Plus One English Textbook Answers Unit 4 Chapter 1 Disasters and Disaster Management in India (Essay)

Kerala State Board New Syllabus Plus One English Textbook Answers Unit 4 Chapter 1 Disasters and Disaster Management in India Text Book Questions and Answers, Summary, Notes.

Kerala Plus One English Textbook Answers Unit 4 Chapter 1 Disasters and Disaster Management in India (Essay)

Disaster and Disaster Management in India Textual Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What does the recent World Disaster Report say about disasters?
Answer:
The recent World Disaster Report says that disasters have increased in number and intensity.

Question 2.
What are some of the common disasters?
Answer:
Some of the common disasters are earthquakes, floods, cyclones, landslides, droughts, accidents, plane crashes and forest fires.

Question 3.
What is true about both developed and developing countries?
Answer:
The fact that disasters like earthquakes, floods, cyclones, landslides, droughts, accidents, plane crashes and forest fires have increased in their number and intensity is true about both developed and developing countries.

Question 4.
What is the relationship between human development and disaster preparedness?
Answer:
There is a direct correlation between human development and better preparedness to manage disasters. The less developed countries are more prone to suffer damages caused by disasters.

Question 5.
Which is the deadliest disaster?
Answer:
The deadliest disaster is drought. It accounts for 48% of deaths due to natural disasters.

Question 6.
What makes India more vulnerable do disasters?
Answer:
Its geographical location and geological formation make India more vulnerable to disasters. Its long coastline, snow-covered peaks and high mountain ranges and the perennial rivers of the north combine to make the problems worse. India has only 2% of the total geographical area, but it supports 18% of the total population. So, there is a great pressure on the natural resources. This directly or indirectly leads to disasters like floods, droughts, landslides and earthquakes.

*Question 7.
What causes tremendous pressure on the natural resources in India?
Answer:
India has only 2% of the total geographical area, but it supports 18% of the total population. This causes a tremendous pressure on the natural resources.

Question 8.
Which is a relatively new natural disaster in India?
Answer:
Tsunami is a relatively new natural disaster in India. Due to the lack of an adequate warning system, the tsunami of 2004 destroyed a large portion of the coastal regions of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and also the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It killed many people and destroyed properties worth many crores.

Question 9.
Which is the man-made disaster that India witnessed in the last century?
Answer:
The man-made disaster that India witnessed in the last century is the Bhopal Gas Tragedy of 1984.

Question 10.
Name some of the major natural disasters faced by India during this century.
Answer:
Some of the major natural disasters faced by India during this century are: The Gujarat earthquake (2001), the Mumbai-Gujarat floods (2005), the tsunami (2004), the Uttarakhand flash-floods and the hurricane Phailin in coastal Orissa and Andhra Pradesh (2013).

Question 11.
Which are the lifeline support systems that get damaged in disasters?
Answer:
The lifeline support systems that get damaged in disasters are communication, power supply and water supply systems. Drainages get are damaged. Healthcare and hospitals come under severe stress. Commercial and economic activities are badly affected. Life, then, almost comes to a standstill.

Question 12.
Which is the man-made disaster mentioned here? Which section of the society is most affected by disasters? Why?
Answer:
The man-made disaster mentioned here is riots. The most affected are the poor sections of society. It is so because they have to work daily to earn their livelihood.

Question 13.
What are the major limitations in constructing safe and secure buildings?
Answer:
The major limitations in constructing safe and secure buildings are people don’t follow the regulations laid down for ensuring safety and security. In developing countries, only 30% of the buildings are constructed in accordance with the regulations. The lack of a master-plan and the inferior quality of materials used for construction are also major limitations.

Question 14.
What measures need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the buildings?
Answer:
To ensure the safety and security of the buildings, both private and public buildings should be constructed according to the guidelines prescribed by law. Construction should be according to the master plan approved by the authorities. Good quality materials should be used for construction.

Question 15.
What is the requirement in the areas vulnerable to earthquakes in order to reduce damage and death?
Answer:
In areas vulnerable to earthquakes, the existing buildings should be technically assessed and owners should be informed about the weaknesses in their construction. It is estimated that nearly a million buildings are constructed in India each year and an equal number of them gets damaged as a result of disasters. To reduce the damage to buildings, a monitoring mechanism should be set up. It should work in proper coordination with the concerned authorities to ensure the fulfilment of building codes.

Question 16.
What is the structure of the state and central level committees of disaster management?
Answer:
At the state level^Jiere is a State Level Disaster Management Committee consisting of the senior secretaries of various departments and the representatives of NGOs. At the national level, there is a Crisis Management Committee, headed by the Cabinet Secretary and the secretaries from the major departments of the government.

