Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 6 Bhakti-Sufi Traditions

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Kerala Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 6 Bhakti-Sufi Traditions (Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts)

Question 1.
The propagator of the Great and Little (Brahat-Laghu) tradition:
Answer:
Robert Redfield

Question 2.
Jagannath is the form of which god?
Answer:
Vishnu

Question 3.
The Collection of Saiva hymns by Appar, Sambandhar andSundarar:
Answer:
Thevaram

Question 4.
The book known as Tamil Veda:
Answer:
Nalayira Prabandham

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Question 5.
The founder of the Virasaiva Movement?

Question 6.
Under whose leadership did the Arabs attack Sindh?
Answer:
Mohammed Qasim

Question 7.
The common name given to the emigrants in the Middle Ages.
Answer:
Mlechans (the ignorant)

Question 8.
The Founder of Chishti Silsila.
Answer:
Khajamuiddin Chishti

Question 9.
The place where Khawjamuiddin’s tomb is located?
Answer:
Ajmer

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Question 10.
What are Lorinamas?
Answer:
Lullabies

Question 11.
Who is the author of the hymns called ‘Shabab’?
Answer:
Guru Nanak

Question 12.
Who authored the Adi Grantha Sahib?
Answer:
Guru Aijun Singh

Question 13.
What are the different forms of piety?
Answer:

  1. Regular worship in the temples.
  2. Adoration in wild joy.
  3. Recitation of hymns and prayers.

Question 14.
Match the items in Column A with those in Column B.

A B
a) Azhvars Persia
b) Ulamas Devotees of Vishnu
c) Parashika Sufism
d) Thasavuf Islamic scholars

Answer:

A B
a) Azhvars Devotees of Vishnu
b) Ulamas Islamic scholars
c) Parashika Persia
d) Thasavuf Sufism

Question 15.
Match the following.

A B
a) Zimmi Chain
b) Silsila Protection
c) Ziyarat  Pilgrimage
d) Rub Paramatma

Answer:

A B
a) Zimmi Protection
b) Silsila Chain
c) Ziyarat Pilgrimage
d) Rub Paramatma

Question 16.
What is tantrikaradhana? Give two of its special features.
Answer:
Tantrikaradhana is connected with the adoration of Devis (goddesses). Rituals of this kind were in existence in many parts of the subcontinent. Both men and women could participate in them. When these traditions were carried out, differences of Jati and Varna were ignored. In other words, there was no discrimination of gender, Varna or Jati in Tantrikaradhana. The Tantric ideas greatly influenced Saivism and Buddhism.

The followers of Tantric rituals ignored the authority of the Vedas. They tried to uphold their favourite God – Vishnu or Siva. They were in conflict with the principles of Buddhism and Jainism.

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Question 17.
How did the pilgrimage centres develop from the travels of Azhvars and Nayanars?
Answer:
During the travels of Azhvars and Nayanars, they recognized certain holy spots as the abodes of their favourite gods. In these places, they built huge temples. These temples later became pilgrimage centres. The recitation of the hymns written by pious poets and worshiping the idols of favourite gods became part of the rituals followed in these temples.

Question 18.
The Chola Kings encouraged Brahmin-Piety traditions. Explain with examples.
Answer:
From the 9th century to the 13 century, some powerful Chola Kings ruled the country. They supported the Brahmin-Piety traditions. They made land-gifts. They built Vishnu arid Siva temples. It was they who built some of the most imposing Siva temples at Chidambaram, Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapuram. Some very beautiful bronze idols of Siva were also made at this period.

It was the Nayanars who gave encouragement to the sculptors. The Chola Kings encouraged the Nayanars and Azhvars. There were some economic motives behind this. It was the Vellalar farmers who made the economic base for the Chola rule. Naturally, the rulers wanted the support of the Vellalar farmers, who respected Azhvars and Nayanars. That is why the Chola Kings gave their full support to the Azhvars and Nayanars.

Chola kings often claimed divine support. They tried to proclaim their glory by building huge and beautiful temples. These temples were adorned with idols made of stone and metals. The tried to translate the dreams of the popular poets of the hymns into reality. The Kings also encouraged recitations of the Saiva hymns in Tamil in their temples.

They also took the initiative to collect these hymns and make it into a book form (Thevaram). The Chola King named Paranthakan I, got the metallic idols of Appar, Sanbandhar and Sundarar made and they were placed in a Siva Temple. An inscription dated 945 shows this. During festivals, the idols were carried in processions.

