Plus Two Computer Science Notes Chapter 12 ICT and Society

Kerala State Board New Syllabus Plus Two Computer Science Notes Chapter 12 ICT and Society.

Kerala Plus Two Computer Science Notes Chapter 12 ICT and Society

ICT Services

e-Governance

The integration of computers and communication technology for the benefit of government functions to the public is termed as E-Governance by this Govt can serve the public in a convenient, efficient and transparent manner.

A) Types of interactions in e-Governance
e-Governance facilitates interaction between different stakeholders in governance Government to Govemment(G2G)
Government to Citizens(G2C)
Government to Business(G2B)
Government to Employees(G2E)

B) E-Governance Infrastructure
a) State Data Centre(SDC) : It is used for providing e-Governance to Government agencies(G2G), Citizens(G2C), Business persons(G2B) by National e-Governance Plan(NeGP). The services are

b) Kerala State Wide Area Network(KSWAN): It is envisaged to be the core common network infrastructure for e-Govemance and the State Information Infrastructure^!I), connecting Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Calicut. It’ acts as the backbone of SI I.

c) Common Service Centre(CSC): These are the web-enabled points of the government, private and social sector services. They provide services such as Agriculture, Health, Banking, Educational, Entertainment, Commercial, Transport services for the rural citizens of India. In Kerala Akshaya centers are working as CSC.

Akshaya centres : These were launched in 2002 in the Malappuram Dist. In Kerala by the project of Kerala State Information Technology Mission(KSITM). Its aim is to provide services such as e-grants, e filing, e district, e ticketing, ration card application, Voters Id application, insurance and Banking to the peoples of Kerala.

C) Benefits of E-governance
Its main aim is to provide better service to the people at any time and place with high speed. In the modem world it is very helpful and convenient to the people.

  • It enables automation of Govt, services
  • It ensures the participation of citizens hence strengthen the democracy
  • It ensures more transparency hence eliminates corruption
  • It enhances responsibilities of various Govt. Departments
  • Its proper implementation saves time and money of the people by avoiding unnecessary visits to offices.

D) Challenges to E-Governance

  • Due to lack of e-Literacy, there is a difficulty to access the service of E-Governance.
  • High security measures are required because of possibility of cyber attack.
  • Implementation and maintenance requires huge amount and planning
  • Some people refuses to give personal information due to anxiety
  • Various Departments’ integration is needed for the efficiency and effectiveness of e- Govemance

E) Useful E-Governance websites

Address of website Purpose / Service
vAvw.dhsekerala.gov.in The official web site of Higher Secondary Education, Kerala
www.incometaxindia.gov.in Income Tax Dept.
www.keralamvd.gov.in Motor Vehicles Dept, of Kerala
www.rti.gov. in Web site of Right to Information Act
www.itmission.kerala.gov.in Dept of IT mission, Kerala
www.spark.gov.in Kerala Govt. Employees Service and Payroll Management
www.ceo.kerala.gov.in Official Web site of Election commission

E-business(electronic Business)

Providing services or running business through internet is called E business.

A) e-commerce and e-business : Both are different. E-commerce means Electronic commerce. It includes exchange of goods or services through internet that involves exchange of money whereas e-Business includes activities to run a business.

B) Electronic Payment System(EPS) : It is also called plastic money that is electronically exchanging money between two individuals or firms(buyers and sellers) in an online environment.

C) E-banking (Electronic Banking) : Through electronic channel doing all the banking activities at any time and place through the internet.

D) Advantages of e-business

  • It overcomes geographical limitations
  • It reduces the operational cost
  • It minimizes the time and cost
  • It remains open all the time
  • We can locate the product faster from a wider range of choices

E) Challenges to E-business

  • Peoples are unaware of IT applications and its uses
  • Most peoples don’t have plastic money(credit/debit card) and net banking
  • It requires high-security measurements otherwise you may lose money
  • We can’t touch or smell products through online
  • Some companies may not have proper Goods delivery service

F) Useful e-Business websites

Address of website  Purpose I Service
www.irctc.in  Web site of Indian Railway and Tounsm Corporation Ltd. to reserve and cancel train tickets ançi room booking
www. amazon corn  Us based markeung company headquarters in Washington
www.ebay.in  Largest online shopping site in India
www.Iicindia.com  Website of Life Insurance Corporation of India
www.airindia.com  Website of Air India to book/cancel air tickets
www.makemytrip.com  website for reserving and canceling tickets for journey and room booking
www.keralartc.com  Website of KSRTC to book bus tickets

E-Learning

It is the use of electronic media(lt includes text, audio, video, image, animation, etc), educational technology(lt includes Satellite TV, CD ROM, Computer Based Learning, etc) and information and communication technologies(ICT- ilt uses intranet/extranet and web-based learning) in education.

