Kerala Plus Two Political Science Previous Year Question Paper 2013
After Independence, India had to face three kinds of challenges, Write a note on these challenges. (4)
Independent India faced three kinds of challenges.
- Integrating India
- Ensuring the welfare of the people and development
- Establish the democratic system
When India got freedom, it had more than 500 Princely States. The rulers of these places wanted to get back their sovereignty when the British left. The government approached the Princely States keeping three things in mind.
- The majority of people of the Princely States wanted to join Indian Union.
- Giving some kind of self-rule to some Princely States.
- In the background of the division, we needed States with precision.
Except Junagarh, Hyderabad. Kashmir and Manipur, all the Princely States signed in the Instrument of Accession and joined the Indian Union. Then through a referendum, Junagarh joined Indian Union. Because of popular uprising in Hyderabad against the Nizam, the Indian army took some action and got Hyderabad also into the Union. The Congress Group in Manipurwanted to join the Union, but other parties objected. However, the Manipur king was persuaded and he too joined the Union. Kashmir King also signed the Instruction of Accession to save himself from the attacks of Pakistan and thus Kashmirtoo became part of India.
The division of the country into States on linguistic basis showed that it could accommodate all the diversities. The people can accept the diversities and live in unity. This is the strength of a country. The Telungana protest and the martyrdom of Potti Sriramulu should be remembered here.
Ensuring the welfare of people:
India was a poor country. The country has included provisions in the Constitution to ensure protection to the socially backward people, to religious and cultural minorities and to give all the people equality. Through Directive Principles, the Constitution shows us the way to eradicate poverty and to make the marginalized people come into the mainstream society.
Five Year Plans:
The country has a development model based on socialist principles. We have adopted a mixed economy accommodating both public and private sector enterprises.
Establishing democratic system:
Democracy was a discovery of foreigners. But the big thing was that we chose democracy in spite of the fact that India is a poor country and there are many illiterates here. The first election was called the greatest gamble in history by foreign media. A British member of the Civil Service said that the future generations would condemn this democratic process as a foolish enterprise. The first Election Commission was formed with Dr. SukumarSen as the Commissioner. Illiterate Indians were supposed to think in terms of caste and creed.
But by making a voters’ list based on our secular system and equality, we succeeded in conducting a fair election and we were successful in our democratic experiment Even after 70 years of Independence, we still face some challenges to our democracy. There are new demands for regional autonomy. There is the Maoist threat. There is intolerance, following the integration of Manipur. There is the Kashmir problem. In spite of all these we have been able to maintain our democratic tradition. After the 1975 Emergency, our rulers have been able to maintain the democratic order without any interruption.
Before the first General Election in Independent India, ‘Organisera magazine wrote that “Jawaharlal Nehru would live to confess the failure of Universal Adult Franchise in India”. Explain your views on this statement. (3)
As per the Government of India Act 1935, adult franchise was recognized in India. After independence until the first election Nehru continued to be the Prime Minister of India.
In the first General Election of Independent India Indian National Congress won 364 out of 489 seats in Lok Sabha. Give the name of the party which occupied second position with 16 seats. (1)
Write the name of the first Indian to become the Governor General of India. (1)
The First Five Year Plan (1951-56) sought to get the country’s economy out of the cycle of poverty. Explain the priorities of First Five Year Plan (2)
The first Plan envisaged the eradication of poverty. According to K.N. Raj, India needed a quick, but also gradual, development. Fast actions would jeopardise democracy itself. Therefore the first half of the Plan devoted attention to dams and irrigation. The inequality in the land distribution was harmful to agriculture. So it was thought necessary to make land reforms.
Famous economist P.C. Mahalanobis assisted the planning process in India. Give the name of the Five Year Plan drafted under his leadership (1)
2nd Five Year Plan.
India adopted the pattern of ‘Mixed Economy combining capitalism and socialism. Examine the features of mixed economy existing in India. (3)
- In the economic system both Public Sector and Private Sector work together.
- Private sector aims at profit, but the public sector aims at welfare.
- Strategic industries like banking, energy, transport and communications, railway, and defence are under government control whereas other industries are under private control.
China launched a swift and massive invasion in October 1962. The China war dented India’s image at home and abroad. Write a note on the consequences of Chinese war in India. (4)
In October 1962 China infiltrated into Indian territories which she claimed to be hers. The first attack lasted a week. Chinese army occupied some places in’ Arunachal Pradesh. The next attack came a month later. But the Indian army stopped the Chinese in the western part of Ladakh. China declared a unilateral ceasefire and retreated from the places it had taken.
During the war, Russia kept her neutrality. India had to seek support from America and Britain. The war was shameful to the country. But it strengthened national feeling. After the war, many top ranking officers of the military resigned. Nehru’s close friend and the then defence minister V.K. Krishna Menon had to resign. Nehru was criticised for blindly believing China and for his lack of military preparation to prevent the attack. A no-confidence motion was brought against his government. In Lok Sabha there were a lot of discussions. Later in many bye-elections Congress lost.