Question 19.
Who were Virasaivas? What is the relation of Basavanna with this Movement?
Answer:
In the 12th century, a new pious movement came up in Karnataka. A Brahmin named Basavanna (1106-1168) was the leader of this movement. Virashaiva Movement is also called Lingayat. In the beginning, Basavanna was a believer of Jainism. He had also served as a minister under King Bijala of Chalukya. Because of serious differences of opinion, Basavanna decided to quit Jainism and with his son-in-law, he formed the Virashaiva Movement. His followers were called Virasaivas or Lingayats.

Question 20.
Point out the religious faiths of the Lingayats and show their importance.
Answer:
Lingayats became an important religious group. They worship Siva in his manifestation as linga, They wore around their left shoulder small linga tied on a cord. The linga was kept in a small silver casket. They also venerated Jangama, the wandering Shaivite monks. Lingayats believe that when they die they will get absorbed in Siva and they will not come back to this world. Therefore they do not cremate their bodies. They bury their dead with elaborate rituals. Lingayats challenged the Caste system.

They also objected to the concept of ‘pollution’(untouchability) and rebirth. Because of these views, they got a lot of followers from the marginalized sects. They encouraged adult marriage and widow re-marriage, which were against the teachings of Dharmasastra. They also rejected fasting, sumptuous meals, pilgrimage and sacrifices or yagas.

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Question 21.
What is meant by Zimmi? Explain.
Answer:
Zimmi comes from the Arab word zimma. It means protection. The non-Muslims who lived under Muslim rule were called Zimmis. They had to pay a special tax known as ‘Jizya’.

Question 22.
What are the Five Pillars of Islam?
Answer:
All the people who accept Islam have to acknowledge the Five Pillars of Islam. They are:

  1. There is no God except Allah and Mohammed is his Prophet (Shahada).
  2. Pray five times a day (Namaz/Salat)
  3. Zakat (Almsgiving)
  4. Fasting during the month of Ramzan -e) Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca)

Question 23.
Dinashrams were centres of social life. Justify this statement.
Answer:
By the 11th century, Sufism became an Organized Movement with Quranic Literature and rituals of its own. Sufis began to assemble around centres called Dinashrams. Sufis and their disciples lived in these ashrams. They also became centres for Sufi spiritualism and activities.

Dinashrams were under a teacher called Shaikh, Pir orMurshid. He enrolled members into the Dinashram. The disciples were known as Murids. The relation between the teacher the disciple was a special feature of Sufism. Each Pir nominated his successor. The Pir also formulated the spiritual activities of the inmates, the relation between the teacher and the disciples, and the relation between the teacher and the common people and such things.

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Question 24.
Write a note about the regional traditions in the construction of mosques.
Answer:
The blending of the global creed of the Muslims and the regional traditions was best seen in the Vastu (construction principles) of the mosques. Some of the Vastu of the mosque are universal. They turn towards Mecca (West), the Mihrab (the semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque) showing where Mecca is, and the Minbar (pulpit – from where the sermons are made).

But there are regional differences. There are variations in the top parts of the building and the materials used for the construction. For example, the Atia Mosque (1609) in Bangladesh is made of bricks. The mosque in Srinagar in Kashmir is built with timber. It was built in 1935.

Question 25.
What is Sufism? What are its salient features?
Answer:
It is a mystic movement that developed within Islam. It is a reformation movement. In the early centuries of Islam, a group of people known as Sufis founded this group. They got their inspiration from the Koran and also from the life of Prophet Mohammed. The Khalifa rule was facing ruin at this time. The greed it showed to worldly life and luxury, made many people dislike it. They turned to mysticism and asceticism. They came to be known as Sufis.

Question 26.
Describe the structure and activities of the Dinashrams.
Answer:
By the 11th century, Sufism became an Organized Movement with Quranic Literature and rituals of its own. Sufis began to assemble around centres called Dinashrams. Sufis and their disciples lived in these ashrams. They also became centres for Sufi spiritualism and activities.

Dinashrams were under a teacher called Shaikh, Pir orMurshid. He enrolled members into the Dinashram. The disciples were known as Murids. The relation between the teacher the disciple was a special feature of Sufism. Each Pir nominated his successor. The Pir also formulated the spiritual activities of the inmates, the relation between the teacher and the disciples, and the relation between the teacher and the common people and such things.

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Question 27.
Write about two Sufi Silsilas that became popular in India.
Answer:
Most Sufi groups are known by the names of their founders. The Khadiri group is known in the name of Shaikh Abdul Khadir Jilani. But the Chishti groups are known by the place where it originated. Chishti is a town in Central Afghanistan.

