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Kerala Plus One History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 11 Paths to Modernization
There are physical differences between China & Japan. Explain.
China was under Japanese and Western domination for long. The people of China began to react to these changes. They wanted to reconcile themselves with the modern world and recover their lost glory. For that, they had to free themselves from Japanese and Western control. Their two main aims were removing the gross inequalities in the country and rebuilding the nation. They realized that this could be achieved only through a revolution.
In the 1949 civil war, the Chinese Communist Party became victorious. But by the end of the 1970s, the leaders there realized that the principles of the Communist Party were actually going against the economic growth and development of the country. Following this, radical changes were brought in the economic sphere. This brought back capitalism and a free market. But at the same time, the Party retained its political control.
Japan grew into an industrially developed country. But its efforts to establish an empire led to WW II and its defeat. After the War, the control of Japan was taken over by the US. This caused the beginning of the formation of a democratic system in Japan. Japan rebuilt its economy. In the 1970s Japan became a strong economic power.
The Japanese path to modernization was made by capitalist ideologies. Modernization of Japan happened in a world where Western colonialism is dominant. The fast development of Japan underscored the power of tradition in Japanese Institutions and society. At the same time, it showed the capacity of the Japanese to understand things and the strength of their nationalism.
China and Japan have a long tradition of historiography. Evaluate.
China and Japan definitely have a long tradition of historiography. For their rulers, history was a great guide. They had made departments to preserve documents and to write the royal history. The greatest historian of ancient China was Sima Quian (145 – 90 BC). Japan also had given great importance to history. This was because of the influence of Chinese culture.
Naito Konan is a famous Japanese scholar on China. Describe his contributions.
Naito Konan is a famous Japanese scholar on China. His books have influenced scholars all over the world. He developed a tradition using new methods of scientific historiography to study about China. He helped the authorities to establish a Department of Oriental Studies at Kyoto University in 1907.
Naito argued that The Republican Government of Sun Yat-sen showed a way to end the dominance of the aristocracy and centralised power that were in existence in China right from the time of the Sung dynasty. He showed that there are powers in Chinese history to modernise and democratise China. He thought that Japan has a special role to play in China. He somehow lessened the power of Chinese nationality.
In Japan the political system was feudal. Evaluate this statement.
In Japan the political system was feudal. The country was divided into 250 sectors. The administration of s each sector was entrusted to a Daikyo who were a group of feudal lords. Over the Daikyo there were Shoguns. Edo (the modem Tokyo) was the capital. The shoguns often asked the Daikyo to spend time in the capital. This was to prevent any threat from them. The shoguns also controlled important cities and mines. The Samurai were a set of warriors and they were the elite in the administration. They assisted the Shoguns and, Daikyos.
Meiji Restoration was a revolution. Based on this statement, prepare a seminar paper on Meiji Restoration.
Japan was more or less isolated from other, countries. Japan was the only country . that escaped colonization by Europeans. There was only one Western country that had trade relations with Japan and that was Holland. The US had always Wanted the Japanese ports to open for foreign trade.
In 1853, under Matthew Perry, a powerful navy was sent to Japan by the USA. The aims of the US were getting permission for trade and establishing diplomatic relations with Japan. Japan is on the way to the sea-route to China. Therefore the US saw Japan as a good strategic point and market. They also thought of Japan as a place where their ships could refill their fuel tanks.
Matthew Perry returned to Japan the next year also. The government was forced to open two ports for the US ships and do some trade in a controlled manner. The arrival of Matthew Perry caused big movements 1 in Japanese politics. It resulted in the end of the Shogun rule and the restoration of Emperor Meiji. There was a strong protest against the Shoguns that succumbed to the foreign powers. The protesters wanted the restoration of Meiji rule. With this, the image of the emperor, who was until then a nominal figure, increased.
in 1868 there was an open revolt against the Shoguns. The revolutionaries drove away the Shogun from Edo and brought the emperor there, Edo was renamed Tokyo (Capital of the East) and was declared as the capital of the nation.