The Opposition was also affected by the war. In 1964 Communist Party split into two – Pro-Chinese and Pro-Russia. One was CPI (M) and the other was CPI. The War awakened the nation. The North Eastern region was backward. The Chinese war prompted the nation to keep its unity and to embark upon developmental projects.
At the time of Indian independence, there were two power-blocks in the world, one led by USA and the other by former USSR. India adopted a policy of Non¬Alignment in international relations. Write the main features of India’s policy of Non-Alignment. (3)
The main features of the NAM:
NAM (Non-Aligned Movement) is an organization of countries which do not support any power bloc in the world. It has more than 100 members. After the UN, it has the highest number of members. According to the Havana declaration of 1979, the main aim of the NAM is ensuring the freedom, sovereignty and regional individuality of the member nations.
The organization was formed because of the untiring efforts of India’s PM Jawaharlal Nehru, Yugoslavia’s President Josif Tito and Egypt’s President Gamal Abdul Nasser. It is against imperialism, colonization, racial discrimination, tribal discrimination & Zionism. It works for world peace and security and to build a new international economic structure.
Indira Gandhi made this into a major election issue in 1971 and got a lot of public support. Following its massive victory in the 1971 election, the Constitution was amended to remove legal obstacles for the enforcement of this policy.Write a note on the above policy and the measures adopted to implement. (2)
Garibi Hatao : It was a policy envisaged at the eradication of poverty in India.
On June 25,1975 the Government of India declared a National Emergency under Article 352. Write the major consequences of the declaration of National Emergency. (4)
Because of internal problems, Emergency was declared and the people were in trouble. According to the Constitution, during the Emergency, the Central Government has special powers. During the Emergency, the Government did the following:
- Protests and agitations by government employees were banned.
- Media were strictly controlled.
- Fundamental Rights of the citizens were suspended. Even the courts could not enforce article 32.
- A number of preventive arrests of leaders were made. By doing all these things, the democratic set-up was seriously shaken. The media could publish only things the government approved. Protesting against this. Newspapers like Indian Express and Statesman published their papers leaving some columns blank. Many journalists were under preventive detention. Many Opposition leaders were also kept in preventive custody. The argument for keeping them in jail was preventing any possible violence. Many leaders went underground. The suspension of article 32 was like closing the doors of justice on people. People could not even file ‘Habeas Corpus’. Later article 42 was also amended. We can easily say that the Emergency adversely affected the people in many ways.
Chipko movement was one of the world famous environmental movements in our country. Write a note on the result of the movement. (3)
This was a Movement that became famous the world over. It was started in 1973 in two or three villages of Uttarakhand. The Forest Department prevented the villagers from cutting down a certain kind of trees with which they made their working implements. But the same Forest Department gave permission to a Sports Equipment Manufacturing Company to cut down such trees for commercial purposes. This provoked the villagers.
When the workers came to cut the trees, the villagers stood near the trees embracing them. (Chipko means embrace). This protest spread to many parts of Uttarakhand. The people raised their voice against the exploitation of nature.
They asked the government not to let outsiders come and exploit their resources. They wanted the power to manage them to be given to the local people. They also asked for permission to start small scale industries, protecting Nature and the Environment. They also demanded minimum wages for the forest workers who had no land of their own.
As a result of this Movement, the government issued an order prohibiting the cutting down of trees in the Himalayan side for 15 years. The role of women was great in this Movement. They also fought against social evils like drinking alcohol. With Chipko Movement, people realized that solutions to popular problems could be found through non-political movements.
Medha Patkar is leading a social movement against Sardar Sarovar Project. Give the name of the movement with which she is associated. (1)
Prepare a seminar paper on Kashmir issue.
Write an essary on the issue of demand for regional autonomy in the context of Jammu and Kashmir and North Eastern States. (6)
When India got independence. Jammu-Kashmir was a Princely State. Initially, the King Raja Hari Singh refused to join either India or Pakistan as he wanted to remain independent. The Pakistani leaders believed that since Jammu-Kashmir had a lot of Muslims, it would join Pakistan. The people there were known as Kashmiris. Under the leadership of Sheikh Abdulla there was an agitation to remove the King from power. But he also did not want to join Pakistan. National Conference was a secular organization. It was also pro-Congress. In October 1947 Pakistan encouraged some tribal groups to capture Pakistan. Then the King sought assistance from India.
The King signed the “Instrument of Accession” and so the Indian army helped the Jammu-Kashmir King. There was also a condition that when things become normal there would be a referendum. For the welfare of the people Sheikh Abdulla became the Prime Minister. India granted J&K autonomy.
