Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 2 The East and the West: Era of Exchanges

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Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 2 The East and the West: Era of Exchanges

The East and the West: Era of Exchanges Textual Questions and Answers

Question 1.
The two major trade routes of the medieval period are shown in the map below. What period are shown in the map below. What all can you find out from it?
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 2 The East and the West Era of Exchanges 1
Answer:

  • Silk rout and spice route were the major trade routes.
  • These routes extended from Eastern China to western Europe.
  • Silk route was a land route while the spice route was through the sea.
  • These routes passed through different trade centers.

Question 2.
Observe the map of trade routes and list the major commercial centers of Europe.
Answer:

  • Florence
  • Venice
  • Genoa
  • Milan

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Question 3.
Evaluate the circumstances that led to the growth of trade in Italy during the medieval period.
Answer:

  • By 11th century, the ancient Roman became active. This was due to the factor that cities were developed around the castles of the nobles and around the churches and monasteries.
  • The farmers of the medieval period arrived at the marketing centers with their products.
  • The traders and craftsmen stayed in those centers and conducted long-distance trade.
  • These trading centers gradually developed into cities.

Question 4.
Observe the atlas in the Social Science lab and find out the river banks on which the following cities are located.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 2 The East and the West Era of Exchanges 2
Answer:

Cities Rivers
1. London Thames
2. Paris Seine
3. Rome Tiber
4. Vienna Danube

Question 5.
Analyze the characteristics of medieval cities.
Answer:
The medieval cities were having the following characteristics

  • The medieval European cities were not similar to the modern cities.
  • They were generally small in size, the roads of these cities were narrow and unhygienic.
  • The buildings were built of wood and were thatched with hay.
  • The possibility of an outbreak of fire was very high as these cities were overcrowded.
  • Majority of the city dwellers were merchants, craftsmen, and laborers.
  • The laborers of the cities were poor, and hence they depended on others for their livelihood.
  • The cities depend on the villages for food and fodder.

Question 6.
Observe the trade routes on the map provided and list out the important trade cities of central Asia.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 2 The East and the West Era of Exchanges 3
Answer:

1. Baghdad 1. Aden
2. Basara 2. Muscut
3. Constantinople 3. Mecea
4. Damascus 4. Calicut (Kozhikode)

Question 7.
Analyze the influence of the guilds on medieval European trade.
Answer:
1. The rapid increase of trade in the medieval European cities, the formation of specific occupational sectors, the necessity to withstand the excessive taxation and exploitation and the sense of organization were the factors which led to the formation of the guilds.
2. The aims of the guilds were to foster mutual help and co-operation, to maintain the monopoly of the markets and the attainment of economic stability.
3. The guilds were the associations of experts in different occupational sectors. There were two kinds of guilds:
(i) The merchant guilds
(ii) The craft guilds
The merchant guilds were the first to emerge. Inter-city leagues were formed linking the cities for the progress of trade. The Hanseatic League is an example for this, which regulated the trade activities of many cities of Europe.

The craft guilds were the associations of different artisans and craftsmen of the medieval period. Every occupational group like the leather workers, carpenters, blacksmiths, etc. had separate guilds.

Question 8.
Discuss the functioning of schools in medieval Europe.
Answer:
During medieval period, Europe attained remarkable progress in school education. Given below the method of functioning of schools.

  • The expansion of basic education, universities, Greco-Roman knowledge and Islamic knowledge were the features of the Medieval Age.
  • Many schools sprang up during this period for imparting primary education.
  • Major subjects taught in the medieval schools were Grammer, Latin, Astrology, Literature, Philosophy, Mathematics and Laws, and Laws of nature.
  • Education of women was restricted and those who got the rare opportunity for education were nuns and the children of rulers and nobles.

Question 9.
Conduct a discussion on the role of education in the progress of medieval society.
Answer:
The medieval education was not confined to the primary level. University education also began to flourish. Main subjects taught in universities were philosophy, literature, medicine, languages, geometry, and law. Many universities were established in Europe in the 11 “’ and 12th centuries. Important among them are the following.

  • Bologna — Italy
  • Constantinople — Turkey
  • Paris — France
  • Oxford, Cambridge — England

Another important university was the Cordova University established by the Arabs in Spain. One of the important features of this university was the library which had thousands of manuscripts. This university provided facilities for learning languages such as Greek, Syriac, Persian, and Sanskrit. Arabic version of books originally written in these languages was available in the library of this university.