Question 17.
How does the central government coordinate disaster management activities in India?
Answer:
The central government, with proper coordination with various ministries, give the necessary support to the states. This includes defence services like air dropping, rescuing, searching, transport of relief goods, etc. and availability of railway and ferry services, health personnel and medical support.

Question 18.
What are the special requirements of the rescue team, according to the author?
Answer:
The rescue teams should have special skills and attitudes in dealing with disasters. They need to be well equipped and should have the latest technologies.

Question 19.
What is the purpose of disaster management?
Answer:
The purpose of disaster management is to reduce the destructive impact of disasters. It is not possible to prevent or avert many of these disasters but with proper disaster management, we can definitely reduce the deaths and damages caused by them.

Disaster and Disaster Management in India Textual Activities Questions and Answers

Activity -1 (Note-making)

Question 1.
You have read the essay ‘Disasters and Disaster Management in India.’ Given below is an outline of the notes on this essay. Read the essay carefully again and complete the notes.
Answer:
Disasters and Disaster Management in India
1. Disasters – the global scenario
1.1 a challenge for all humanity
1.2 increase in frequency and intensity
1.3 the world becoming more prone to disasters
1.4 developed and developing countries are affected
1.5 floods-more common, India, China, Bangladesh – most affected
1.6 drought – deadliest (40% of all deaths and disasters)

2. Disasters-Indian Context
2.1 highly prone to disasters
2.2 reasons for vulnerability
2.2.1 geographical location and geological formation
2.2.2 long coastline, snow-clad peaks, high mountain ranges, perennial Rivers
2.2.3 overpopulation and inadequacy of natural resources
2.3 different kinds of disasters in India – Regional
2.3.1 Northern region
2.3.2 Eastern region
2.3.3 The North-eastern region
2.3.4 The western region
2.3.5 The southern region
2.3.6 The Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep & coastal areas
2.4 major disasters in this century
2.4.1 Gujarat earthquake (2001)
2.4.2 the Mumbai-Gujarat floods (2005)
2.4.3 the tsunami (2004)
2.4.4 the Uttarakhand flash-floods
2.4.5 Hurricane Phailin in coastal Orissa & AP (2013)

3. The direct and indirect impact of disasters
3.1 damage, destruction, death
3.2 lifeline support systems are damaged
3.3 Healthcare and hospitals come under stress
3.4 Commercial and economic activities badly affected
3.5 poorer sections – most affected

4. Risk due to disaster – need for safer buildings
4.1 cyclones, tsunami, earthquakes, defects in construction of buildings can cause greater destruction.
4.2 scenario in the developing countries
4.2.1 only 30% of the buildings are constructed as per regulations
4.2.2 lack of master plan
4.2.3 using inferior quality materials
4.3 suggestions for safer infrastructure
4.3.1 both private and public buildings to be constructed as per guidelines
4.3.2 constructions to be adhere to the master plan
4.3.3 only good quality materials be used for construction

5. Management in India
5.1 purpose – not prevention, but reduction of impact
5.2 state government
5.2.1 – role- state level disaster management committee
5.2.2 – structure – senior secretaries and representative of NGOs
5.3 centre government
5.3.1 – role – Crisis management committee
5.3.2 – structure – cabinet secretary and secretaries of major departments
5.3.3 – support offered – air dropping, rescuing, searching, transport of relief goods, rail and ferry services, health personnel, and medical support.
5.4 rehabilitation of victims
5.4.1 – integral part of disaster management
5.4.2 – proper coordination among various departments
5.4.3 – rescue teams – additional skills, equipped with latest technology

Activity – II (Writing precis)

Question 2.
You have read the essay and prepared notes on ‘Disasters and Disaster Management in India.’ Based on the notes you prepared, write a precis on the essay. A precis, usually, is one-third the size of the original text.
Answer:
Disasters have become a big challenge for all humanity. There has been an increase in the frequency and intensity of disasters. It seems that the world becoming more prone to disasters. Disasters affect both developed and developing countries. Some of the disasters are floods, windstorms, droughts, and earthquakes. Floods are more common in India, China and Bangladesh. Drought is the deadliest. Nearly 40% of all deaths and disasters are caused by droughts.

