Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones

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Kerala Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones (The Harappan Civilisation)

Question 1.
Which site in the Harappan civilization was the first to be discovered?
Answer:
Harappa

Question 2.
At which site was the Great Bath found?
Answer:
Mohenjo Daro

Question 3.
Who was the first Director of the Indian Archaeology Department (Archaeological Survey of India) (ASI)?
Answer:
Cunnigham

Question 4.
From which place were the Harappan people getting their copper?
Answer:
Oman

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Question 5.
Who is the spokesman for the Aryan Invasion theory?
Answer:
Mortimer Wheeler

Question 6.
Who is the author of the book entitled “The Story of Indian Archaeology”?
Answer:
S.N. Roy

Question 7.
Which was the year in which John Marshall declared the discovery of the Harappan Civilization?
Answer:
1924

Question 8.
Match the items in Colum A with those in Column B.

A B
Small settlements Script
Seals Early Harappan Civilization
Lamba Excavations Aadhi Sivan
Pasupati John Marshall

Answer:

A B
Small settlements Early Harappan Civilization
Seals Script
Lamba Excavations John Marshall
Pasupati Aadhi Sivan

Question 9.
Match the following.

A B
Harappan Seals Priestly King
Centre of Power Picture script
Mortimer Wheeler Hill of the Dead
Mohenjo Daro Ayran attack

Answer:

A B
Harappan Seals Picture script
Centre of Power Priestly King
Mortimer Wheeler Aryan Attack
Mohenjo Daro Hill of the Dead

Question 10.
Find the relation between a and b in each group and fill in the blank accordingly.

  1. A. Magan : Oman
    B. Dilman : ……….
  2. A. Fortress : Public buildings
    B. LowerTown : ……..
  3. A. Charles Masson : English Official
    B. Cunningham : ……………………

Answer:

  1. Bahrein Island
  2. Area of living
  3. The first Director of ASI

Question 11.
The Harappan civilization is divided into three stages. What are they? What are their special features?
Answer:
The Harappan Civilization existed between 2600 and 1900 BC. In the same region there were pre and post Harappan Civilizations. The pre Harappan Civilization was called Early Harappan. The post Harappan Civilization was called Late Harappan. To show the Harappan Civilization as separate from these, it is often called the Mature Harappan Culture.

Question 12.
The Harappan city was divided into sections. Explain.
Answer:
The City was divided into two sections:

1. The Citadel.

2. TheLowerTown.

The Citadel (Fortress):
This is built On a manmade platform. It is on the western side of the city. This is the highest part of the city. There are two reasons for its height. Firstly, it is built on higher ground. Secondly, the buildings are put up on a platform made of clay bricks. The fortress is protected with walls around it. Therefore it looks different from the Lower Town. In the fortress, there are tall buildings. They are public buildings. They were used for special public activities. The Warehouse and the Great Bath were the main structures in the fortress.

The Warehouse:
The biggest building in Mohenjo Daro is the Warehouse there. The bottom part of the Warehouse is made of bricks. They still remain there. The upper part was built with wood. It got destroyed long ago. The Warehouse was used to store the left- overgrain.

Question 13.
Point out the importance of the Great Bath.
Answer:
The most important structure in the fortress (citadel) of Mohenjo Daro is the Great Bath. It is in a rectangular shape. The pond is in the yard which is surrounded by corridors on all four sides. To get into the pond there are steps on the northern and southern sides. The bottom of the pond is made watertight using bricks and lime paste. This prevents the water from seeping down and making the water level go down.

There are rooms on 3 sides of the pond. There was a big well in one of the rooms. The water for the pond ‘ was brought from this well. There were provisions for filling the pond with water and to make the dirty water flow out into drains. Historians think that the Great Bath had a religious importance. They think that this Great Bath was used for ritual baths. The Great Bath shows the importance the Harappans gave to cleanliness. It also shows their engineering and technical skills.

Question 14.
Write on a note on the weights and measures of Harappa.
Answer:
To ensure proper exchanges of goods, the Harappans had developed correct weights and measures. These played an important role in the commercial activities. They made measuring weights with a kind of firestone. They also used limestone and alabaster or marble for making weights. Generally, they all appeared like cubes. There were no markings on their weights.