The advancement of education was not confined to Europe. It began to prosper in central Asia during the period of Abbasid Caliphate. Primary educational institutions (Maktabs) were started from the 10th century onwards, where children between the age of 6 and 14 were educated.

There were facilities for women education in the Arab world. Ladies were given the opportunity to become teachers by attaining the degree, ‘Ijas’. Altogether education played significant role in the progress of medieval society.

Question 11.
” Medieval art and literature are example of the synthesis of the east and the west”. Examine the relevance of this statement.
Answer:
During the medieval period there were 3 styles of architecture. They are

  1. Romanesque style
  2. Gothic style
  3. Carolingian style

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The Europeans got acquainted with the Islamic culture during the Crusades. Art and literature were exchanged during this period. The western style was profoundly influenced by the Eastern art and architecture. The Platonic Academy of Florence and the Quinze-Vingts hospital of Paris constructed by the French emperor Louis IX on his return from the crusades are examples.

The western music had its beginning in the medieval period. Along with the church music, secular music also developed during this period. The influence of Arabic music is visible in the European music in the period 500 to 1400 CE.

During the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates, arabic music progressed considerably. Ibn Misjah was the greatest musician of the Umayyad period. He started Arabic music by obtaining knowledge of Byzantine and Persian music through his travels in Syria and Persia. Ibn Muhriz and Ibn Surayi were two other important musicians of the time.

The major themes of the medieval literature were related to religion. Yet secular subjects were also treated as themes of the writings of this period. Some authors and their works of that period are given below.

Authors Works
Omar Khayyam The Rubaiyat
Al Firdausi Shahnamah
Ibn Khaldun Kitab -al-lbar
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theology
St. Augustine City of God
PeterAbelard Dialogue
Kalhana Rajatharangini
Jayadeva Geethagovindam

Painting also progressed considerably during the medieval period. Major theme of the paintings was religion. Santa Trinita Madonna by Cenni di Pepo is an example of the progress of painting during this period.

Question 12.
“Progress in the field of education and science in the medieval world led to the beginning of the modern age”. Conduct a debate on this topic.
Answer;
Education

  • During the Medieval period, primary education and higher education attained progress.
  • Many schools sprang up during this period.
  • Grammar, Latin, Astrology, Literature, Philosophy, Mathematics, and Laws of nature were taught.
  • Many universities were established in Italy, Turkey, France, and England.
  • The Gurukula system prevailed in India.
  • Many educational institutions were attached to the temples in South India.

Science:

  • During the medieval period, science attained progress.
  • Contributions were given to medical science.
  • Surgery began.
  • Paved the way for the invention of automobiles and aircraft.
  • Notable contributions were made in astronomy.
  • The crusades facilitated the exchange of scientific and technological knowledge.
  • Making telescope, mechanical clocks, principle of the gear, surgical instruments, etc. were the achievements of this period.
  • Algebra, Alchemy, Trigonometry were other achievements.
  • Street lights of the cities and waste management programmes were the contributions of this period.

Question 13.
Evaluate the contributions of the Arabs in the fields of Medieval art, Education and Science.
Answer:
Art:

  • Emperor Charlemagne formed a new style of architecture combining ancient Roman styles with the Byzantine style. This is known as the Carolingian Style.
  • Its important features are the domes, arch-shaped doors, huge pillars, and mosaic floor.
  • The influence of Arabic music is visible in the European music in the period from 500 to 1400 CE.
  • During the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates, Arabic music progressed considerably.
  • Ibn Misjah, the greatest musician, started Arabic music by obtaining knowledge of Byzantine and Persian music through his travels in Syria and Persia.
  • Ibn Muhriz and Ibn Surayi were important musicians of the time.

Education:

  • Cordova University was one of the famous universities established by the Arabs in Spain. One of the important features of this university was the library which had thousands of manuscripts. This university provided facilities for learning languages such as Greek, Syriac, Persian, and Sanskrit.
  • There were facilities for women’s education in the Arab world.
  • Ladies were given the opportunity to become teachers by attaining the degree ‘Ijas’.
  • The universities of Baghdad and Damascus of central Asia and the Al-Azhar University of Egypt were the noteworthy educational institutions of the medieval period.

