Kerala State Board New Syllabus Plus One English Textbook Answers Unit 1 Chapter 4 If Text Book Questions and Answers, Summary, Notes.
Kerala Plus One English Textbook Answers Unit 1 Chapter 4 If (Poem)
If (Poem) Textual Activities Questions and Answers
Activity -1 (Read and Respond)
The first stanza of ‘If’ speaks about the need for self-confidence. Do you agree? Why?
Yes, I agree. Without self-confidence, nothing worthwhile can be achieved.
What does the poet say about patience?
Successful people exercise patience. Without patience, nothing can be got. In English they say, “Slow and steady wins the race’ and ‘Haste makes waste’.
Explain the poet’s views on honesty and fortitude of character.
The poet says that even if people tell lies to you, never follow their examples and start telling lies. A liar is not respected in the society. A liar may succeed temporarily but in the long run he is bound to fail and will be put to shame.
Lines 5-7 speak about the need for righteous behavior in the face of unrighteousness. How far do you agree?
I fully agree with the view that in the face of unrighteous behavior, we should face it with righteous behavior. If somebody is bad, we don’t have to become bad and follow his ways. We should learn to conquer hatred with love.
What is the poet’s approach to dreams and longings?
It is good to dream but we should not let dreams become our master. We can have longings, but we should never take crooked paths achieve them. We can think — but thinking is not ouraim. Our aim is to act and achieve.
The poet believes that success comes from self control and a true sense of the value of things. Express your views on this.
I fully agree with the poet’s views on these aspects. Success comes from self-control and a true sense of the value of things. We should know that all that glitters is not gold. Without self-control we will go astray. Unless we know the true value of things, we may spend our time and energy trying to get things that have no true value. Appearances can be deceptive.
‘Never breathe a word about your loss. ’ What impression do you get about the poet when you read this?
I feel that the poet is a strong-willed person. He can keep his secrets. He does not want people’s sympathies. He has fortitude and courage to suffer his adversities without sharing them with others.
What is the message conveyed in the last stanza of the poem?
You can talk with the .crowds, but you should not become one of.them and lose your virtue. Even when you walk with kings, you should not lose sight of the ordinary people. You should be beyond getting hurt by your enemies or friends. All kinds of people should be able to count upon you for help. You should forgive and never rush to punish the offender. If you can do all these things you can enjoy on this earth as if you are its master.
Activity – II (Read and Reflect)
What is the central theme of the poem?
The central theme of the poem is the qualities of greatness or the traits of a perfect man.
What, according to the poem, are the two impostors of life?
According to the poem the two impostors of life are Triumph and Disaster.
What, according to the poet, should be one’s attitude to unexpected loss?
According to the poet one’s attitude to unexpected loss should be one of indifference. Triumphs and Tragedies are part of life. Don’t be overjoyed at the successes and don’t be dejected at the failures. If you happen to have a loss, don’t tell anyone. Accept it with fortitude.
What is the poem about? (Consider the speaker, theme, symbols, comparisons, contrasts and conflicts.)
The speaker here is a father. He is speaking to his son about the qualities that are needed to become a successful man, a perfect man. The theme is the attainment of perfection. To make his ideas clear, the speaker has used many symbols. There are symbols like ‘pitch-and-toss’ (suggesting gambling), ‘force heart, nerve and sinew’ (suggesting gathering of strength) and ‘sixty seconds worth of distance run’ (suggesting delayed reaction). There are fine contrasts in ‘triumph and disaster’, ‘kings and common people’ and ‘friends and foes’. There are conflicts in ‘risking it on one turn of pitch-and-loss’ and ‘loving friends hurting you’.
Identify the poetic form, figurative language and poetic structure.
It is a lyrical poem with four stanzas consisting of four octaves (a group of eight lines). The poem is in rhyme although the rhyming scheme is different in various stanzas. In the first stanza it is aaaa, bcbc. The poet has figurative language with a lot of metaphors, personification, parallelisms, climaxes, etc. It is a didactic poem telling us what to do and what not to do to enjoy life and to be a perfect man.