The lower units of the weights were considered as doubles – 1,2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc. until 12,800). But the higher units were taken in normal numeric system (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). Very small weights were used to measure ornaments and beads. Some metallic balances were also discovered.

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Question 15.
From the remains of vegetables and bones of animals, explain the food habits of the Harappans.
Answer:
The Harappans made their living by practising agriculture arid animal husbandry. They had different crops. They also tamed different animals. From the burnt remains of grain and seeds found in the Harappan sites, archaeologists have been able to conclude the types of food the Harrapans took. Archaeo-Botanists, who are experts in ancient Botany, have carefully studied these remains found at the Harappan sites. From their researches they found:

1. The Harappans took different types of grains and vegetables. They used wheat, barley, different kinds of pulses and peas and sesame (gingelly).

2. They also used rice and millet. At the sites in Gujarat, remains of millet were found. Rice was seen only rarely. They were found in Lothal and Rangpur in Gujarat.

3. The Harrapans ate a lot of fish and meat. The bones of cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig were found at the Harappan sites. The studies conducted by anchor-zoologists and zoo-archaeologists show that the Harappans tamed these animals. They had tamed even wild pigs, deer and gharial (large fish-eating crocodile) which are usually wild animals.

4. It is not clear if the Harappans got these by hunting or from other hunting groups. Remains of fish and chicken were also found at the Harappan sites.
Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones 1

Question 16.
What were the agricultural technologies used by the Harappans? Explain with examples.
Answer:
The main occupation of the Harappan people was agriculture. The remains of different grains found in the Harappan sites make that clear. But it is not easy to reconstruct their agricultural technologies. For example, we are not sure if the Harappan people sowed the seeds in ploughed farms. The images found on the seals and clay sculptures show that they were familiar with bulls. From this, the archaeologists think that probably they used bulls to plough the fields.

At the sites in Kolistan (Pakitan) and Banwali (Haryana), clay models of ploughs were found. At Kalibengan in Rajasthan, the researchers v have found evidences of a ploughed field. In this field, there are two different rows of furrows. It shows they cultivated different crops.

Researchers also tried to find out the type of implements the Harappans used for harvesting. We are not sure if they used sickles with wooden handles or some metallic implements for cutting the crops.

Question 17.
How did the Harappan people solve the problem of lack of rain (shortage of water)?
Answer:
Most Harappan sites were located in semi-deserts. Since the land was dry, there was a need for water for agriculture. For irrigation, the people made canals. At the Harappan site of Shortugai in Afghanistan, there are remains of the canals. But in Punjab or Sindh, such remains are not seen. The ancient canals might have disappeared by the accumulation of silt over long periods.

Well, water was also used for irrigation. There were also huge clay jars for storing water for agricultural purposes. (E.g. Dholaveera)
Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones 2

Question 18.
For what all things did Harappans use bulls?
Answer:
Animal husbandry was one of the important means of livelihood to the Harappans. Bones of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, etc. were found at different Harappan sites. Studies made by archaeo-zoologists and zoo-archaeologists show that the Harappans had domesticated these animals. Wild animals like wild pig (boar), deer and gharial (fish-eating crocodiles) were also tamed by them. The Harappans had a special liking for humped bulls. Bulls were used for ploughing, to pull carts and also carry goods. Donkeys and camels were used for carrying heavy burdens.

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Question 19.
Explain the strategies used by archaeological researchers to find out the social differences in the Harappan culture.
Answer:
In the Harappan society, there were economic and social differences among people. The ways they buried their dead, the luxury items they used and the different types of houses they lived in, show these differences.

1. Burials: To find out the social differences among the people, a technique (strategy) that researchers use is studying about their burial rituals. By studying about the pyramids in Egypt the researchers found the social differences among the ancient people there. Most of the pyramids were the tombs of kings. The dead bodies of the kings (pharaohs) were buried with a lot of wealth.

The tombs found at the Harappan sites give some ideas about the burial rituals of the people. Generally, the Harappans buried their dead. But there are differences in digging the’ grave. On the upper edges of some graves, bricks were laid out. The differences in these graves indicate the differences in the social status. The graves with bricks might have been the graves of the rich.

