Kerala Plus Two Political Science Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 9 Recent Developments in Indian Politics
Unscramble a bunch of disarranged press clipping file of Unni-Munni… and arrange the file Chronologically.
a) Mandal Recommendations and Anti Reservation Stir
b) Formation of the Janata Dal
c) The demolition of Babri Masjid
d) Assassination of Indira Gandhi
e) The Formation of NDA government
f) Godhra incident and its fallout.
g) Formation of the UPAgovernment
Formation of Janta Dal.
Mandal Recommendation and Anti-Reservation Stir.
Assassination of Indira Gandhi.
The demolition of Babri Masjid.
The formation of NDA government.
Godhra Incident and its fallout.
Formation of the UPA government.
Match the following.
|A||Politics of Consensus||i||Shah Bano case|
|B||Caste based parties||ii||Rise of OBC’s|
|C||Personal Law and Gender Justice||iii||Coalition government|
|D||Growing strength of Regional parties||iv||Arrangement on Economic policies|
a – iv ;b – ii ;c – i ;d – iii
Match the following.
|Harchand Singh Longowal||a. Sikkim|
|Angmi Zapu Phizo||c. Mizoram|
|Kazi Lhendup Dorji Khangasarpa||d. Nagaland|
1 – b
2 – c
3 – d
4 – a
Fill up the table given below.
Dr. Manmohan Singh
1990-1991 – Chandrasekhar
1996- 1997- A.K.Gujral
1997- 1998- H.D. Devagauda
2004-2009 – Dr Manmohan Singh
The first Backward Commission was appointed by the Janata Party Government. What is the popular name of this commission?
Identify the name of the Prime Minister who implemented Mandal Commission Report,
Identify the name of the Prime Minister who implemented Mandal Commission Report.
Indira Gandhi, V.P. Singh, Morarji Desai, Lai Bahadur Shastri.
Prepare a time line
a) Mandal recommendation and Anti reservation stir.
b) The demolition of Babari Masjid.
c) The assassination of Indira Gandhi.
d) The formation of NDA Government.
e) Godhra incident and its fallout.
5 Formation of UPAgovernment.
At the end of 1980’s India witnessed five developments that were to make a long lasting impact on our politics. Can you briefly list the five developments.
- In 1989, Congress lost the election. With that election the ‘Congress System’ ended.
- Mandal issue in national politics: In the 1990s,the government decided to implement the job reservations recommended by the Mandal Commission. Reservations were also made for Other Backward Classes. This resulted in a move against the Mandal Commission throughout the country.
- The economic policy changed according to the change in the government. A new economic policy was implemented in the name of Structural Adjustment.
- In 1992, theBabri Masjid was demolished as a result of many things. It was an incident that threatened the unity and integration of the country. It happened because of the coming of BJP with its Hindutva agenda.
- The Murder of Rajiv Gandhi (1991): This brought changes in the leadership of Congress. In the next election, Congress won the maximum seats.
The ‘Mandal Commission Report’ was an important land mark in the political rise of other backward classes. Find out the important findings of ‘Mandal Commission Report’
Since the 1960s, the South Indian States had made reservations for Other Backward Classes. But this was not done in the Northern Regions. In the 197779 period this demand became very strong through out the country.
In 1978, the Janta Party appointed Mr Bindeswari Mandal to find out the groups which are socially and educationally backward and study about their condition. This Commission is known as the Second Backward Commission. This Commission was appointed with the intention of solving the backwardness of certain sections of the society.
In 1980, this Commission presented its report. According to the Commission, the Backward Sections were to be Backward Classes. Apart from the Scheduled Tribes, there were many other classes which should be considered Backward. According to a survey conducted by this Commission, it was found out that their representation was very low in education and jobs. Therefore it recommended t give 27% reservation to these Backward Classes. With the coming of the land reforms, their condition has become much better.
‘Hindutva’ is a recent development in Indian politics particularly after 1986. This policy gave strength to BJP, which changed the political atmosphere of India. Explain the concept of ‘Hindutva’.
Politics in India since Independence It was V.D. Savarkar that brought the concept of ‘Hindutva’. He considered Hindutva as the face of India. The basic concept of Hindutva is considering India their paternal country and their holy land. The belief behind it is that only upon a strong cultural foundation can a nation be built. He believed that only the Hindu culture can give this foundation.