When the poet says, ‘If you can dream – and not make dreams your master, he is personifying dreams, i.e. dreams are spoken of as masters who can control our lives. In this case, dreams assume a human role/qualjfy.
Pick out other expressions where the poet uses personification.
a) Triumph and disaster treated as impostors.
b) Will which says ‘Hold on’.
‘Unforgiving minutes’ is a metaphoric expression as it refers to time that waits for no man; it is like a race where every second is important.
Now, identify other metaphoric expressions used in the poem.
Deal in lies, twisted by knaves, one heap of all your winnings, breathe a word, unforgiving minute, sixty second’s worth of distance
What do knaves represent?
Knaves represent dishonest people.
What other symbols are used in the poem ‘If’?
a) Deal in lies
b) Making one heap of all your winnings
c) Risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss
d) Breathe a word
e) Force your heart, nerve and sinew
- Personification : Speaking of things and animals as if they are persons with human traits and qualities. Example: Death steals our life; he is very cruel.
- Metaphor: A metaphor is a figure of speech in which one thing or person is spoken as another. Example: K.S. Chitra is a nightingale.
- Symbol : A symbol is an object that represents an idea, image or an action. We see different symbols on our roads to warn us. Example: Red Light is the symbol of danger.
Activity – III (Appreciation)
Based on the responses you have got, prepare an appreciation of the poem ‘If ’ (Consider theme, language, style, figures, symbols, relevance)
The poem ‘If is written by Rudyard Kipling. Kipling is an English short-story writer, poet and novelist. He is chiefly known for his stories and poems about the British soldiers in India. He also wrote stories for children.
In the poem a father tells his son how to be happy and how to be a perfect man. So many conditions have to be fulfilled if one is become perfect man. He should not lose his head, even when others around him have lost theirs. He has to trust himself when all people doubt him. He should wait and shouldn’t be tired of waiting. When people tell him lies, he should not follow their example. People may hate him but he should not hate them. He should not try to look too good and try to talk too wise.
He should dream, but should not make dreams his master. He should think but shouldn’t make thoughts his aim. He should view Success and Failure equally. Even when the results of his hard work are destroyed, he should get ready to build them. He should not tell others about his losses. He should persevere, always being optimistic. He should keep talking with the crowds but maintain his virtue. He can walk with kings but shouldn’t lose the common touch. Neither his friends nor his enemies should be able to hurt him. All men should be able to count on his help. He should forgive people who have offended him. If he can do all these things the Earth and everything in it is his and he will then be a man.
The poem is in rhyme and it has good sound effects. It has fine imagery, The mood is one of joy and optimism. The language used is simple. There are a lot of symbols and figures of speech in the language, especially personification.
The message of the poem is to be happy and successful in life. The poem talks of conditional fulfilment. If certain conditions, as specified in the poem, are fulfilled, one can be a perfect man, enjoying his life. ‘If is the most famous poem of Kipling. It attracted nation-wide attention. It soon became a very popular qnthem.
Activity – IV (Conditionals/lf Clause)
In the poem ‘If we find so many ‘If clauses. ‘If clauses are called conditional clauses.
|If clause (Subsidiary clause)||Main clause|
|If you can keep your head when all about you are losing theirs ………………………………………….||• Yours is the earth and everything that is in it.
…… You’ll be a man, my son.
Here is the list of ‘If Clauses in the poem:
If you can keep your head when all about you are losing theirs and blaming it on you, ….
if you can trust yourself when all men doubt you
If you can wait and not be tired of waiting,
If you can dream,…
If you can think, …
If you can meet with triumph and disaster, ….
If you can bear to hear the truth, …”
If you can make one heap of all your winnings, …
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew,…
If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, ….
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you, ….
If all men count with you, ….
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
Usually, there are three common patterns with ‘If which are often called first, second, and third conditionals.
|If clause||Main clause|
|First conditional||If+ present||Will / shall / can / may + infinitive||Open condition||If you work with confidence, you will succeed.
If you get here before eight, we shall catch the early train.
|Second conditional||If + past||Would / should / could / might + infinitive||Unlikely to be fulfilled||If I worked with confidence I would succeed.