In some graves, there were ornaments and earthenwares. This shows the belief of the Harappan people in life after death. In some places along with the dead bodies rings with shells and beads were also buried. In the digging done at a gravesite in the mid-1380s, at Harappa, near a mans skull, there were 3 shell rings, a jasper (sun-stone), and an ornament made from hundreds of small beads.

Along with some dead bodies, mirrors made of copper were also found. Generally speaking, the Harappans did not believe in burying things with the dead bodies. But in some cases, some expensive things were found in the graves. This shows the social differences that existed among people.

2. Things of Luxury: Another method the researchers use to find out the differences among people is studying the artefacts (things made by people). They divide these things into two types, a) Useful things,b) Things of luxury, in the first category there are things of everyday use. Pounding stone (for grinding grains), clay pots, needles, body-cleaning things etc. come in this category. These were commonly found, in the graves of the lower town where common people lived.

Things of luxury include uncommon things, things made of expensive materials not locally available, things made with the help of complicated technologies and so on. Pots of faience (glazed pots) are examples of this. They are made with local or metallic sand mixed with colour and gum and are made firm in the fire. Since they were difficult to make they were considered expensive.

Only the rich people had luxury things with them. Luxury and expensive things were found in the vast living areas of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. In the small areas, they were not commonly seen. For example in Mohenjo Daro and Harappa.

They unearthed a lot of high-quality small containers for keeping aromatic spices and perfumes In small places like Kalibangan, such things were not found. Gold was very rare and expensive. All the golden ornaments got from the Harappan sites were found in hoards.

3. Different kinds of Houses: From a study of the different houses, we can know about the social differences among the Harappan people. The houses ranged from single-room to multi-storied houses. They clearly indicate the social differences among people. The palatial houses belonged to the rich. The poor lived in single-room houses.

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Question 20.
The Harappan people were much interested in making beads.” Comment.
Answer:
Making beads was one of the things that the Harappans liked most. To make beads they used different kinds of materials. They used different kinds of stones like carnelian, jasper, sapphire, crystal, alabaster or limestone. They also used metals like copper, bronze and gold. They also made use of shells, faience and clay to make beads.

Some bead garlands were made from two different types of beads. The beads were attached together. Some beads were even covered with gold. These ornaments were of different shapes Some were round, some looked like pillars, some were oval in shape, some looked like barrels and some had a crescent shape. Some garlands were decorated with Inscriptions and pictures. Their designs were very beautiful.

The skill needed to make beads differed with the material used in them. Beads with limestone, which were not very strong or hard, were easy to make. Limestone was ground and was made into a paste and from this beads were moulded.

This was helpful in giving beads different shapes. Even now the researchers are struggling to find out how the ancient people could make such fine beads from limestone. Beads made from stronger stones had different geometrical shapes.

Beads were made from carnelian. At different stages of manufacturing, the yellow raw material and the beads were heated to give them red colour. The projections on the surface are removed and the beads are filed smooth and holes are drilled in them. They used special kinds of drills to make holes in the beads.

Nageshwar and Balakot were settlements near the sea. They were centres for making things with shells. With shells, they made bangles, spoons and different decorative pieces. From these places, the things they made were distributed to other places. In the same ways, bead products made in Chanhudaro and Lothal were sent to bigger city centres like Mohenjo Daro and Harappa.

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Question 21.
What all things are considered by the archaeological researchers to find out the centres for the production of various artefacts?
Answer:

  1. They try to find the places from where raw materials for the artefacts came. They include limestone hills, shells, and copper ore.
  2. Instruments or tools for making the artefacts.
  3. Incomplete things, whose manufacturing process is not finished.
  4. Waste material

Question 22.
Point out the strategies used by the Harappans to obtain their raw materials.
Answer:
They collected their raw materials from the subcontinent. They used the following strategies:

1. Establishment of Settlements:
They established settlements in the areas where raw materials were easily available. For example, they made settlements in places like Nageswar and Balakot from where they could get shells. They made settlement in Shortughai (Afghanistan) where sapphires were easily available. They made settlements in Lothal where carnelian and limestone were easily.got.
Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones 3

2. Sending Expeditions:
Sending expeditions was another technique that the Harappans used to get raw materials. They sent expeditions to Khetri in Rajasthan, for copper, and South India for gold. These expeditions helped them to have good relations with the local communities. In these places, beads from limestone made by the Harappans have been found. This shows the relations between the two peoples.