India is highly prone to disasters. There are many reasons for this. The geological formation, Geographical location, the long coastline, snow-clad peaks, high mountain ranges, perennial rivers, etc. are some of them. Overpopulation and the inadequacy of natural resources add to them problem. India faces many different kinds of disasters. In all regions there are problems. Some of the major disasters India had in this century are the Gujarat earthquake (2001), the Mumbai-Gujarat floods (2005), the tsunami (2004), the Uttarakhand flash-floods and the Hurricane Phailin in coastal Orissa & AP (2013).

There are direct and indirect impacts of disasters. Some of the impacts are the damage, destruction, death caused by them. Following the disaster, the lifeline support systems are damaged. Healthcare and hospitals come under stress. Commercial and economic activities get badly affected. The poorer sections are the most affected.

To reduce the damages caused by disaster, there is a need for safer buildings.,Disasters like cyclones, tsunami, earthquakes, etc. can cause greater destruction if there are defects in the construction of buildings. The scenario in the developing countries is pathetic. Only 30% of the buildings are constructed as per regulations. There is a lack of any master plar and people construct buildings using inferior quality, materials.

There is a need for safer infrastructure. Both private and public buildings should be constructed as per the guidelines given by the government. Constructions should adhere to the master plan and only good quality materials should be used for construction purposes.

It is true that we can’t prevent disasters and we can reduce their impact. For this, the state government and the central government have to work together. At the state level, there has to be a disaster management committee with all the senior secretaries of various departments and representatives of NGOs. At the centre, there must be a Crisis management committee with the cabinet secretary as the chairman and secretaries of major departments as members. The centre can offer support like air dropping, rescuing, searching, transport of relief goods, rail and ferry services, health personnel and medical support. The rehabilitation of victims is an integral part of disaster management. There should be proper coordination among various departments. The rescue teams should have additional skills, and they should be equipped with the latest technology. If these things are carried out, the impact of the disasters can be reduced and many lives saved.

Activity – III (Think and respond)

Question 3.
What are some of the disasters (natural/man-made and industrial) your locality has witnessed in the last ten years? What were the impact of these disasters on man and nature?
Answer:
My locality has witnessed two major disasters. Bothe of them are man-made. One is water pollution. The local farmers, in their eagernare to get bumper harvests, used a lot of chemical rertilizers and later insecticides on a large scale. Ttoe result is that the water in the area is polluted. The fish in the stream and ponds nearby have died.

Another disaster is the mindless cutting down of trees and building concrete jungles everywhere. With high- rise buildings around you, you feel choked. There is no place for the children to run about and play. Every available piece of land is used for various types of construction. In the summer season the place becomes very hot. All the birds that nestled on the trees around have left the place, which looks barren.

Question 4.
Is your locality prepared to manage any potential disaster? If not, what precautions can be taken to prevent and manage possible disasters?
Answer:
My locality is not at all prepared to manage any potential danger. The streets are so narrow in the township that not even a fire-truck can enter the place in case of a fire disaster. At least the Municipality should take steps to widen the roads so that the victims can be reached in case of a disaster.

Question 5.
The author says that disaster management in India is the responsibility of the state and central governments. Do you agree with this view? Do you think that the people of our country have a role in preventing and managing disasters?
Answer:
I don’t agree with The view of the author that that disaster management in India is the responsibility of the state and central governments. I fully agree with the view that the people of our country should have a role in preventing and managing disasters. Preventing natural disasters may not be possible but we can do many things to reduce the impact of such disasters. Without the people’s active cooperation, no scheme of any kind will succeed.

Question 6.
What do you think about the measures of rehabilitation that are adopted after each disaster? Do you think the measures are sufficient?
Answer:
The measures of rehabilitation that are adopted after each disaster are not good enough. When a disaster happens, the chief ministers and some other ministers run to the spot of disaster. Some half-hearted measures are carried out just to please the people. Often these measures are just temporary solutions. After the tsunami, some houses were constructed to rehabilitate the victims. After two seasons of heavy rain most of the houses became so bad people could not live there. The measures taken are insufficient. Corruption is the main cause for our troubles. The contractors who make the buildings use defective material and the buildings they make do not last. We have seen what happens to our roads. There is no determined effort on the part of anybody to make things work properly. Authorities become immune to criticism.