Science:

  • Many scholars who made notable contributions to the field of science lived during the medieval period.
  • Ibn Sina gave contributions in medical science and philosophy.
  • Ibn al Qasim is known as the Father of Surgery.
  • Al Biruni formulated the basic ideas of Geology and Anthropology.
  • The Arabic numerals and zero from India were popularized in Europe.
  • Chemistry was developed as a science
  • The Arabs were the inventors of the subjects like Algebra and optics.

Let Us Assess

Question 14.
The trade routes connected the East and the West. Substantiate.
Answer:
The continents which mainly locate in the West are Europe, North America, and South America. The Eastern countries which are mentioning in this units are Arabia just adjacent of Africa, India, China and so many other countries of the Asian continent. The continents in between the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean are broadly classified into the East and the West.

The silk which produced abundantly in the East was famous for its quality, color, and transparency. This silk was so dear to the Europeans. They were ready to travel to the East either via the sea route or through the land route to secure the spices, that were in plenty in the Eastern countries. ?These species were cardamom, pepper, ginger, and cinnamon, sandalwood, and forest resources were also the favorite items of the Europeans.

They frequently traveled through these routes to and fro with the purpose of trade. Later these routes were known as trade routes. The silk route through the land and the spice route through the sea helped a lotto the mutual transaction of the varied cultures of the East and the West. Thus these trade routes paved the way to connect the East and the west. They also helped a lot to the transaction of the resources and various products or trade and the togetherness of various cultures.

Question 15.
Examine the circumstances that led to the growth of distant trade?
Answer:
Our earth is a combination of so many countries generally seen in between the oceans and the land. There are a wide range of differences in climate, resources, minerals, food and cash crops, people and their lifestyles among these countries. Each and every country is not at all self-sufficient in all types of resources or products. The products produced in the places where the nearness of the sea is a key factor are not alike that of the products of the continents. So in the ancient period onwards, people were eagerly enquired about the various products that were produced in the various parts of the world.

Some times, it was too difficult to reach in the remote areas of those countries form a distance. But the traders from various countries decided to travel to those distant countries. Thus the distant trade flourished. The traders competed among

Question 16.
What are the causes for the transformation of cities into trade centers?
Answer:
The traders searched for better places which were suitable for trade. Their main priorities were trans-portation and warehouse facilities. Several traders came together to a place from where they could get a lot of products. So many people accompanied them to get job. Some others came there with a purpose of retail trade. This continuous flow of people to a particular trade center, it gradually developed into cities.

Most of the medieval cities were grown and developed in the banks of the rivers. The facilities of transportations, large scale collection of various articles, smooth transactions, the support of the rulers boosted the growth of the cities. Later these cities became the centers of trade. Increase in population made those cities into highly populated and busy trade centers.

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Question 17.
Prepare a note on the progress in the field of science and technology in the medieval world.
Answer;

  • During the medieval period, science attained progress.
  • Contributions were given to medical science.
  • Surgery began.
  • Paved the way for the invention of automobiles and aircraft.
  • Notable contributions were made in astronomy.
  • The crusades facilitated the exchange of scientific and technological knowledge.
  • Making telescope, mechanical clocks, principle of the gear, surgical instruments, etc. were the achievements of this period.
  • Algebra, Alchemy, Trigonometry were other achievements.
  • Street lights of the cities and waste management programmes were the contributions of this period.

Question 18.
Which were the cities which minted their own coins in the medieval world?
Answer:

  • Florence
  • Venice

Question 19.
List down the cities given below as directed – Baghdad, Florence, Genoa, Damascus, Venice, Mecca.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 2 The East and the West Era of Exchanges 4
Answer:

European cities Eastern cities
Florence Baghdad
Genoa Damascus
Venice Mecca

Question 20.
List out the important duties of the Guilds.
Answer:

  • Framing labor laws
  • Determining working hours
  • Fixing of prices
  • Division of labor
  • Determining the mode of sale
  • Maintaining the quality of products

Question 21.
Which were the major subjects taught in the medieval European schools?
Answer:

  • Grammar
  • Latin
  • Astrology
  • Literature
  • Philosophy
  • Mathematics
  • Laws of nature

Question 22.
Complete the table.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 2 The East and the West Era of Exchanges 5
Answer:

Scientists Contribution
IbnSina Medical scientists and philosopher
Muhammed al Razi Medical science
Ibn al Qasim Father of surgery

The East and the West: Era of Exchanges Model Questions and Answers

Question 23.
What do you mean by silk route?
Answer:
The land route that extended from China to Europe was known, as Silk Route. This route which connected the East with the West stretched around 6000 kms.