Researchers have found evidences for the culture called Ganeshwar-Jodhpur Culture from the Khetri region. This culture has many types of clay pots and plenty of copper things different from those found in the Harappan culture. There was a possibility that these people gave copper to Harappans.

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Question 23.
Explain the commercial and cultural relations the Harappan people maintained with far-away countries.
Answer:
The Harappans collected raw materials for their manufactured goods (artefacts) from faraway places. This was done mainly through commerce. The Harappan people had commercial ties with Oman, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan and Persia. It was from Oman they brought copper.

In the Omani copper and the artefacts made by the Harappans, there is the trace of nickel. It shows their common origin. There are also other evidences for the relations between Oman and Harappa. From Oman, researchers have discovered a jar covered with black clay. Such covering by clay prevents containers from leaking. We don’t know what was taken in these jars to Oman. There was a possibility that the things sent in the jars were exchanged for the copper from Oman.

There are proofs from literature to show there were relations between Harappa and Mesopotamia. Some Mesopotamian books show that Harappa had relations with regions like Dilmun, Magan and Meluha. Dilmun might the Bahrein Island. Magan must be another name for Oman.

Meluha has been recognized as a Sindhu region. Mesopotamian books talk about the calenian, sapphire, copper, gold and different types of timber from Meluha. This is written about Meluha in a Mesopotamian myth: “Let your bird be the ‘haja’ bird. Let its voice be heard in the palace.” Researchers think that the ‘haja’ bird is the peacock.

There are also scientific proofs to show that relations existed between Harappa and Mesopotamia. The Harappan seals, weights, dice used in gambling and beads show that.

The Harappans traded with Oman, Bahrein and Mesopotamia by sea. Mesopotamian books describe Meluha as a land of sea travellers. Moreover, the pictures of ships and boats found on the Harappan seals show that they were doing commerce using sea-routes.

Question 24.
The Harappan seals were excellent art creations. Discuss the special features and importance of those seals.
Answer:
The most important artefact in the Harappan civilization is their seals. From the various Sindhu towns, more than 2000 seals have been found. The seals are made from soft limestone. They are found in different sizes and shapes – around, square rectangular. On most seals, we find the pictures of animals. Some picture scripts (like the hieroglyphics, in Egypt) are also found.

The seals were used to make long-distance commerce easy. They were also * used to indicate ownership of property and also to decorate houses. In the opinion of A.L. Basham, they were also used as talisman for protection and good luck.

Seals were great artistic creations of the Harappan people. It is from these seals that we learn about their agriculture, animals, birds, trees, dress, ornaments, religious faiths, arts and foreign trade.

To make commerce with distant places easy, the containers were sealed. Goods were packed in bags for sending to different places. The mouth of the bag was tied with a string and it was sealed with wet clay. On the clay, they used to put their seals. If the goods reach their destinations without any damage to the seals, it would mean nobody has done anything wrong with the goods. These seals also helped to know who sent the goods.

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Question 25.
Historians have different views about the centre of power in Harappa. Explain.
Answer:
There are no exact details about who the rulers were and which was the centre of power in Harappa.

  1. Archaeologists found a huge building in Mohenjo Daro. It is considered to be a palace. But nothing about the building or other evidences are available.
  2. Some historians argue that Harappan towns were ruled by Priest-Kings. A stone statue that was found in Mohenjo Daro was considered by them to be that of a Priest-King. Researchers were familiar with the history and Priest-Kings of Mesopotamia.
  3. The statue in Mohenjo Daro resembled the Priest-King of Mesopotamia and that is why the historians thought Harappa too had Priest-Kings.
  4. But we have not been able to understand much about the religions and rituals of the Harappan people. So there is no way to know whether the priests also handled political power.
  5. Some people say that Harappan Society had more than one ruler. They say that regions like Mohenjo Daro, Harappa and others had separate rulers.
  6.  R. S. Sharma feels that it was a group of traders that ruled Harappa.
  7. The resemblance of the goods made, evidences from the planned settlements, similarity in the size and shape of bricks, establishing settlements in areas near raw materials, etc.
  8. make some people think that Harappa had a single ruler. This has become more acceptable. It would be difficult to take decisions on such complex things by consulting everybody.