Activity – IV (Explore the roots)

Question 7.
Disaster = Dys + aster
‘Disaster’and ‘disastrous’ originate from the Greek word ‘astron’ which means star. In ancient times, it was believed that stars shaped human destiny; any misfortune or calamity, therefore, happened to someone because the stars were not favorable. The prefix ‘dys’ here means against. Here is a list of words which are derived from the Greek root ‘astron’: All these words are related to stars. Find out the meaning of these words:
Answer:
1. astronomy = scientific study of the universe
2. astrophysics = the physics of astronomical objects
3. astronaut = space traveller
4. aster – Star-shaped structure in cells
5. asterisk = star shaped symbol
6. astrologer = one who studies stars in relation to human behaviour
7. asteroid = rocky object orbiting the sun

Activity – V (Crossword puzzle)

Question 8.
Here is a crossword puzzle about natural calamities. Use the clues below to solve the puzzle.
Plus One English Textbook Answers Unit 4 Chapter 1 Disasters and Disaster Management in India (Essay) 1
Answers :
1. Twister
2. Tsunami
3. Earthquake
4. Avalanche
5. Lava
6. Famine
7. Ice
8. Landslide
9. Storm
10. Tornado
11. Hurricane

Activity – VI (Project)

Question 9.
The author says that ‘Of all the disasters, floods are the most common. … India, China and Bangladesh are the most affected by floods. ’ In Kerala also we experience floods during the monsoon. The water levels of rivers rise, flooding cities and towns. What are the reasons for this flooding?
Answer:
There are many reasons for the flooding. We can divide them into two categories. In the first group we have natural causes like high rainfall, snowmelt, relief (in low-lying areas rivers flow very slowly and so the water volume increases suddenly) and coastal flooding because of high tides. In the second group we have human causes which include deforestation, poor farming (over-grazing, over-cultivation, etc. which makes the top soil washed away), poor water management and population pressure. All these factors can be found in India, China and Bangladesh.

Question 10.
Investigate the reasons for flooding in your locality. Write a report of your finds. Make an ICT assisted presentation.
Answer:
The reasons for flooding in my locality are high rainfall, poor farming, poor water management and population pressure.

Activity – VII (Collection)

We are highly vulnerable to many natural disasters. While some fail to act in the moments of crisis or become victims of these disasters, some others rise up to the occasion and help the victims. Here is a newspaper report about 4 children who won bravery awards for their timely and heroic action in a moment of crisis.

Read the report on below of the Text.

Bravery award for children

Thiruvananthapuram: Four children from Kerala will be among the recipients of this year’s National Bravery Awards at the next Republic Day function, in New Delhi.

They include Jismi P. M., who was selected for the Geetha Chopra Award, Vishnudas K., the winner of the Bapu Gayadhani Award; and Anoop M. and Raj Narayanan, both selected for the general award.

Jismi, 12, a native of Perinchery in Thrissur district, was chosen for the award for saving a woman and her two children from drowning in a pond. A Class IX student of the Government Vocational Higher Secondary School at Cherpu, Jismi is the daughter of a manual labourer.

Vishnudas won the award for saving two children from a watery grave. A native of Palakkad, he is a Plus One student of the Sri Sankara Oriental Higher Secondary School, Lakkidi.

Anoop, a Class VIII student of the Bishop Kuriyalanchery Public School at Chambakulam, bagged the award for saving a 5-yearold from drowning in a lake. Raj Narayanan, the fourth nominee, was selected for saving a boy from drowning in a river in Alappuzha. Raj is a Class IX student of the NSS High School, Kuttanad. The General Secretary of the Kerala State Child Welfare Council P. Krishnan, said Jismi is the first winner of the Geetha Chopra Award, from Kerala.

Collect such newspaper reports and discuss with your friends how children can act timely in moments of crisis.

Read and Reflect

Question 1.
This story is about a voyage from Liverpool to Calcutta during the British rule in India. It tells how the author and the* hero of the story manage a potential calamity, silently and bravely.

Disaster and Disaster Management in India Summary

Disaster is something that often happens to people. People have experienced disasters in different forms from the beginning of time. The latest World Disaster Report shows that disasters have increased in number and intensity.

People are becoming more and more exposed to disasters of all kinds. They include earthquakes, floods, cyclones, landslides, droughts, accidents, plane crashes, forest fires, etc. This is quite true in the case of both developed and developing countries. The floods in the UK and France, and the heat waves in Europe, especially the one in France in 2003, claimed many lives. In the last few years, America has also faced devastating disasters in the form of tornadoes, hurricanes and cyclones. They caused many deaths and much destruction. Although progress in technology is helping man to reduce the impact of disasters, it is still not enough.

There is a direct correlation between higher human development and better preparedness to manage disasters. The less developed countries are more prone to suffer damages caused by disasters.

Of all the disasters, floods are the most common. They are followed by windstorms, droughts, and earthquakes. Drought is the deadliest, accounting for 48% of deaths due to natural disasters. Asia has the highest number of death toll from disasters. India, China and Bangladesh are in the Asian continent.

