You can Download Pre Modern Kerala Questions and Answers, Notes, Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Kerala Chapter 14 help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Kerala Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 14 Pre Modern Kerala
Who is the author of Mooshaka Vansa Kavya?
What was the river basin area in the Tinais?
The farmers who cultivate the land taken on lease are called?
What is Anchuvannam?
A group of merchants
The capital of Perumals.
The author of Perumal Tirumozhi?
What was the name given to the Code of Conduct of the Perumals?
The Brahmin Committee that administered the Sankethams?
Who brought the ‘Cartaz’ system?
The ruler who defeated the Dutch in the Colachel Battle?
The Organizer of Thrissur Pooram?
Write a brief note on the prehistoric period of Kerala.
It is not certain when people began to live in Kerala. It is believed that right from the Stone Age period, people lived here. In the Palaeolithic period, people were hunters and collectors of food. In the Mesolithic period, they made their living by catching fish. In short, prior to the Neolithic period, people made their living by hunting, collecting food and fishing.
In the Neolithic period, agriculture started all over the world. This brought revolutionary changes in the life of people. Although agriculture started in Kerala at this time, people continued hunting and fishing.
What are the professional groups connected with temples?
There were many groups of people working with temple matters. Here are the most important of them:
- Sabhayar – They were members of the Sabha and were the most powerful Brahmins.
- Bhattas and Chattirs – the Brahmin scholars and students connected with the temple salas.
- Tantrikal-They were the Santiadikal
There were also non-Brahmins working in the temples. These are the important ones:
- Pothuval – General Secretary of the Temple
- Akapothuval – In-charge of the internal matters of the temple.
- Purapothuval – In-charge of the external matters of the temple
- Variam – Committee for the supervision of temple work; Thottavariam means Committee supervising the garden.
- Kottikal – Those who beat the chenda (tom-toms, or drums).
- Nanka/Nakachi – Female Dancers
- Chakyars-Male dancers
- Wakidumavar-Distribute firewood
HowwasTamizhakam divided into different Tinais?
In the Sangham Boetfe, five Tinais of different regions are mentioned.
They are Kurinchi, Mullai, Palai, Marutham and Neithal.
Kurinchi is the mountainous region, Mullai is the forest area, Palai is the dry place, Marutham is the agricultural land of the river basin, and Neithal is the shore. In the different Tinais different ways of earning livelihood existed.
What is Kaccam?
We don’t have any clear records about the laws existing in the Perumal period. But we have some indications about the code of conduct existing then. This code of conduct is called ‘kaccam’. Temples and villages followed it. The most important kaccam was Moozhikkala Kaccam. Then there were four regional Systems known as Kadankat Kaccam, Thavaranur Kaccam, Sankaramangalathu kaccam, and Kaithavarathu Kaccam. The punishments for breaking the ‘kaccam’ are shown. They include ostracism, ousting from positions, confiscation of property and ostracising people from social and political matters.
Write about agricultural growth after the Perumal Era.
The production of different crops continued even after the Perumal era. Some small changes, however, took place, until the 18th century. In the wet soil with silt, in the compounds and lands around, agriculture was done. There was a considerable increase in agriculture. Paddy cultivation continued as before. It was the main food crop. Paddy was cultivated in the wet soil and in the low-lying areas between small hills and plateaus.
The evidences available in the Perumchellur and Kilimahur inscriptions show that rice cultivation was continued for long. From the Malayalam Books of the Middle Ages also we see that paddy was cultivated 2 or 3 times each year.
Different varieties of rice was cultivated. Kuruvachannel, Ponkali, Anakkadan, Cholan, Kadan, Modan, Killiyira and Viravittan varieties are mentioned in the book “Unnunili Sandesam”. By the 16th century, all available wetlands were brought under cultivation. Agriculture was spread into the hillsides and valleys of small hills. The black soil fields between Kochi and Kollam were also used for cultivation.
Paddy was also imported from outside Kerala. After rice cultivation, the fields were used to plant banana. Pepper was a cash crop that was extensively cultivated at this period. It was grown in the compounds of households and also in the fields. There were no special groves for pepper. It was cultivated with other crops.
In ‘Sukasandesam’ written in the 14th century, there is a description of the pepper vines climbing on coconut trees. Cardamom and Ginger were cultivated in the compounds of households. Turmeric was brought from Malabar. Nutmeg came from Kochi. Indigo came from Kollam. “Unniyachi Charitam” shows that indigo was sold in the markets. Cinnamon was also cultivated.
Coconut was an important item of cultivation. Coconuts were used for food and trade. In a Chinese book called “Daoyi Zhilue” written in the 14th century, there is a description of the Kerala shore full of coconut trees. Fei Hsin, a Chinese Traveller of the 15th century, has recorded that coconut was exported along with pepper, fish and area nut. By the 16th century, coconut became an important trade item. By the 18th century, area nut farms spread all over Kerala. Area nut trees were found in compounds. There was a great demand for timber like teak and rosewood. Timber was collected from the forests and exported.
As the population was increasing, the cultivation of food crops had to be increased. The crops grown in the compounds were used for internal and external trade. Although there was cultivation of cash crops and food crops, a lot of land in Kerala was unfit for cultivation. It was the forests of Kerala that helped Kerala to have good economic strength.