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Question 26.
The shortcomings in the excavations in Harappa by John Marshal were remedied by Mortimer Wheeler. Comment.
Answer:
Mortimer Wheeler believed that the Harappan culture was destroyed by Aryan invaders. From the narrow street called Deadman-line, which was only 3 feet to 6 feet wide, in Mohenjo Daro, many scattered skeletons of men, women and children were discovered. Along with some skeletons, there were also weapons like axes and spears. It is based on these that Mortimer Wheeler came out with his theory of the Aryan Invasion. Wheeler maintained that these skeletons were of those killed in the Aryan attack.

Wheeler also tried to connect this evidence to the Rigveda. In Rigveda there is a reference to ‘puram’. Puram means fortress or citadel. The warlord of the Aryans is Lord Indran. indran is also called purandaran, which means one who destroys fortresses. It is based on this that some people argued that the Harappan culture was destroyed by the Aryans.
In the 1960s, George Dales, who is an archaeological researcher from America, questioned the evidences of mass murder in Mohenjo Daro. This is what he said:

  1. The skeletons found in the Deadman-line do not belong to the same period.
  2. There are no indications of any destructions or burning there. No skeletons of soldiers were found from there. Even in the fortress, which is the safest point in the city, there is no sign of any resistance.

Question 27.
Point out the special features of the Harappan Scripts.
Answer:
The Harappans knew writing. They were the first literate community of India. What we know about the Harrapan Scripts is from their seals. On the seals generally, there is a single-line writing. That is usually the name of the owner of his title or designation. Such scripts are seen on copper utensils, edges of jars, copper and day tablets, ornaments, ancient signboards and so on.

They also must have been j found, on things that get destroyed fast. Harappan Script is often called Mysterious Script. It acquired this j name because nobody has been able to read it. j Harappan Script had many symbols and signs. Most l writings are very small. Long writings were rare. The longest writing has only 26 letters of signs.

Harappan Script does not have any orderly alphabet. It has a number of signs. It is believed that there are J between 375 and 400 signs in it. Therefore people think that the Harappan Script is a kind of Picture Script. Scholars say that the picture script helped even those who were illiterate to get some message from the writing. Harappan writing was read from right to left, like Arabic or Urdu.

Question 28.
Explain the role played by the Aryan Invasion in the ruin of Harappan Culture. Examine the relevance of the theory of Aryan Invasion.
Answer:
Mortimer Wheeler believes that the Aryan Attack destroyed Harappan Culture. From the narrow street called Deadman-line, which was only 3 feet to 6 feet wide, in Mohenjo Daro, many scattered skeletons of men, women and children were discovered. Along with some skeletons, there were also weapons like axes and spears. It is based on these that Mortimer Wheeler came out with his theory of the Aryan Invasion. Wheeler maintained that these skeletons were of those killed in the Aryan attack.

Wheeler also tried to connect this evidence to the Rigveda in Rigveda there is a reference to ‘puranr’. Puram means fortress or citadel. The warlord of the Aryans is Lord  Indran. Indran is also called purandaran, which means one who destroys fortresses. It is based on this that some people, led by Mortimer Wheeler, argued that the Harappan culture was destroyed by the Aryans.

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Question 29.
Write an essay on the economic system, society and political power centre of the Harappan Culture. Areas to be considered: means of livelihood (agriculture and animal husbandry), production of artefacts, internal and external trade, social differences, palaces and kings.
Answer:
A great culture flourished in the North-Western side of the Indian subcontinent, some 4500 years ago. This culture was first discovered in 1921 at the Harappan site. This was known as the Sindhu River Valley Culture, it was so-called because most of the sites were found on the banks of Sindhu and its tributaries.

Further researches showed that it was not limited to the Sindhu Valley alone, but it had spread even into Afghanistan. Therefore this culture is named the Harappan Culture.

The Harappans made their living by practising agriculture and animal husbandry. They had different crops. They also tamed different animals. From the burnt remains of grain and seeds found in the Harappan sites, archaeologists have been able to conclude the types of food the Harrapanstook.

They took/different types of grains and vegetables. They used wheat, barley, different kinds of pulses and peas and sesame (gingelly). They also used rice and millet. At the sites in Gujarat, remains of millet were found. Rice was seen only rarely.