India, due to its geographical location and geological formation, is highly prone to disasters. Its long coastline, snow-covered peaks and high mountain ranges and the perennial rivers of the north combine to make the problems worse. India has only 2% of the total geographical area, but it supports 18% of the total population. So, there is a great pressure on the natural resources. This directly or indirectly leads to disasters like floods, droughts, landslides and earthquakes.

The northern region of India faces problems due to landslides, floods, droughts and earthquakes because it falls under the seismic zones III to V. The eastern region has the problem of floods in the perennial rivers which include the Brahmaputra, the Ganga, etc. Drought, heat waves, hailstorms, cyclones, heavy winds and earthquakes are also common here. The north-eastern region has floods, landslides and earthquakes. This region comes under seismic zones IV & V.

The western region is known for severe droughts, wind erosion of land and soil, floods and cyclones. It is also prone to earthquakes. The southern region, particularly the coastal area, is vulnerable to cyclones, sea erosion, tsunami and landslides. The islands of Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep are open to the problems of Sea erosion and tsunami. The Indian coastal areas have faced some of the worst cyclones.

Among all the disasters in India, the tsunami is a relatively new thing. Due to the lack of an adequate warning system, the tsunami of 2004 destroyed a large portion of the coastal regions of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and also the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It killed many people and destroyed properties worth many crores.

India has faced a number of natural disasters. There was also the man-made disaster of the Bhopal Gas Tragedy of 1984. During this century, India faced the Gujarat earthquake (2001), the Mumbai-Gujarat floods (2005), the tsunami (2004), the Uttarakhand flash-floods and the hurricane Phailin in coastal Orissa and Andhra Pradesh (2013).

The direct and indirect impacts of disasters, either natural or industrial, are damage, destruction and death. When disaster strikes, the lifeline support systems like communication, power supply, watersupply and drainage are damaged. Healthcare and hospitals come under severe stress. Commercial and economic activities are badly affected. Life almost comes to a standstill. The psychological traumas caused by disasters are so severe that they last the entire life of the victim. So along with other rehabilitation works, psychological rehabilitation should be given.

The impact is the same even in the case of man made disasters like riots. The most affected are the poor sections of society, who have to work daily to earn their livelihood.

In some natural disasters like cyclones, tsunami and earthquake, it is the building structure that causes the destruction and death. In developing countries only 30% of the buildings are constructed in accordance with the regulations laid down for ensuring safety and security. The lack of a master-plan and the inferior quality of materials used for construction also increase the casualties arising out of disasters. Both private and public buildings should be constructed according to the guidelines prescribed by law. Construction should also be according to the master plan approved by the authorities. Good quality materials only should be used for construction.

The UNDAC (United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination), along with the Indian Government, has jointly prepared an action plan for cities and towns prone to earthquakes. In vulnerable areas, the existing buildings should be technically assessed and owners should be informed about the weaknesses in their construction. It is estimated that nearly a million buildings are constructed in India each year and an equal number of them gets damaged as a result of disasters. To reduce the damage to buildings, a monitoring mechanism should be set up. It should work in proper coordination with the concerned authorities to ensure the fulfillment of building codes.

In the case of disaster management, the state governments play a major role. The central government plays only a facilitating role. At the state level, there is a State Level Disaster Management Committee consisting of the senior secretaries of various departments and the representatives of NGOs. At the national level, there is a Crisis Management Committee, headed by the Cabinet Secretary and the secretaries from the major departments of the government. Thfffcentral government, with proper coordination with various ministries, gives the necessary support to the states. This includes defence services like airdropping, rescuing, searching, transport of relief goods, etc. and availability of railway and ferry services, health personnel and medical support.

Rehabilitation is an integral part of disaster management. Disasters are non-routine events and so they need non-routine services. It means the Government can’t rely on normal procedures to take urgent action. There should be proper coordination among the various departments of the government to bring speedy relief to the victim. The rescue teams have to learn special skills and attitudes in dealing with disasters. They need to be well equipped and should have the latest technologies.

Disaster management has acquired greater importance of late. The purpose is not to prevent natural or man-made disasters. We may not be able to prevent many of these disasters but we can definitely reduce their destructive impact.

Disaster and Disaster Management in India Glossary

Plus One English Textbook Answers Unit 4 Chapter 1 Disasters and Disaster Management in India (Essay) 2
Plus One English Textbook Answers Unit 4 Chapter 1 Disasters and Disaster Management in India (Essay) 3

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