The new emperor took the title Meiji or Enlightened and became the official ruler of the country. This revolution of 1868 was known as the Meiji Restoration. The officials and people of Japan were aware of the fact that Europeans were building their colonial empires in India and other places. They also knew about the defeat of China by Britain. They were afraid if Japan also would become a colony of foreign powers.
The scholars and leaders wanted to learn about the ideas of Europeans unlike the Chinese who simply rejected them. One section of the people thought that they should learn the technology of the West but keep them away from the country. There was also an opinion that Japan should slowly open its gates to the external world.
A slogan that summed up the ideals of the Meiji Era was Fukoku Kyohei, meaning Enriching the Country and Strengthening the Army or Rich Country and Strong Army. It became the principle that led to the modernization and transformation of Japan. Japan resized that a strong economy and a strong army were needed to resist the foreigners. They saw how India yielded to the foreigners in the absence of these two things. For realizing these aims there was the need to make the people loyal citizens and build a strong sense of unity based on nationalism.
The administrative system of Japan was reorganized. The new government tried to formulate a system called the Emperor System. It was a system that followed the European model. They sent officials to Europe to study it thoroughly and then only they implemented it.
It was a system that gave the Emperor a divine aura. The emperor was considered a direct descended of the sun-god and therefore he deserved maximum reverence. He was also depicted as the leader bringing in Europeanization. His birthday was declared a national holiday. The emperor wore the military uniform of the Europeans. All edicts and orders to establish new institutions were sent out in his name.
In its education system it followed the European model, in the 1870s, stress was laid on the studies of Japanese history so that students could develop loyalty to their nation. The Educational Ministry strictly controlled the curriculum. If chose the textbooks and gave training to teachers. Education also stressed developing a moral culture in the students. The children were asked to respect and show loyalty to their nation and become good citizens.
To unify the country, the Meiji administration brought a new administrative system. The old boundaries of villages were changed. Each administrative unit had to run schools and give health facilities to its people. It also worked as an agency for the recruitment of soldiers to the army, Everyone who had passed 20 years of age had to do compulsory military service for a fixed minimum period. Japan organized a strong army. It brought a legal system that controlled the formation of political parties and meetings and did the censorship. The army and bureaucracy were under the direct control of the emperor. All these activities of the government faced stiff opposition from the public.
The new democratic constitution and the modern army were not ideologically compatible. The army started demanding a more aggressive foreign policy to conquer new regions. This led to wars with both Russia and China and in both the wars Japan came out victorious.
The demand of people for greater democracy was against the aggressive policy of the government. Japan developed economically and built an empire, suppressing democracy at home.
The industrialization of Japan created environmental problems. Do you agree with this statement? Clarify with examples.
With industrialization, the factories became bigger and more numerous. In 1909, there were 1000 factories in which more than 100 people each worked. In 1920, this figure grew to 2000 factories with each one having more than 4000 workers. In spite of all that there were some 550,000 small workshops there with less than 5 workers each.
The uncontrolled and fast growth of factories, the need for natural resources like timber, etc. caused environmental damage. Tanaka Shozo, who was elected to the first House of Representatives, started the first protest against industrial pollution in 1897. This protest in which 800 villagers took part forced the government to take steps against environmental pollution.
What were the reasons behind the growth of the Japanese army and its aggressive nationalism?
The Commander-in-Chief of the army was the emperor. But from 1890, it was interpreted that the army and the navy had independent control. In 1899, the, prime Minister issued an order specifying that only serving Generals and Admirals could become ministers. This increased the power of the army. The army propagated the fear that Japan is always under threat from the Western powers and it increased its strength. The same technique was used to increase its territory. They also used it to suppress the protest of the people against higher taxes and for the expansion of the army.
One section of the people in Japan supported Westernization but another section held fast to traditions: Discuss these paradoxical views.
Scholars had different views about the relations Japan should have with other countries. Some scholars wanted to have cordial relations with the USA and other Western nations which were culturally on top of the world. The Meiji intellectual Fukuzawa Yukichi was highly pro-American. He was of the opinion that using its specialties Japan should become part of the Western nations.