The Harrapans ate a lot of fish and meat. The bones of cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig were found at the Harappan sites. They tamed these animals. They had tamed even wild pigs, deer and gharial (large fish¬eating crocodile) which are usually wild animals.

Most Harappan sites were located in semi-deserts. Since the land was dry, there was a need for water for agriculture. For irrigation, the people made canals. At the Harappan site of Shortugai in Afghanistan, there are remains of the canals. Well, water was also used for irrigation. There were also huge clay jars to storing water for agricultural purposes.

In the Harappan society, there were economic and social differences among people. From the ways they buried their dead, the luxury they used and the different types of houses they lived in, show these differences.

Burials:
To find out the social differences among the people, a technique (strategy) that researchers use is studying about their burial rituals. The tombs found at the Harappan sites give some ideas about the burial rituals of the people. Generally, the Harappans buried their dead. But there are differences in digging the grave. On the upper sides some graves, along the edges, bricks were laid out. The differences in these graves indicate the differences in the social status. The graves with bricks might have been the graves of the rich.

Things of Luxury:
Another method the researchers use to find out the differences among people is studying the artefacts (things made by people).

They divide these things into two types.

  1.  Useful things,
  2. Things of luxury.

In the first category, there are things of everyday use. Pounding stone (for grinding grains), clay pots, needles; body-cleaning things etc. come in this category. These were commonly found in the graves of the lower town where common people lived. Things of luxury include uncommon things, things made of expensive materials not locally available, things made with the help of complicated technologies and so on.

Pots of faience (glazed pots) are examples of this. They are made with local or metallic sand mixed with colour and gum and are made firm in the fire. Since they were difficult to make they were considered expensive. Only the rich people had luxury things with them.

Different kinds of Houses:
From a study of the different houses, we can know about the social differences among the Harappan people. The houses ranged from single-room to multi-storied houses. They clearly indicate the social differences among people. The palatial houses belonged to the rich. The poor lived in single-room houses.

The Harappans were experts in bead-making. To make beads they used different kinds of materials. They used different kinds of stones like carnelian, jasper, sapphire, crystal, alabaster or limestone. They also used metals like copper, bronze and gold. They also made use of shells, faience and clay to make beads. They were also great traders. They traded with faraway places like Oman, Mesopotamian, Bahrein and Persia.

There are no exact details about who the rulers were and which was the centre of power in Harappa. Archaeologists found a huge building in Mohenjo Daro. It is considered to be a palace. But nothing about the building or other evidences are available.

Some historians argue that Harappan towns were ruled by Priest-Kings. Some people say that Harappan Society had more than one ruler. They say that regions like Mohenjo, Harappa and others had separate rulers. R. S. Sharma feels that it was a group of traders that ruled Harappa.

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Question 30.
Discuss the discovery of the Harappan Culture and the problems connected with it.
Answer:
It was an English Official named Charles Masson, who visited a Harappan village in 1826, that first made an observation about the Harappan Civilization. He happened to see the remains of an old city. The engineers who were building the railway line between Karachi and Lahore in 1856 also found the remains of ancient Harappan towns. These discoveries were quite accidental. The engineers contacted the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Following this, a team of archaeological researchers under Cunningham started excavations in Harappa.

Harappan culture was completely ruined. Gradually memories of such a Culture also faded away from the minds of people. Centuries later, people who started living in those areas where the Harappan Culture flourished often came across evidence of that Culture by chance.

Through floods or erosion, some of the evidence became very obvious. When ploughing the land or digging the ground for hidden treasures, they discovered remains of the ancient Culture. They did not know what to do with the things and implements they accidentally discovered.

Cunningham was the first Direct General of the Archaeological Survey of India. It was in the middle of the 19th century that he began his excavations. In those days the archaeological researchers mainly used books and inscriptions for their studies. Cunningham was more interested in studying about the period between the 6th to the 4th century BC.

To find out the early settlements of the Harappan Culture, Cunningham relied on the descriptions of the Chinese pilgrims who visited India between the 7th and 4th century BC. All the inscriptions that were discovered by Cunningham during his researches were collected, codified and translated. He found that some of the artefacts discovered during the excavations had cultural values. He made special efforts to collect such things. But Cunningham’s conclusions had certain shortcomings.