A) e-Learning tools

  • Electronic books reader (e-Books) With the help of a tablet or portable computer or any other device we can read digital files by using a s/w is called electronic books reader.
  • e-text The electronic format of textual data is called e-Text.
  • Online chat Real-time exchange of text or audio or video messages between two or more person over the Internet.
  • e-Content The data or information such as text, audio, video, presentations, images, animations etc, are stored in electronic format.
  • Educational TV channels TV channels dedicated only for the e-Leaming purpose : Eg. VICTORS (Virtual Class room Technology on Edusat for Rural Schools OR Versatile ICT Enabled Resources for Students)

B) Advantages of E-Learning :

  • It can offer variety courses to large number of students from distant location.
  • It saves journey time and money, instructor fees, etc.
  • People can enjoy e Learning with lower cost
  • It enables people to do courses conducted by national or international institutions.

C) Challenges to e Learning

  • Face to face contact between student and teachers is not possible
  • Proper interaction is limited lack of infrastructure facilities
  • Its implementation requires computer and high speed Internet
  • Pupil may not get proper motivation
  • It does not provide a real lab facility

D) Useful e Learning websites

Information Security

The most valuable to a company (An enterprise ora Bank, etc) is their data base hence it must be protected from the accidental or unauthorised access by unauthorised persons

Intellectual Property Right

Some people spend lots of money,time body and mental power to create some products such as a classical movie, album, artistic work, discoveries, invention , software, etc. These type of Intellectual properties must be protected from unauthorized access by law. This is called Intellectual Property Right (IPR).

Intellectual property is divided into two categories

  • Industrial Property
  • Copyright

A) Industrial property: It .ensures the protection of industrial inventions, designs, Agricultural products etc from unauthorized copying or creation or use. In India this is done by Controller of Patents Designs and Trademarks.

Patents : A person or organization invented a product or a creation can be protected from unauthorized copying or creation without the permission of the creator by law. This right is called Patent. In India the validity of the right is up to 20 years. After this anybody can use freely.

Trademark : This is a unique, simple and memorable sign to promote a brand and hence increase the business and goodwill of a company. It must be registered. The period of registration is for 10 years and can be renewed. The registered trademark under Controller General of Patents Design and Trademarks cannot use or copy by anybody else.

Industrial designs : A product or article is designed so beautifully to attract the customers. This type of designs is called industrial design. This is a prototype and used as a model for large scale production.

Geographical indications: Some products are well known by the place of its origin. Kozhikkodan Halwa, Marayoor Sharkkara (Jaggery), Thirupathi Ladoo, etc are the examples.

B) Copyright: The trade mark is ©, copy right is the property right that arises automatically when a person creates a new work by his own and by Law it prevents the others from the unauthorized or intentional copying of this without the permission of the creator for 60 years after the death of the author.

Infringement (Violation)

Unauthorized copying or use of Intellectual property rights such as Patents, Copy rights and Trademarks are called intellectual property lnfringement(violation). It is a punishable offence.

Patent Infringement: It prevents others from the unauthorized or intentional copying or use of Patent without the permission of the creator. Piracy: It is the unauthorized copying, distribution and use of a creation without the permission of the creator. It is against the copy right act and hence the person committed deserve the punishment.

Trademark Infringement: It prevents others from the unauthorized or intentional copying or use of Trademark without the permission of the creator.

Copy right Infringement: It prevents others from the unauthorized or intentional copying or use of Copy right without the permission of the creator.

Cyberspace

EarlierTraditional communication services such as postal service(Snail mail) are used for communication. It is a low speed and not reliable service. In order to increase the speed Telegram Services were used. Its speed was high but it has lot of limitations and expensive too. Later telephones were used for voice communication. Nowadays telephone system and computer system are integrated and create’a virtual(un real) environment. This is called cyber space. The result for this integration is that tremendous speed and it is very cheap. The various departments of Govt, are providing speed, reliable and convenient online service hence increase the productivity. Online shopping, Online banking, Online debate, Online Auction etc. are the various services offered by the Internet.

Through this one can transfer funds from our account to another account, hence one can pay bills such as telephone, electricity, purchase tickets(Flight, Train, Cinema, etc). As much as Cyber Space helps us that much as it gives us troubles.

Cyber Crimes

Just like normal crimes (theft, trespassing private area, destroy, etc,) Cyber crimes (Virus, Trojan Horse, Phishing, Denial of Service, Pornography etc) also increased significantly . Due to cyber crime, the victims lose money, reputation,etc and some of them commit suicide.