Question 24.
Prepare a note on Spice Route.
Answer:
A network of sea routes that connected the East with the West was known as the Spice Route. This route passed through the regions of coastal Indonesia, India, Japan, Sri Lanka, and the Central Asia, and the chief commodity of exchange was spices.

Question 25.
Name the Italian cities that emerged commercial centers from 1050 to 1300 CE.
Answer:

  • Genoa
  • Venice
  • Pisa
  • Florence

Question 26.
Complete the flow chart
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 2 The East and the West Era of Exchanges 6
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 2 The East and the West Era of Exchanges 7

Question 27.
Complete the figure.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 2 The East and the West Era of Exchanges 8
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 2 The East and the West Era of Exchanges 9

Question 28.
Identify the factors that led to the decline of guild system.
Answer:

  • Industrialization
  • Growth of science and technology

Question 29.
Which are the towns where the Italian traders had the trade relations?
Answer:

  • Baghdad
  • Damascus
  • Jerusalem

Question 30.
What were the suitable situations that caused development and progress in trade to Italian cities like Florence, Venice, Genoa, and Pisa compared to other European regions?
Answer:

  • They began to mint their own coins.
  • The presence of ports Italian sub-continent
  • The concessions provided their merchants
  • Encouragement from administrators.

Question 31.
Bring out factors that strengthened the commercial contacts between the East and the West in the medieval period?
Answer:

  • The comparatively weak trade between the East and the West got a fillip with the beginning of the crusades.
  • The Italian traders were engaged in long-distance trade with Eastern Roman Empire and the Arabs.
  • They had trade relations with towns like Baghdad, Damascus, and Jerusalem.
  • The rapid increase in production, diversity of products, construction of roads and bridges, and effective steps to control thieves and robbers resulted in the strengthening of the commercial contracts between the East and the west.

Question 32.
Name the important guilds existed in Medieval Europe.
Answer:

  • Carpenters
  • Leatherworkers
  • Blacksmiths
  • Jewelry makers
  • Sewing laborers

Question 33.
What is meant by Carolingian Renaissance?
Answer:
The cultural and intellectual awakening of the 8th and 9th century medieval Europe had been generally characterized as the Carolingian Renaissance.

Question 36.
“The crusades influenced the wester life” Do you agree? Justify.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with this statement.
The Europeans got acquainted with the Islamic culture during the Crusades. Art and literature were exchanged during this period. The western style was profoundly influenced by the Eastern art and architecture. The Platonic Academy of Florence and the Quinze-Vingts hospital of Paris constructed by the French emperor Louis IX on his return from the crusades are examples.

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Question 37.
Which were the branches of music developed during the Medieval Ages?
Answer:

  • The western music
  • Arabic music

Question 38.
Complete the following table showing the authors of medieval age and their works.
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 2 The East and the West Era of Exchanges 10
Answer:

Authors Works
Omar Khayyam The Rubaiyat
Al Firdausi Shahnamah
Ibn Khaldun Kitab-al-lbar
ThomasAquinas Summa Theology
St. Augustine City of God
Peter abelard Dialogue
Kalhana Rjatharangini
Jayadeva Geethagovindam

Question 39.
Match the following

A B
Ibn al Qasim Medical scientist
Al Biruni Astronomy
Bhaskara II Father of surgery
Ibn sina Basic ideas of theology

Answer:

A B
Ibn al Qasim Father of surgery
Al Biruni Basic ideas of theology
Bhaskara II Astronomy
Ibn sina .Medical scientist

Question 40.
Point out the contributions of China in the progress of science and technology
Answer:

  • Gunpowder
  • Printing
  • Seismograph
  • Mariners compass
  • Astralab

Question 41.
What were the contributions of Arab in science during Medieval period?
Answer:

  • The Arabic numerals and zero from India were popularised in Europe
  • Chemistry was developed as a science
  • The Arabs were the inventors of the subjects like Algebra and Optics

Question 42.
Bring out the specialties of education in medieval China
Answer:

  • Knowledge was imparted by a single teacher
  • Learning started in the educational institution at the age of six.
  • The Buddhist philosophy was a compulsory subject in the schools attached to the Buddhist Viharas.

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Question 43.
Complete the table showing the features of medieval of education in Middle East, Far East, and India.

Location Features
Middle East
Far East
India

Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 2 The East and the West Era of Exchanges 11
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 2 The East and the West Era of Exchanges 12

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