What were the features of Swaroopams?
Swaroopam was a political center of the 12th century Kerala. It maintained a small army. They were called Ayirathavar, Pathinayirathavar, Padamalanayarand so on. Swaroopams had household deities.
There was something called ‘ariyittuvazhcha’. The eldest member of the family became the Moopan with elaborate rituals. The elevation to this status is called ariyittuvazhcha. It was also called ‘Hiranyagarbham’. During this time the rulers took some fancy titles. SwaroopamlTilid their own land. Their main income was from land. They also had political power over areas under their jurisdiction.
Explain the changes the European brought in the trade of Kerala.
The Portuguese finished the monopoly that Arabs had in the Malabar Trade. By bringing Cartaz system they established their monopoly of sea trade, They got into trade agreements with the rulers of Kozhikode, Kannur, Kochi, and Kollam.
Describe the various reforms brought about by Marthanda Varma.
One of the important steps he took was “Thnppadidanam”. On 3 January 1750, he dedicated the native state of Travancore as a donation to Sri Padmanabhan. By this Sri, Padmanabhan Swami became the owner and the king became his servant. With this Thrippadidanam, any mutiny and criticism against the king would be considered an anti-religious act.
Marthada Varma divided the country into many Revenue Units. The lowest unit was a village. The responsibility of the village administration was given to ‘pravarthiar’. A collection of villages was called “Mandapathu Vatikkal” It was under a manager, similar to a future tehsildar. Travancore was divided into 20 Mandapathu Vatikkals.
Marthanda Varma brought the system of presenting a yearly budget. It was called ‘Pathivu Kanakku’ (Regular accounts).
He organized a regular army. Soldiers were recruited from ordinary farmers. The farmers who served as soldiers were given tax exemption during their service period. This was known as ‘Irayili’. After retirement, soldiers were given a pension. It was called ‘Irayili aduthur’. To train the Travancore army, he got the assistance of a Dutch captain named De Lannoy.
What are ‘Granthavarikal? Name them.
They are a great source for studying the history of Kerala of the Middle Ages. These are the collections of documents by which temples and dynasties transferred landed properties.
To establish one’s ownership of a property, only these documents were available. The following are the most important f them:
- Mdthilakom Granthavari (Padmanabha Swami Temple)
- Perumpadappu Granthavari (Kochi)
- Kozhikodan Granthavari (Zamorins).
- Vanjeri Granthavari
- Koodali Granthavari
Write a note on Colechal Battle.
Marthanda Varma conducted a series of wars against the Dutch. The Dutch made extensive preparations to fight with Marthanda Varma. A Dutch Army with cannons (huge guns) left Sri Lanka heading for Travancore. They landed at Colachel. They attacked arid captured places up to Kotar. Then the army moved to the fort of Marthanda Varma at Kaikalam. On 10 August 1741, the armies of the Dutch and Marthada Varma fought bitterly. The Dutch were routed. Many were taker) prisoners including Captain De Lannoy. Later he became the trainer, The Big Captain’, of Marthanda Varma’s army.
- The Colachel War did a lot of harm to the Dutch. It prevented their further growth and advancement.
- This was the first war in which a foreign army was defeated by a native king.
Evaluate the references found in Books of Literature and notes of foreign travelers regarding the progress in Kerala Trade.
The surplus agricultural production here helped both internal and external trade. Things for daily use were exchanged in the local markets. These included rice, corn, vegetables, coconut oil, banana, and such things. There were daily markets, weekly markets, night markets and village markets for such exchanges. In the UnniChiruthevi Charitram, there is a description of a practical exchange center at Ayanarchira in the region of Valluvanad. Similarly, in “Unnunili Sandesam”, there is a description of a daily market in Karianad nearThiruvalla.
What are Swaroopams?
Swaroopams were regions which enjoyed autonomy. They were controlled by strong matriarchal families. These big matriarchal families had occupied huge areas of land. Over these areas, the families had political and judicial authority. They were political power centers in those days.
In many parts of Central Kerala, there were Sankethams. What were they? Explain their structure and activities.
Sanketham was another center of political power in Kerala. The Sankethams of temples and Brahmins were very famous. They are areas with semi-autonomous rule. In a Sanketham there would be one Brahmin temple and some villages around it. There were two types of Sankethams. a) Those founded by landowning Brahmins, b) Those founded by rulers to show their love and veneration for some deities or Brahmins.
Sankethams had a divine quality about them. Because of that, they were protected from wars and riots. Many Sankethams were administered by a Committee of Brahmins. These Committees were called Yogams.
In the Middle Ages in many parts of Kerala, Sankethams were in existence. K.P. Padmanabha Menon seems them as independent republics free from the control of the king. But the Vancheri Granthavari says that Sanketham was dependent on the nearby chiefs. For the formation of the Yogam, and for law and order problems they relied on the chiefs.
The property of Sanketam was protected by the local army. Such an army was called ‘Changatam’. In return for their services, they were given ‘kavalpanam’ (protection money), usually in the form of a share of the produce.
The spread of Swaroopam and Sanketam led to the growth of different kinds of landowning rights. It also caused the growth of agriculture – both cash crops and food crops. It also brought changes in the agricultural relations in places controlled by-laws relating to Jati Systems.