A) Cyber crimes against individuals

i) Identity theft: The various information such as personal details(name, Date of Birth, Address, Phone number etc), Credit / Debit Card details(Card number, PIN, Expiry Date, CW, etc), Bank details, etc. are the identity of a person. Stealing this information by acting as the authorized person without the permission of a person is called Identity theft. The misuse of this information is a punishable offence.

ii) Harassment : Commenting badly about a particular person’s gender, colour, race, religion, nationality, in Social Media is considered as harassment. This is done with the help of Internet is called Cyber stalking (Nuisance). This is a kind of torturing and it may lead to spoil friend ship, career, self image and confidence. Sometimes may lead to a big tragedy of a whole family or a group of persons.

iii) Impersonation and cheating : Fake accounts are created in Social Medias and act as the original one for the purpose of cheating or misleading others. Eg: Fake accounts in Social Medias (Facebook,Twitter,etc), fake sms, fake emails etc.

iv) Violation of privacy: Trespassing into another person’s life and try to spoil the life. It is a punishable offence. Hidden camera is used to capture the video or picture and black mailing them.

v) Dissemination of obscene material: With the help of hidden camera capture unwanted video or picture. Distribute or publish this obscene clips on Internet without the consent of the victims may mislead the people specifically the younger ones.

B) Cyber crimes against property
Stealing credit card details, hacking passwords of social media accounts or mail account or Net banking, uploading latest movies etc, are considered as cyber crimes against property.

i) Credit card fraud

ii) Intellectual property theft Copying a person’s creation and present as a new creation is called plagiarism. This can be identified some tools (programs) available in the Internet

iii) Internet time theft : This is deals with the misuse of WiFi Internet facility. If it is not protected by good password there is a chance of misuse our devices (Modem/Router) to access Internet without our consent by unauthorized persons. Hence our money and volume of data(Package) will lose and we may face the consequences if others make any crimes.

C) Cyber crimes against government
The cyber crimes against Govt, websites is increased significantly. For example in 2015 the website of Registration Department of Kerala is hacked and destroys data from 2012 onwards,

i) Cyber terrorism : It is deals with the attacks against very sensitive computer networks like computer controlled atomic energy power plants, air traffic controls, Gas line controls, telecom, Metro rail controls, Satellites etc.. This is a very serious matter and may lead to huge loss (money and life of citizens). So Govt, is very conscious and give tight security mechanism for their services.

ii) Website defacement : It means spoil or hacking websites and posting bad comments about the Govt.

iii) Attacks against e-governance websites : Its main target is a Web server. Due to this attack the Web server / computer forced to restart and this results refusal of service to the genuine users. If we want to access a website first you have to type the web site address in the URL and press Enter key, the browser requests that page from the web server. Dos attacks send huge number of requests to the web server until it collapses due to the load and stops functioning.

Cyberethics

Guidelines for using computers over internet

  • Emails may contain Viruses so do not open any unwanted emails
  • Download files from reputed sources(sites)
  • Avoid clicking on pop up Advt.
  • Most of the Viruses spread due to the use of USB drives so use cautiously.
  • Use firewall in your computer
  • Use anti virus and update regularly
  • Use spam blocking software
  • Take backups in a regulartime intervals
  • Use strong passwords, i.e a mixture of characters (a-z& A-Z), numbers and special characters.
  • Do not use bad or rude language in social media and emails.
  • Un tick‘Remember Me’before log in.

Cyber laws

It ensures the use of computers and Internet by the people safely and legally. It consists of rules and regulations like Indian Penal Code(IPC) to stop crimes and forthe smooth functions of Cyber world. Two Acts are IT Act 2000 and IT Act Amended in 2008.

Information Technology Act 2000(amended in 2008)

IT Act 2000 controls the use of Computer(client), Server, Computer Networks, data and Information in Electronic format and provides legal infrastructure for E-commerce, in India.

This is developed to promote IT industry, control e-commerce, also ensures the smooth functioning of E-Governance and it prevents cyber crimes.

The person those who violate this will be prosecuted. In India IT bill introduced in the May 2000 Parliament Session and it is known as Information Technology Act 2000. Some exclusions and inclusions are introduced in December 2008.

Cyber Forensics

Critical evidence of a particular crime is available in electronic format with the help of computer forensics. It helps to identify the criminal with help of blood, skin or hair samples collected from the crime site. DNA, polygraph, finger prints are another effective tool to identify the accused person is the criminal or not.

Info mania

Right information at the right time is considered as the key to success. The information must be gathered, stored, managed and processed well. Info mania is the excessive desire(lnfatuation) for acquiring knowledge from various modern sources like Internet, Email, Social media, Instant Message Application(WhatsApp) and Smart Phones. Due to this the person may neglect daily routine such as family, friends, food, sleep etc. hence they get tired. They give first preference to Internet than others. They create their own Cyber World and no interaction to the surroundings and the family.

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