer:
Glucose

Question 30.
Name the first phase in cellular respiration
Answer:
Glycolysis

Question 31.
Glycolysis: Cytoplasm
………: Mitochondria
Answer:
Krebs’’ cycle

Question 32.
Complete the table
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Breathing for Energy 3
Answer:

Indicators Glycolysis Krebs’Cycle
1. Part where the cellular respiration takes place Cytoplasm, mitochondria
2. Need of oxygen not required, required
3. Number of ATP molecules produced 2 28
4. Products Pyruvic acid, CO2 + H2O

Question 33.
“Food containing iron should be taken included in diet,” said Sabari. Do you agree with this opinion? Why?
Answer:
Yes. I agree with this opinion because iron molecules
are essential for the synthesis of hemoglobin

Question 34.
Complete the worksheet of cellular respiration?
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Breathing for Energy 4
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Breathing for Energy 5

Question 35.
Find the relation between respiration and photosynthesis and complete the table.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Breathing for Energy 6
Answer:

  1. Food production, energy released from glucose
  2. Dark reaction and light reaction, Glycolysis and Krebs’ cycle
  3. CO2 + water, Glucose + Oxygen
  4. Glucose + Oxygen, CO2 + water + 30 ATP

Expulsion Of Carbon Dioxide

Question 36.
Water is eliminated from the body in the form of…. & …..
Answer:
Sweat and urine

Question 37.
What are the major byproducts of respiration?
Answer:
Carbon dioxide and water

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Question 38.
The …… & ………. changes back to carbon dioxide in the lungs.
Answer:
Carbamino hemoglobin and bicarbonate.

When Carbon Dioxide Becomes Excessive

Question 39.
What is Homeostasis?
Answer:
Maintenance of internal equilibrium by removal of harmful materials is called homeostasis.

Question 40.
How does increased amount of carbon dioxide affect the internal environment of our body?
Answer:
Carbon dioxide formed by the cellular respiration combines with water present in and out of the cell to form carbonic acid and this increases the activity in the body, which in turn changes the internal environment.

Question 41.
What is the role of the respiratory system in maintaining homeostasis?
Answer:
The respiratory system helps in the maintenance of homeostasis by eliminating carbon dioxide.

Respiration Without Oxygen

Question 42.
Prepare a flow chart relating to Anaerobic respiration
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Breathing for Energy 7

Question 43.
Name some microorganisms live without oxygen?
Answer:
Bacteria, yeast, etc.

Question 44.
What is fermentation?
Answer:
Fermentation is the process of the production of lactic acid or alcohol from glucose by anaerobic respiration.

Question 45.
Merits of Anaerobic respiration – prepare a flow chart
Yeast Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Breathing for Energy 8 Fermenting batter to soften it

Anaerobic
respiration

Lactobacillus bacteria Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Breathing for Energy 9 Curding milk

Question 46.
Describe a circumstance anaerobic respiration takes place in human beings
Answer:
During straneow exercise, energy utilization in muscles increases and the oxygen availability decreases. In such situations muscle cells produce energy by anaerobic
respiration and lactic acid is formed in the muscle cells.

Question 47.
How does butter become soft and puffy?
Answer:
Fermentation helps the batter rise, become lighter and increase in volume making it double in size, thicker and fluffier.

Do Not Damage The Respiratory System

Question 48.
………. is an army in the lungs?
Answer:
Macrophages

Question 49.
……… is the specialized cells seen in the alveoli that engulf dust particles and germs.
Answer:
Macrophages

Question 50.
What are the instances that are harmful to lungs?
Answer:
Dust, germs, chemicals, etc. which are contained in the air we breathe in.

Question 51.
Find out the protective mechanism of the respiratory system? Explain.
Answer:
Nose, nasal cavity:

  • Small hairs prevent dust and germs from entering the lungs.
  • Dust particles and germs get entangled in the mucus secreted by the mucous membrane.
  • Lysozyme present in the mucous destroys germs.
  • Ciliary cells transport mucus that contains dust and germs to the pharynx and from there to the digestive tract.

Trachea:

  • The germs and dust particles get entangled in the mucus secreted by the mucous cells(Goblet cells) and mucus glands seen throughout the tracheal wall.
  • The cilia of ciliary cells in the tracheal wall move the mucus containing dust and germs to pharynx.

Alveoli:

  • Macrophages, the specialized cells seen in the alveoli, engulf dust particles and germs.

Question 52.
‘Smoking is injurious to health’ Rekha reminded Rajeev. Do you agree with Rekha? Justify your answer.
Answer:
I agree with Rekha’s statement. Smoking is a bad habit that harmfully affects the human race. It not only affects the person who smokes but also affects the nearby persons who breathe the smoke. Carcinogens present in tobacco cause lung cancer. Alveoli rupture due to the loss of elasticity by the deposition of toxic substances contained in tobacco. This reduces the respiratory surface and reduces vital capacity. This stage is emphysema. The tar, carbon monoxide, etc. in tobacco leads to the deposition of mucus and the swelling of lungs due to the proliferation of germs in the alveoli. This stage is known as bronchitis.

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Question 53.
Prepare a poster relating to anti-smoking
Answer:

Your mouth isn’t an Ashtray
Smoking is the stupidest way to commit suicide. Stop being silly.
Kill a cigarette and save a life

Vital Capacity

Question 54.
What do you mean by Tidal volume?
Answer:
Tidal volume is the volume of air we breathe in and out during a normal breathing.

Question 55.
What is vital capacity?
Answer:
Vital capacity is the volume of air that can be breathed out by forceful expiration after maximum or forceful inspiration. ,

Question 56.
What can be taken as an indicator of normal and healthy respiratory capacity?
Answer:
Vital capacity

Question 57.
What is the vital capacity of men?
Answer:
It is about 4.5 liters

Question 58.
What is the vital capacity of women?
Answer:
about 3 liters

Respiration In Other Organism

Question 59.
Collect data on respiratory diversity in organisms and complete the table.
Answer:

Do Plants Breathe

Question 60.
State whether true or false.
Plants also utilize glucose for the production of energy.
Answer:
True

Question 61.
The oxygen needed for the oxidation of glucose is absorbed from ………….
Answer:
Atmospheric air

Question 62.
………. are the centers of exchange of gases in plants.
Answer:
Stomata

Question 63.
Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen takes place in stems and roots through ………….
Answer:
Lenticels

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Question 64.
Prepare a poster for environment day observation.
Answer:
Plant trees
Plant generations

Let Us Assess

Question 65.
Reason for the diffusion of oxygen from alveoli to blood.
a) Low concentration of oxygen in blood.
b) As the walls of the alveoli and blood vessels are thin.
c) High concentration of oxygen in alveoli.
d) All of the above,
Answer:
d) All of the above.

Question 66.
Observe the two reactions given below
Reaction 1:
C2H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy Reaction
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Breathing for Energy 10
a) Identify the process occurring in plants and in animals.
b) Which is the process that takes place only in plants?
Answer:
a) C2H12O2 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Breathing for Energy 11

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