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Kerala Plus One Political Science Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 10 Development
Development Questions and Answers
What do you understand by the term development? Would all sections of the society benefit from such a definition of development?
Development and democracy are mutually related concepts. The basis of development is the fruitful democratic participation by different sections of the society in different spheres. The word development is used in two senses:
1) Make economic grow that a high rate, achieve certain goals, complete various projects.
2) Development brings prosperity to people and their standard of life gets better.
Development aims at gains. Only if there are gains, there can be development.
Development has two meanings-narrow and broad. What is the difference between them?
Development has meanings at two levels – narrow and broad. In its narrow sense, it means increasing the rate of economic growth or modernizing the society. In its broad sense, it means bringing progress, welfare, prosperity and the desire fora better life.
Explain the challenges of development.
The more important challenges of development are poverty, unemployment, malnutrition, illiteracy and lack of basic infrastructure. In India, there are Constitutional provisions and some other Agencies that work for the social and economic development of the country. The primary aims of the Constitution are justice, equality, freedom, and fraternity. Governments exist for the realizing the goals set by the Constitution and to bring progress in all spheres, especially social and economic development.
Point out the criticisms of development models.
As developing nations take loans from the World Bank, they fall into the debt trap.
- The fruits of development reach only a small section of the people.
- People without resistance power are forcefully sent away from their habitat.
- Industrialization created environmental problems.
- Overuse of fertilizers and insecticides poisons the soil.
What are the social costs of development? Give examples.
The social costs of development are quite high. Because of the construction of huge dams, industrial works, mining and such other things many people had to be sent away from their abodes and they had to be rehabilitated elsewhere. Because of the loss of their homes and land, the people lose their means of livelihood and poverty is the result. They lose their traditional job skills. They also lose their cultural moorings. For example, for the development of the Kannur airport, many families had to be evacuated.
Discuss some of the ecological costs of development pursued in most countries.
The ecological costs of development are beyond calculation. Still, environmental destruction goes on. Here are some of the ill-effects of development:
a. Air and water pollution.
b. Increase in global warming (increase in the warmth of the atmosphere because of the emission of green gases).
c. Depletion of the Ozone layer (CFCs – Chlorofluorocarbons – used in air-conditioners, etc. cover the atmosphere and this results in the depletion.)
d. Overuse of fertilizers and insecticides poison the soil.
e. The ruin caused to the flora and fauna.
f. Overuse of non-renewable sources of energy and the resultant environmental damage.
g. Deforestation and its ill-effects.
Economic growth cannot be assessed by the number of cell-phones in the country. Do you agree with this statement? Explain.
I agree with this statement. Because of the globalization policy and the progress in technology cell-phones have become very common and cheap. Even very poor people can afford to have cell-phones now. Therefore looking at the number of cell-phones in the country, its development cannot be assessed.
Prepare a note on Human Development Index (HDI).
The HDI is used to measure the welfare of a country. It is the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) that prepares this. Three things are taken into consideration for making HDI. They are:
a) Life Span,
b) Education and
c) Standard of Living.
According to the 2010 HDI, India’s rank is 119.
Identify the factors standing in the way of India’s development.
Some of the factors standing in the way of India’s development are poverty, unemployment, feudalism, inequality, casteism, corruption, communalism, nepotism, lack of basic infrastructure, illiteracy, lack of capital, energy crisis, lack of latest technology and environmental challenges.
Joby: There are several limitations for the present development models.
Jornon : They can be overcome by a new development strategy.
On the basis on this conversation, prepare a note on the alternative concepts of development.
There are certain shortcomings in the present development models. By solving those shortcomings and employing a new strategy we can bring progress in all spheres. Here are some suggestions:
a) Respect people’s rights: When development projects are implemented, it may be beneficial to some sections of the society but harmful to others. For example, when an airport’ is constructed it will help in increasing travel facilities but it will adversely affect many others who will have to be relocated to other places. Their rights for equality, freedom, justice, and democracy are also to be respected in the alternative concept of development.
b) Another problem that is stressed in the alternative concept of development is about the ownership of natural resources. Whose are they? Are they of the local people, of the nation or of the entire humanity? If the natural resources are owned by mankind, even the future generation has some claim on them. It is the duty of the government to solve all these problems.
c) Ensure people participation in the development models.
d) Development and environmental protection should go hand in hand.
Narrate how development and lifestyle are related to each other.
Development and lifestyle should conform to the environmental well-being. People should try to protect natural resources and use renewable energy sources. Rainwater harvesting, solar and biogas plants, small scale hydroelectric projects, manufacturing organic fertilizers, etc. are related to lifestyle.
What can be the role of democracy in development?
Development and democracy are mutually related concepts. The basis of development is the fruitful democratic participation by different sections of the society in different spheres. Real development ensures the protection of the democratic rights of the society.
Name some of the organizations for environmental protection.
- Narmada BachaoAndolan
- Chipko Movement
- Satra-Sahitya Parishad
Match the following:
|Human Development Index
|Protection of the environment
|Food, Education, Shelter
|Basic Needs Approach
|Protection of the environment
|Human Development Index
|Basic Needs Approach
|FQod, Education, Shelter
What do you man Basic Needs Approach?
Basic Needs Approach is a process that ensures man’s basic needs like food, education, health, shelter, etc. If the basic needs of a person are not satisfied, he can’t live a decent life or progress in life as he desires. According to this view starvation deaths and child labor are indicators of nondevelopment.
Prepare a note on world efforts to protect environment and sustainable development.
It was in the 19th century that organizations for the protection of environment originated. They came as a protest against industrialization. But it was in the second half o the 20th century that environmental protection attracted world attention. This awakening was caused by the book “The Quiet Spring” written by the American scientist Rachel Carson. She warned the world against the overuse of fertilizers and insecticides which harm man and nature. It paved the away to establish a new discipline called Environmental Knowledge. Many environmental organizations are active now for the protection of the environment. There are Movements for the preservation of forests, against the construction of huge dams and for preserving rivers.
Green Peace, World Life Fund and Chipko Movement are famous environmental organizations. Chipko Movement was organized to protect the Himalayan forests. Environmentalists say that man must learn to co-exist with Nature in a mutually beneficial way. Man should not exploit nature for his greed and selfishness. Now people are overexploiting natural resources. If we go on like this we will be leaving only deserts, poisoned rivers and polluted atmosphere to the future generations. They ask the government to implement plans to make industries eco-friendly. The 1992 Rio (in Brazil) Earth Summit asked the government s to ensure that development is in conformity with the protection of nature and the environment. This development model is known as sustainable development.
It was …….. who developed the Human Development Index.
Who wrote the book ‘Silent Spring’?
In which did the Earth Summit take place?
Development in which the environment is protected is called ……….