Sites like Harappa were not mentioned in the descriptions by the Chinese pilgrims on whom Cunningham depended for his information. Harappa was not known as a historical city. Although Cunningham found certain Harappan things, he could not understand their importance.

He also failed to know how old they were. An Englishman had given Cunningham a Harappan seal. Although he inspected the seal thoroughly he could not assess its age. He tried to place it within the time-limit with which he was familiar. This mistake happened because like many others he also thought the Sindhu River Valley Civilization started with the growth of the first cities there.

Question 31.
Explain the salient features of the town planning in Mohenjo Daro.
Answer:
Mohenjo Daro is the most important site of the Harappan Culture. This was discovered after Harappa. It was from Mohenjo Daro that details regarding town planning, houses and seals of the Harappan Culture were got. This big city is situated in the Larkana District of Sind, on the shores of Sindhu River. The word Mohenjo Daro means the Mound of the Dead. The excavations made here brought to light the remains of a great city. The city was divided into two: The citadel and the Lower Town.

The Citadel (Fortress) is on a manmade platform. This is built on the western side of the city. This is the highest part of the city. There are two reasons for . its height. Firstly, it is built on higher ground. Secondly, the buildings are put up on a platform made of earthen bricks.

The fortress is protected with walls around it. Therefore it looks different from the Lower Town. In the fortress, there are tall buildings. They are public buildings. They were used for special public activities. The Warehouse and the Great Bath were the main structures in the fortress.

The Warehouse was the biggest building in Mohenjo Daro. The bottom part of the Warehouse is made of bricks. They still remain there. The upper part was built with wood. It got destroyed long ago. The Warehouse was used to store the left-over grain.

The most important structure in the fortress (citadel) of Mohenjo Daro is the Great Bath. It is in a rectangular shape. The pond is in the yard which is surrounded by corridors on all four sides. To get into the pond there are steps on the northern and southern sides. The bottom of the pond is made watertight using bricks and lime paste. This prevents the water from seeping down and making the pond dry.

There are rooms on 3 sides of the pond. There was a big well in one of the rooms. The water for the pond was brought from this well. There were provisions for filling the pond with water and to make the dirty water flow out into drains. Historians think that the Great Bath had a religious importance. They think that this Great Bath was used for ritual baths.

The Great Bath shows the importance the Harappans gave to cleanliness. It also shows their engineering and technical skills. The plight of Harappa was really bad. Although Harappa was the first site to be discovered, thieves took away all the bricks. This sad plight was noticed by Alexander Cunningham. He pointed out that a huge amount of bricks was taken away. Thus most of the ancient buildings were lost. But Mohenjo Daro was better protected.

Most Harappan settlements had two parts – a higher western part and a lower eastern part. The western part is called the citadel or fortress. It was protected by walls. But there are some differences in some places. In Lothal, the citadel had no walls around. But it was built very high.

The Lower Town was just below the citadel. This was also protected by walls. People lived here. Here we can see good examples of domestic architecture. The houses were made of bricks. The houses were ordered in the Grid System. The houses were built along both sides of the road, with adequate space between houses. The doors and windows were opened to face the central yard. It is believed that the yard was used for cooking and also weaving.

The houses did not have doors and windows that faced the street. All the houses had bathrooms. They were paved with bricks. The drainage system was excellent. Houses were different in size. There were single room and double room houses. There were also houses with more than two storeys. To get to the top stories there were staircases. Big houses had wells. It was dug in a room in such a way that even outsiders could draw water from it. Experts estimate that Mohenjo Daro had some 700 wells.

Houses were built on raised platforms. The settlements were well planned. The bricks were made to certain specifications. The same kind of bricks were used in most constructions. The drainage system in the Harappan cities was excellent. The drain of each house was linked to the drainage canal outside. The drainage canals were covered with bricks or sheets of rock. In some places, they covered the drainage canals with limestone slabs.

It was possible to clean the canals by removing the top coverings. There were manholes in the public drainage. It is believed that the drainage was made first and then came the houses. The drainage system shows the engineering skill of the Harappan people. It shows they had a town administration. It also shows how much importance they gave to hygiene and health. The drainage system was not limited to big cities. Even the settlements in places like Lothal had drainages.

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