But the next generation was not willing to accept this view of Fukuzawa. They questioned the idea of accepting Western ideas blindly. They gave stress to nationalism based on traditional values. Miyake Setsiirei, a famous Japanese philosopher, wanted Japan to develop its competence for the betterment of world culture. He said that dedicating oneself to the nation is dedicating himself to the whole world.
Another group of intellectuals was attracted by the liberalism of the West. They wanted Japan not to just concentrate oh militarism but on liberalism. Ueki Emori was the leader of the democratic movement in Japan. He wanted the establishment of a democratic government in Japan. He was an admirer of the principles of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, popularised by the French Revolution and he had -the view that students should be given a liberal education for their proper development. He said that liberty is more important than law and order. Another group wanted women to be given voting rights. All these pressures forced to government to declare a new Constitution.
The transformation of Japan into modernity was reflected in the life of the people. Explain.
The transformation of Japan into modernity definitely was reflected in the life of the people. It brought great changes in family relations. Japan had a patriarchal joint family system. Under the elder of the family, many generations lived under the same roof. But when Japan became modern, the old system collapsed and nuclear families replaced the old system. In the nuclear family, the husband earned the livelihood and the wife managed the household affairs.
This change in the system brought changes in the family possessions, family entertainment and even the structure of the house. Construction companies made cheap houses and gave them to people on installment.
After their defeat in WW II, Japan resurrected as a global economic power. Evaluate this statement.
The quick rebuilding of the economy that Japan achieved after their defeat in the WW II is called the Post-War Wonder or the Post-War Miracle. The roots of that success can be seen in the long history of Japan.
Japan had a tradition of democratic protests and intellectual and creative activities. Moreover, the social solidarity that was there even before the War became stronger after the War. It helped in the cooperation and collective efforts of government, bureaucracy, and industry. The demands for many things created by the Korean and Vietnam Wars also helped in boosting the Japanese economy.
The Tokyo Olympics of 1964 was the start of a new era in Japanese history. The high-speed bullet trains that began in 1964 showed the world the competence of Japanese technology. The ability of the Japanese to produce high quality but cheap products by using top technology surprised the world.
When was a Republican Government established in China? Who is the founder of modem China?
In 1911, overthrowing the Manchu dynasty, a Republic was established in China under Sun Yat-sen. He is the founder of modem China.
For the reconstruction of the country, Sun Yat-sen prepared a scheme. What was that?
Sun Yat-sen was worried about China’s fate. For the reconstruction of the country, he prepared a scheme. This is called “Three Principles” or San-Min Doctrine or Tridemism. The three principles are nationalism, democracy, and socialism.
Nationalism meant driving away the Manchus and other imperialists. Democracy meant establishing a democratic government. Socialism meant controlling capital and bringing equality in land ownership.
What is the reason for the origin of the May 4 Movement? What were its goals?
The Republican Revolution of 1911 did not bring any basic change in the society. When the WW I started, China joined the Allied Powers, but Britain did not return the regions it had captured earlier. Naturally, there was a serious protest against the decisions of the Paris Conference. Gradually it became a Movement. This Movement started on 4 May 1919 in Beijing and it was known as May 4 Movement.
This Movement severely attacked tradition calling to save the country through modem science, nationalism, and democracy. It demanded the sending away of foreigners, removing inequalities and reducing poverty. Their other demands were: Use simple language for writing, stop the custom of foot-binding, end the slavery of women, bring equality in marriage and bring economic development to end poverty.
The Kuomintang government was a failure. Do you agree with this statement? Justify your answer.
After the republican revolution, the country entered an era of crises. The Kuomintang (National People’s Party) tried to unify the nation and bring stability and the Chinese Communist Party became the most powerful one.The base of the political vision of Kuomintang was the ideas of Sun Yat-sen. They put forward 4 great principles: clothes, food, shelter, and travel.