If I knew her name, I would tell you.
|Third conditional||If + past perfect||Would / should / could / might + have + past participle||Unreal past situation||If you had gone there, you could have met him.
If I had worked with confidence, I would have succeeded.
The first type is called Probable or Likely or Open condition.
The second type is called Improbable or Unlikely or Imaginary condition.
The third type is called Impossible or Unreal Past condition.
We make these conditions by changing the tenses in the clauses.
→ Let us take one example:
a) If you call, I will come. (Probable) (If clause Present tense, Main Clause Future)
b) If you called, I would come. (Improbable) If clause Past, Main Clause Conditional).
c) If you had called would have come (Impossible) If Clause – Past Perfect, Main clause Conditional Perfect.
→ Here is the formula:
If – present, Main Clause Future (Probable)
If – past, MC Conditional (Improbable)
If- past perfect, MC Conditional Perfect (Impossible)
Now Look at the examples given in the Text on p. 33.
Complete the conditional sentences to get the full story.
Once upon a time, a cat bit a mouse’s tail off. ‘Give me back my tail,’ said the mouse. And the cat said, ‘Well, I would give (give) your tail back, if you fetched me some milk. But that’s impossible for a little mouse like you.’
The mouse, however, went to a cow. ‘The cat will only give (give/ only) me back my tail if I fetch her some milk.’
And the cow said, ‘Well, I would give you some milk, if you ______________ (get) me some hay. But that’s impossible for a little mouse like you.’
The mouse, however, went to a farmer. ‘The cat will only give my tail back if the cow ______________ (give) me some milk. And the cow ______________ (only/ give) me some milk if I get her some hay.’ And the farmer said, ‘Well, I would give you some hay if you ______________ (bring) me some meat. But that’s impossible for a little mouse like you.’
The mouse, however, went to a butcher. ‘The cat will only give my tail back if the cow ______________ (give) me some milk. And the cow will only give me some milk if she ______________ (get) some hay. And the farmer ______________ (only/ give) me some hay if I get him some meat.’ And the butcher said, ‘Well, I would give you some meat if you ______________ (make) the baker bake me a loaf of bread. But that’s impossible for a little mouse like you.’
The mouse, however, went to a baker. ‘The cat ______________ (give/ only) my tail back if I fetch her some milk. And the cow ______________ (give/ not) me some milk if I don’t get her some hay. And the farmer will only give me some hay if the butcher ______________ (have) some meat for him. And the butcher will not give me some meat if you ______________ (bake/ not) him a loaf of bread.’
And the baker said, ‘Well, I ______________ (give) you a loaf of bread if you promise never to steal my corn or meal.’
The mouse promised not to steal, and so the baker gave the mouse a loaf of bread; the mouse gave the butcher the bread. The butcher gave the mouse some meat; the mouse gave the farmer the meat. The farmer gave the mouse some hay; the mouse gave the cow the hay. The cow gave the mouse some milk; the mouse gave the cat the milk. And the cat gave the mouse her tail back. But imagine what would have happened otherwise: If the mouse had not promised (promise/ not) never to steal the corn or meal, the baker would not have given (not/give) the mouse the bread.
If the baker ______________ (not/ give) the mouse the bread, the butcher ______________ (refuse) to give her the meat for the farmer.
If the butcher ________________ (refuse) her any meat, the farmer ________________ (not be) willing to give the mouse the hay. If the farmer ________________ (not/ be) willing to give the mouse the hay, the mouse ______________ (not/ receive) the milk from the cow. If the mouse ______________ (not/ receive) the milk from the cow, she ______________ (not/ get) back her tail.
got, gives, will only give, brought, gives, gets, will only give, made, will only give, will not give, has, don’t bake, will give.
had not given, would have refused, had refused, would not have been willing had not been, would not have received, had not received, wouldn’t have got
Activity -1 (Read and Respond)
Read the extract from the newspaper article:
Many of the old teachers of the University College in the city would have felt a thrill of pride and joy, on reading in the newspapers the news that their old student Arun M. Kumar has been selected by President Obama to a very important post in his government. Arun is now Assistant Secretary and Director-General of the United States and Foreign Commercial Service, International Trade Administration, in the Department of Commerce. The President has spoken appreciatively of the new team he has chosen.