During 1986 two major developments happened. This became central to the politics of BJP as a ‘Hindutva party’. These developments are.
1. Sha Bano Case in 1985
2. Ayodhya dispute
Prepare a short note about these two incidents.
Sha Bano Case: Sha Bano was a 62 year old Muslim widow. She filed a case to get alimony from her ex-husband. The Supreme Court decided the case in her favour. But some Muslims argued that the verdict of the Court was against the Muslim Personal Law. In 1986, as per the demand of some Muslim Leaders, the government implemented the Muslim Women Act. It was against the judgement of the Court. So Women Organizations, some Muslim groups and intellectuals objected to it. BJP criticised this Act as an example of pampering the Minority by the Congress.
Mir Baqi, who was the com-mander-in-chief of the army of the Mughal Empire was the one who got the Babri Masjid built in the 16th century. (The remaining part of this answer can be seen in the answer to the next question.)
The demolition of Babri Masjid in Ayodhya had badly affected the secular polity of India. Identity the consequences of Ayodhya issue?
As soon the news of the demolition of the Masjid came out there were heated arguments between Hindus and Muslims in many places. That State Government was dismissed. In many States with BJP governments, Presidential rule was imposed. A case was filed against the Chief Minister of UP in the Supreme Court. The case was for breaching the court verdict. BJP expressed its regret at the tragic incidents that took place. The Central Government appointed a Commission to study the circumstances which led to the demolition of the Mosque. Liberhan Commission submitted its report after 17 years of the incident.
India is a secular state. As such communal violence is a threat to Indian secularism. But many times the central government and the state governments failed to control communal violence and to foster communal harmony. Anti Muslim riots in Gujarat is an example. Can you carefully explain the Gujarat riot?
In the months of February and March, Gujarat witnessed large scale anti-Muslim riots. It was caused by an incident that took place at the Godhra railway station. A compartment in which the “Karsevaks” were travelling after performing ‘karseva’ at Ayodhya was on fire by some people. Many Hindus thought it was the Muslims who set Fire to the compartment resulting in anti-Muslim riots in Gujarat. More than 1100, mostly Muslims, were killed.
The National Human Rights Commission vehemently criticised the Gujarat Government for not preventing the riots. The Election Commission ordered the postponement of elections. Things happened in such a way that many people suspected that the Gujarat Government was favouring the anti-Muslim rioters. Whatever might be the truth, such things are not good for our secularism and democracy.
In India after 1989 the congress dominance declined and the BJP improved its position. So there is severe political competition and conflict among different political parties. But amidst all the conflicts, a consensus appears to have emerged among most of the parties. Identify the consensus.
In the 1989 election, Congress tost. But all the parties had some common understanding.
- New Economic policies: Although some groups objected, most political parties supported the new economic policies. They believed that the new policies would lead the country to prosperity.
- Parties realized that the political and social rights of the backward classes should be approved. They realized that the backward classes need reservation in education and jobs.
- The difference between Central and State Parties is getting minimised. In the Central Politics, the State parties also have a big role.
- Even when opinions and ideologies differ, there is a tendency among parties to work together in coalition governments. The NDA did not approve the Hinduta agenda of the BJP, still it was able to complete its term without any major hitch.
Write a short note about the anti muslim riots in Gujarat.
In February and March 2002, there were anti-Muslim riots in Gujarat. The immediate reason for this was the incident that took place at the Godhra Railway Station. A compartment in which Karsevaks were travelling was set on fire. 57 people died. Many Hindus thought Muslims were behind this incident and therefore there as large scale violence against Muslims in Gujarat. For almost a month this violence continued. Some 1100 persons, mostly Muslims, were killed in the riots.
Who was the Chairperson of Mandal Commission?
Bindeswari Prasad Mandal
What are the results of the demolition of Babri Masjid?
The news of the demolition of the Babri Masjid caused Hindu-Muslim riots in many parts of the country. The Central Government dismissed the BJP government in UP and imposed Presidential rule in the other States where BJP was in power. A case was filed against the Chief Minister of UP for violating the court order.