After the death of Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek became the leader of Kuomintang. In 1928, a national government was formed by Kuomintang. Chiang Kai- shek was the President of the government. Kuomintang government was a failure. The causes for its failure were its narrow social base and narrow political vision. The Party ignored the farmers. It did not take into account the increasing social inequalities. The Chiang government could not carry out Socialism, which was the main principle of Sun Yat-sen’s scheme for China. The Chiang government tried to impose a military order and suppress protests instead of solving popular problems.
Prepare a seminar paper on the 1949 Chinese Revolution.
Areas to be considered: Background, Chinese Communist Party and Mao Zedong, Long March, Civil War.
In 1937 Japan attacked China. Instead of resisting the Japanese attack, the Kuomintang government retreated. Long wars had weakened China. The prices of things skyrocketed and the life of common people was hard.
Rural China faced two crises:
a) Environmental crisis:
Soil fertility was lost, there was deforestation and there were floods.
b) Social and economic crisis:
Exploitative land-owning system, debt, primitive technology, very poor exchange system.
Following the Russian Revolution, in 1921 the CPC (Communist Party of China) was established. The success of the Russian Revolution had a big impact on the world. Soon the Russian leaders Lenin and Trotsky established the Comintern (Community International) or Third International. Its aim was to end exploitation and establish a world government. If supported all the Communist Parties all over the world. But they had the traditional Marxist view that only an urban labour class could bring about a revolution. Soon Comintern became a means of protecting only Soviet interests, it was disbanded in 1943.
Mao Zedong was the leader of CPC. In the strategy of the Communist Party, Mao brought a big change. He saw the peasants as a great power. He believed that only peasants could bring about a revolution. Thus he moved away from the traditional Marxian view. The success of Mao made CPC very strong and it was helpful in bringing victory over the Kuomintang.
When the attacks from the Kuomintang became intense, Mao and his followers retreated to the Jiangxi Mountain. From 1928 to 1934 he camped here. There he formed a strong Peasant Council. By confiscating land the distributing them to people, he made the Council very strong. Mao wanted to establish an independent government and army. He was aware of the problem of women. He encouraged the formation of organizations of village women. He objected to the traditional system of marriage and brought a new marriage law. It made divorces simple.
In 1934, Mao and his followers left their camps to escape from the attacks by Kuomintang. Their destination was Yanan, 6000 miles away. This march became a historical event and is called the Long March. The Communists who reached Yanan formulated their plans. They gave importance to suppress the warlords, bring land reforms and fight against the foreign imperial powers. This helped them to make a strong social base.
In 1937 when Japan attacked China, the Communists cooperated with the Kuomintang to fight against the common enemy, Japan. But when the war ended, this cooperation ended and the civil war between Kuomintang and Communists restarted. The Communists led a final assault against the Kuomintang and captured the capital Nanjing. Chiang Kai-shek and his army escaped to Taiwan. On 1st October 1949, the new Chinese Republic under Mao was proclaimed.
The basis of the 1949 Chinese Democratic Republic was “New Democracy”. Explain.
In 1949, the Chinese Republic was established. Its basis was a new democracy. This was different from the Soviet Union s concept of the dictatorship of the Proletariat. Democracy means the union of all social classes.
All the decisive areas of the economy were taken under the control of the government. Private entrepreneurship and private land owning were gradually ended. This scheme lasted until 1953, The government declared that there was going to be a socialist transformation. To make industrialization fast, Mao brought in the scheme called the Great Leap Forward, in 1958.
The government encouraged people to establish iron melting furnaces behind their homes. For collective farming, in the rural sector, communes of people were established. In 1958 itself there were 26,000 such communes.
Mao was able to make people ready for working to achieve the aims of the Party. His main goal was creating a socialist man.
A socialist man should have five livings:
love for the fatherland, love for people, hard work, science, and common property. Democratic organizations were formed for peasants, women, students and other classes of people.
Write a note on Mao’s “Great Cultural Revolution”.