A rare honour, indeed, and well-deserved recognition of merit. Arun did his three-year undergraduate course in Physics in the University College. I taught that class their English prose. It was a very bright class, with some of the students brilliant without any self-consciousness of their brilliance. And Arun was among the most brilliant. Well-read in many subjects, keen in understanding, quick, sensitive, and cultured beyond his years in his responses, it was a privilege and a pleasure to have him in my class, and sometimes, to discuss things with him outside the class. Over the years, as his mind matured, his sense of language had become fine – a sure pointer to deeper changes. Confined to my academic pursuits, I know little about the wider world of Arun’s enterprises. To see him trusted with the intricate problems of international finance is enough to make me feel that his choices and decisions were right.
Arun and his friends were responsible for starting the Science Society of Trivandrum for the benefit of school children. It has done a lot of good to school students, both in terms of financial help and academic training.
List out the special qualities you have noticed in one of your classmates:
Brilliant, cheerful, sociable, hardworking, well read, sensitive, generous, sociable, humble, cultured, has initiative, humorous, optimistic My friend John is liked by all the students in the class. He is brilliant and he always gets the top marks and the teacher is never tired of praising him.
John comes from a wealthy family. His father is a magistrate and his mother is a lecturer in a college. But he is very humble and he never shows off to others. He is always cheerful and has a smiling face. He is well-read and hardworking. His general knowledge is great. He is a voracious reader and he seems to know about all things underthe sun, and even beyond! He is very generous and is always willing to help the weak.
He is very sociable. He is polite and respectful to teachers and elders. He always greets them when he meets them. He is cultured in his behaviour. He is very humorous and he has the knack of telling very amusing stories. He is optimistic and a strong believer in God. He has many leadership qualities and he takes initiatives in many things. John is an ideal student.
Activity – II (Cohesive Devices – Practice)
Fill in the blanks using the appropriate cohesive device from the ones given in brackets.
1. All the assignments should be submitted on time, …………………, they wilt not be evaluated.
2. The price of petrol has gone up considerably in the last few years …………………, the sale of cars has not seen any decrease.
3. Cycling is a good exercise …………………, it helps you to save money, (however, moreover, consequently)
4. Desktop computers are cheaper and more reliable than laptops; …………………, they last longer. (whereas, furthermore, alternatively)
5. There is a stiff competition between mobile phone companies to win customers …………………, they are slashing prices to attract customers, (as a result, in contrast, in conclusion)
5. As a result
Activity – III (Documentary):
Prepare a presentation on the life and works of an eminent person who has overcome many obstacles/difficulties and become successful in life.
Helen Keller : She was an American lecturer and writer who overcame severe physical disabilities, inspiring many other people to similar accomplishments. Deaf and blind from the age of 19 months, Keller learned to communicate with the help of her teacher, Anne Sullivan. Sullivan taught Keller to read Braille and to “listen” by feeling a speaker’s face. Keller graduated from Radcliffe College in 1904 and authored a number of books about her experiences.
Helen Keller (1880-1968 was born on June 27, 1880, in Tuscumbia, Alabama, the daughter of well-to-do parents: Arthur Keller, a former officer in the Confederate army, and Kate Adams. When 19 months old, Helen was stricken with an acute illness that left her deaf and blind. In a short time, she forgot the few words she knew and became silent. She made use of signs to get what she wanted, but when her parents or the family servants did not understand her, her frustration found an outlet in screaming and tantrums. In the 1880s people who were both deaf and blind were classified in law as idiots.
A doctor who examined Keller, however, thought that her intelligence could be developed. On the advice of Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor, who was also a teacher of deaf people, Keller’s parents got a teacher for the Blind. The teacher’s name was Anne Mansfield Sullivan (later Macy). Thus began an association that lasted until Sullivan’s death in 1936.
Sullivan’s first task was to break through the barrier of darkness and silence that surrounded the child.