Question 28.
There were among the Sufis who followed the Islamic laws and those who breached them. By what names are they known?
Answer:
They are known by different names like Qalandars, Madaris, Malanga and Haidari’s.

Question 29.
In the worship of Chishtis, evaluate the importance of Ziyarat and Khavali.
Answer:
In the worship of Chishtis, Ziyarat and Khavali were important. Pilgrimage to the tombs of Sufi Ascetics is called Ziyarat. All over the Muslim world, this is practised. Ziyarat is an opportunity to get spiritual blessings. For the last 7 centuries, people from different faiths and classes have been showing their respect to five famous Chishti ascetics. The most important of them is Garib Nawaz (one who offers solace to the poor) of Khwaja Muinuddin. There are some reasons why this became so famous:

  1. The simple life of Khwaja Muinuddin, the greatness of his disciples and the encouragement given by royal visitors.
  2. The first Sultan to visit the tomb was Muhammed bin Tughluq (1324-51). But the memorial here was built with the funds given by the Sultan of Malwa, Giyasuddin Khilji, at the end of the 15th century.
  3. This tomb is located along the trade route connecting Delhi and Gujarat. Therefore it attracted many travellers.

By the 16th century, this tomb became very famous. Even Akbar was impressed by the zealous hymns sung by the pilgrims. He visited this place 14 times to seek blessings for his military operations, to keep his pledges, and to have children. After each visit he gave expensive gifts, it is recorded in the royal documents. In 1568, he donated a huge cauldron to make cooking easy so that food could be given to the pilgrims. He also built a mosque on the premises of the tomb. Music and dance were part of Ziyarat. There were mystical hymns. These were sung by specially trained musicians called Khawals. Their music was capable of giving some kind of spiritual bliss.

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Question 30.
In the relations between Chishtis and the nation, there were cordiality and also confrontations. Do you agree? Justify.
Answer:
An important feature of the Chishti tradition is asceticism. Chishtis kept away from worldly powers. But they did not keep themselves completely away from political power. They used to get donations and alms from the rulers and also from rich nobles. The Sultans gave Dinashrams tax-free land (Inam). For – these they established trusts.

The kings wanted the support of the Sufis to make their rule legal. When the Turks established the Delhi Sultanate, the Ulamas wanted to make Sharia the country’s law, but the rulers did not agree to this. Since most of their subjects were non-Muslims, they knew that the imposition of Sharia would provoke them into making protests. In this situation, they wanted to pretend that they received their authority directly from God. For this they needed the support of the Sufi leaders, it was believed that the Awliya, the Sufi leader, could talk with God to improve the material and spiritual condition of the people. That is why many kings wanted their tombs to be near Dinashrams and the Sufi Pilgrim centres.

In short, Sufis maintained good relations with the rulers and received material help from them. The kings tried to make use of the popularity and spiritual power of the Sufis. But there were occasions when the Kings and Sufis got Into conflicts. Both tried to show their position to be superior. Both wanted people to prostrate before them and kiss their feet. When a Sufi Shaikh was addressed high titles were used. The followers of Nizamuddin Awlia addressed him as Sultan-ul-mashaik- the Sultan of Shaikhs. In such shows of power, there were a confrontation between the Sultans and the Sufis.

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Question 31.
Who were the two poets that visited Nizamuddin Awlia?
Answer:
Amir Hasan Sijzi and Amir K.huzro

Question 32.
What are Maznavis?
Answer:
Some Sufis considered love for humanity as a symbol for showing love to God. They wrote long poems on this symbol. Such poems are called Maznavis.

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Question 33.
Who formed the basis for the Khalsa Panth? What are its 5 symbols?
Answer:
Guru Govind Singh formulated the basis for the Khalsa Panth. The members were supposed to carry 5 symbols with them, they are Kesh (long hair), Kangha (comb), Kara (a metal bracelet), Kachera (cotton under-garments) and Kripan (a curved sword). Together, they are the 5 Ks.

Question 34.
Who was Mirabai? Evaluate her contributions.
Answer:
Mirabai did not have any group of followers or organizations. But she continued to be a source of inspiration for many for centuries. She had composed many Bhajanas. They were all hymns addressed to Bhagwan Krishna. Their hymns I are still used by both men and women, especially those belonging to the lower classes. They are more popular in Rajasthan and Gujarat.