To defeat his critics and enemies in 1965 Mao started his scheme called the Cultural Revolution. It was a movement against the old culture and old customs and rituals. It gave more importance to ideological knowledge than professional knowledge. Instead of healthy debates, it gave prominence to slogans. He entrusted the job of making Cultural Revolution practical to the Red Guards which consisted of the army and students.
In the beginning, the CR was a failure. It weakened the Party. It ruined the economy and educational system. The entire country was in turmoil. But by the end of the 1960s, things began to change. In 1975 Deng Xiao Ping came to power and he ended the CR.
Critically examine the reforms made in China from 1978.
Deng Xiao Ping brought many revolutionary reforms. Many of them were of a deviant nature from the Socialist Principles. He made Party control very strong. He brought in a Socialist market system. In 1978 the Party declared its four reformist goals, known as four modernizations. They were developments in science, industry, agriculture, and defence. He allowed debates that did not question party lines.
In the new free atmosphere, new ideas developed. On 5 December 1978, there was a wall writing declaring the fifth modernization. It declared that without democracy all other modernizations were useless. It also criticized the Communist Party for not solving the problem of poverty and for not ending sexual exploitation. But all the demands were suppressed. In 1989 more intellectuals in China demanded greater democracy. It demanded the ending of unchanging ideologies. In 1989 students protested in the Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The protests were cruelly put down by the army and many students died. This incident was condemned by the whole world.
There were debates about the development of China after the reform period. There are three distinct views.
- The first view was that through strict political control, economic liberalization and cooperation with the global market, development was possible. The Party supported this view.
- Many questioned the stress on the market. Critics pointed out that inequalities among social classes and regions and gender inequality would cause conflicts in the society.
- There was also a view that the ideas of Confucianism should be revived. They argued it was possible to build a new society by using their own traditions and without borrowing ideas from Western models.
Evaluate the political changes in Taiwan and discuss the possibility of its unification with China.
Chiang Kai-shek who was defeated by China escaped to Taiwan (Formosa). He went to Taiwan with a lot of gold and priceless artifacts. In Taiwan, he formed a government in exile called Republic of China. Taiwan was once part of the Chinese Empire. In 1894-95, when China was defeated by Japan, Japan occupied this region and transformed it into their colony. When Japan lost in the WW II, Taiwan was again given back to China.
Chiang Kai-shek ruled Taiwan like a despot. His government was repressive. Chiang denied the people freedom of speech and political protests. He also kept the local people away from the administration. But through land reforms, he was able to increase agricultural production and to revive the economy. The economy which was based on trade grew fast and the gap between the rich and poor was reduced. The biggest change that happened in Taiwan was its step toward democracy.
This happened after the . Death of Chiang Kai-shek in 1975. In 1987 the martial law in Taiwan was repealed. Opposition political parties were allowed to function. In the first free elections, the process to bring the local people to power was started. Most countries had only trade relations with Taiwan. Since Taiwan is part of China, it is not possible to have full diplomatic relations and embassies there. The unification of Taiwan with China is a matter of dispute. However, the relations between Taiwan and China are improving. Taiwan has large investments and trade with China.
Japan and China chose different paths for their modernization. Discuss.
Both China and Japan are industrialized but they chose separate paths for their modernization. Japan was successful in maintaining its freedom and in using its traditional expertise and styles in new ways. But the elite class who were responsible for the modernization process made the people develop an aggressive nationalism. It helped in the continued rule by an administration that often suppressed the demands for democracy and social changes.
Although it developed internally, it embarked on an imperial policy. The modernization process of Japan was influenced by Western powers. Even as the Japanese followed Western models they also practised their own ideas. All this affected Japan’s nationalism. Japan wanted to free Asia from Western domination. This was the justification they gave for their own imperial designs.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, China changed a lot. It tried to deny tradition and look for new ways to build national unity and strength. The Chinese Communist Party and its followers tried to end traditions which kept the people in poverty, made women slaves and kept the country underdeveloped. They made a slogan that meant power to people and it raised people’s hope. But the repressive regime often spoilt the beauty of the slogans of liberty and equality. However, it was able to end centuries-old inequalities and to spread education among people and make people aware or the need for change.