She succeeded in that. Two years later she was reading and writing fluently using the Braille system. When Keller was tert, she begged to relearn how to speak. At first this seemed impossible, but Sullivan discovered that Keller could learn sounds by placing her fingers on her teacher’s larynx and sensing the vibrations. The moving account of how Sullivan taught her to speak is told in Helen Keller’s The Story of My Life (1902).
In 1900, Keller entered Radcliffe College. Four years later she graduated with honors to worldwide acclaim and decided to devote her life to helping blind and deaf people. Through her essays and articles in major magazines and newspapers, Keller explained the problems encountered by people who are deaf and blind and the responsibilities of society. In addition to The Story of My Life, she published Optimism, or My Key to Life (1903), The World I Live In (1908), and Out of the Dark (1913).
In her desire to help people like her, Keller also began to travel and lecture throughout the world, enlisting the aid of many famous people she met. Philanthropist Andrew Carnegie gave her an annual income, writers Mark Twain and Robert Louis Stevenson sang her praises, and nearly every U.S. president of her time invited her to the White House. She received many honors. Helen Keller is one of the best examples of people who have overcome severe handicaps and become world-famous.
Activity – IV (Collection):
Collect inspiring speeches of great persons like Martin Luther King, Swami Vivekanda, Winston Churchill, Jawaharlal Nehru, etc. Make a presentation based on the common factors in the speeches.
Standing on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., on August 28, 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered what is regarded today as one of the greatest speeches in American history. Here is an excerpt from his speech: “I Have a Dream”.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.’
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today!
I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of ‘interposition’ and ‘nullification—one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today!
I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; ‘and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.’
In all the speeches of the above great people, we can find some common factors. One is patriotism. Patriotism is the love of one’s motherland. The country of one’s birth is his mother and he should love her and work for her progress. In case of a need, he should be even ready to sacrifice his life for this motherland.
Another common factor is the love for liberty, freedom. Man is born free and he should have his freedom to enjoy his life. Political freedom, economic freedom, and religious freedom are essential for the proper growth of a person. No country should be ruled by other countries.
Another factor that is common among the speeches of these great men is a fraternity and universal brotherhood. In the pledge, we assert, “All Indians are my brothers and sisters”. This pledge should not be limited to words. In deeds, we must show that we are true to our words.
All great men preach internationalism and universal brotherhood Even as we preach nationalism, we must be internationalists. We all know that we may have different colors. The Europeans may be white, the Africans may be black, the Asians might be brown or yellowish, but all of them have red blood! Whether you are Christian, Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, or Jew, your emotions are the same. That is why we say, “Tickled we laugh; pricked we cry”. So we must love humanity. Gandhi is the Father of our nation, but he was also a great internationalist.
If (Poem) About the Author:
– Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) is an English short-story writer, poet, and novelist. He is chiefly known for his stories and poems about the British soldiers in India. He also wrote stories for children. “If” is the most famous poem of Kipling. It attracted nationwide attention. It soon became a very popular anthem.
IF (Poem) Summary
Here a father is advising his son:
Stanza 1: Maintain your coolness when people around you have lost it and blame you for the situation. Trust yourself when all people doubt you, but give allowance for their doubting. Wait and don’t be tired of waiting. When people tell you lies, don’t follow their example. People may hate you but don’t hate them. Don’t try to look too good and don’t try to talk too wise.
Stanza 2: You should dream, but do not make dreams your master. You should think but don’t make your thoughts your aim. You should view Success and Failure equally. You may say truths but dishonest people may twist them and use them to trap fools. You worked hard to get certain things done, but you find them broken. Then you get ready to build them up using old tools.
Stanza 3: Collect all your winnings and risk them on one turn of the dice. You may lose the entire thing. But start again without telling anybody about your loss. Continue doing your work even when others have abandoned theirs. Continue to hold on even you have nothing left except your will.
Stanza 4: Keep talking with the crowds but maintain your virtue. Walk with kings but don’t lose the common touch. Neither your friends nor your enemies should be able to hurt you. All men should be able to count on your help. But nobody should expect too much from you. You should forgive people who have offended you. If you can do all the above things the Earth and everything in it is yours and you will then be a man.