Question 35.
Bhakti-Sufi thinkers used different languages to propagate their views. Explain.
Answer:
There are many sources that help us to recreate. Bhakti-Sufi Traditions. Ancient philosophical sources, Book traditions, New Writings, Hagiographies, etc. are some of them. In the new sources, mostly we have the compositions of ascetic poets. Most of them came out as oral tradition in the languages spoken by people. They were musical. They were collected after the death of their authors by their disciples or fans.

The leaders of the Bhakti Movements were Azhvars and Nayanars. Azhvars worshipped Vishnu. Nayanars adored Siva. Literature Books talk about 12 Azhvars and 63 Nayanars. They composed their hymns mostly in Tamil and a few in Telugu.

Chishtis also used the regional languages for communication and composition of their hymns. Those who were connected with the Chishti Silsila of Delhi used Hindavi. Baba Farid wrote his hymns in the regional language. In Bijapur in Karnataka, a special type of Sufijtymns was popular. These hymns were written inDakhani, a local variety of Urdu. The Sufi teachers who lived here in the 17th and 18th centuries were the writers of these hymns. When grinding grain or weaving, women used to sing these. hymns.

The poems of Kabir are available in many languages and dialects. Some of them are written in ‘Sant Bhasha’. Some of his writings are called ‘Ulat Bansi’. Here ideas are put in a very complicated mariner, probably to show that understanding the ultimate reality is very difficult. Some examples if his mystic experiences are seen in ‘Blooming lotus without flowers’, Tire spreading in the sea’.

To explain the ultimate reality, Kabir used different traditions including the Islamic, Vedanta and Yoga. Using Islamic tradition, he called the Ultimate Reality as Khuda, Hasrat and Pir. From the Vedanta tradition he used words like Alak (who can) be seen), Nirakar (with no body), Brahmam, Atma etc. From the Yoga traditions he used Sabda (noise) and Sunya (Emptiness).

Among the books on God and religion, we see a big variety in language, style and presentation. The simplest writings are those of Basavanna. But the most complicated are the writings called ‘farman’ by the Mughal Emperors who wrote in highly ornamental Persian language.

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Question 36.
Describe the coming of Sufism in India, the founding of theSilsiias and their activities.
Answer:
(Areas to be considered: the growth of Sufism, Dinashrams and Silsilas, Language and communication, the attitude towards the nation.) Sufism is a mystic movement that developed within Islam. It is a reformation movement. In the early centuries of Islam, a group. of people known as Sufis founded this group.

They got their inspiration from the Koran and also from the life of Prophet Mohammed. The Khalifa rule was facing ruin at this time. The greed it showed to worldly life and luxury, made many people dislike it. They turned to mysticism and asceticism. They came to be known as Sufis.

By the 11th century, Sufism became an Organized Movement with Quranic Literature and rituals of its own. Sufis began to assemble around centres called Dinashrams. Sufis and their disciples lived in these ashrams. They also became centres for Sufi spiritualism and activities.

Dinashrams were under a teacher called Shaikh, Pir or Murshid. He enrolled members into the Dinashram. The disciples were known as Murids. The relation between the teacher the disciple was a special feature of Sufism. Each Pir nominated his successor. The Pir also formulated the spiritual activities of the inmates, the relation between the teacher and the disciples, and the relation between the teacher and the common people and such things.

Most Sufi groups are known by the names of their founders. The Khadiri group is known in the name of Shaikh Abdul Jhadir Jilani. But the Chishti groups are known by the place where it originated. Christ is a town in Central Afghanistan. There were among the Sufis who followed the Islamic laws and those who breached them. They are known by different names like Qalandars, Madaris, Malanga and Haidari’s.

Chishtis used the regional languages for communication and composition of their hymns. Those who were connected with the Chishti Silsila of Delhi used Hindavi. Baba Farid wrote his hymns in the regional language. In Bijapurin Karnataka, a special type of Sufi hymns was popular. These hymns were written in Dakhani, a local variety of Urdu. The Sufi teachers who lived here in the 17th and 18th centuries were the writers of these hymns. When grinding grain or weaving, women used to sing these hymns.

The poems of Kabir are available in many languages and dialects. Some of them are written in ‘Sant Bhasha’. Some of his writings are called ‘Ulat Bansi’. Here ideas are put in a very complicated manner, l probably to show that understanding the ultimate reality is very difficult. Some examples if his mystic experiences are seen in ‘Blooming lotus without flowers’, ‘fire spreading in the sea’.

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