External and Internal Squabbles:
Because of external and internal problems, J&K is always in the midst of crises. On one side there is Pakistan claiming the Kashmir Valley. After the 1947 War, a part of Kashmir came under Pakistani control. India calls it illegal occupation. Pakistan calls this area Azad Kashmir. Internally also the Kashmir problems is a headache for the Centre. According to Article 370, Kashmir is given greater autonomy than other States. This Article is applicable only to Jammu and Kashmir. The special concession causes problems. Many beiieve that this autonomy given to Kashmir will adversely affect the unity and indivisibility of the country. They feel that Article 370 should be removed. But the Kashmiris feel that the autonomy they got by Article 370 is not enough. Some Kashmiris put forward 3 complaints.
- No referendum has taken place so far.
- The status promised by Article 370 is only on paper, not in practice. They need more autonomy.
- They also say that the kind of democracy implemented in other States of India is not found in J&K.
Politics since 1948:
After Sheikh Abdulla became the Prime Minister of Kashmir, many land reforms and other welfare measures were taken to help the masses. But there was a difference of opinion between him and the Central Government. He wanted Kashmir to be completely free. So the Central Government dismissed him and kept him in jail forsome time. His successors did not get popular support but they administered the region with Central support. The Kashmiris slowly started believing in democracy According to the agreement between India Gandhi and Sheikh Abdullah, in 1974, he became the Prime Minister. He died in 1982.
Resistance And Later:
In the 1987 election the National Conference won with a huge majority. Farukh Abdulla became the Chief Minister. Many believed that he did some manipulations in the election. From 1980, there have been protests against weak governments there. Some people believed that it was the Centre which made this huge majority possible. It led to the Kashmiri crisis. There was resistance. In 1989, there was an armed struggle for making Kashmir independent The insurgents were assisted by Pakistan. For many years, J&K was under Presidential rule. Even as there was strong military presence there, from 1990 there have been frequent clashes between the army and the people who resisted Indian rule. Farooq Abdulla’s government also demanded greater autonomy. In 2002, there was another election. Instead of the National Conference, a PDP Coalition Government came to power.
Secession Movement And After:
The secessionist movement (1969) appeared in many shapes and it took different stance.
- Independent Kashmir without joining either India or Pakistan.
- A group demanding merger with Pakistan.
- A group demanding greater autonomy.
The demand for greater autonomy attracted the people of Jammu and Ladakh in different ways. Often there were complaints against neglect and backwardness. The Central Government discussed the issue with different groups. The secessionists now say that even as they stay with India, they should be given more autonomy.
After 1988 the country witnessed five developments having long lasting impact on our politics. Write three of these events. (3)
- In 1989 Congress was defeated In the elections. With that election ‘Congressism’ ended.
- The Mandal Issue: Ip the 1990s, the Government tried to implement the job reservations recommended by the Mandal Commission. This resulted In many protests from different parts of the country.
- In 1992, the Babri Masjid was demolished as a result of many things. It was an issue that threatened the secularism and unity of the country. It happened because of the Hindutva agenda brought forward by the BJP.
B.P. Mandal was the Chairman of the Second Back-ward Classes Commission that recommended res-ervation for Other Backward Classes. Write a note on the implementation of Mandal Com-mission Report. (3)
Since the 1960s, the South Indian States had made reservations for Other Backward Classes. But this was not done in the Northern Regions. In the 1977¬79 period this demand became very strong throughout the country. In 1978, the Janta Party appointed Mr Bindeswari Mandal to find out the groups which are socially and educationally backward and study about their condition. This Commission is known as the Second Backward Commission. This Commission was appointed with the intention of solving the backwardness of certain sections of the society.
In 1980, this Commission presented its report. According to the Commission, the Backward Sections were to be Backward Classes. Apart from the Scheduled Tribes, there were many other classes which should be considered Backward. According to a survey conducted by this Commission, it was found out that their representation was very low in education and jobs. Therefore it recommended give 27% reservation to these Backward Classes. With the coming of the land reforms, their condition has become much better.
Write the name of American President at the time of Cuban Missile crisis. (1)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is a military alliance under the leadership of USA. Write a note on its formation and the reaction of the Soviet Union to the alliance. (3)
NATO is military Pact and it was signed on 4 April 1949. Brussels in Belgium is its headquarters. NATO was formed to counter the Soviet Union. But the Soviet Union formed another counter military alliance known as the Warsaw Pact. It was signed on 14 May 1955.
The collapse of the Soviet Union had profound consequences on World Politics.Write two of these consequences. (2)
The failure of the Soviet Union made many of its constituent countries abandon Communism and follow democratic ways. Russia, Asian countries, Easer European countries etc were attracted towards organizations like the World Bank and IMF.
- The main purpose was to make communist countries follow the capitalist model.
- Private capital would be very important.
- Cooperative farming will give way to private farming.
- Foreign investment, open market system and currency exchange would be possible.
- The countries of the erstwhile Soviet Union will have the facility to have contact with Western countries and trade with them.
- Using all these, the Western countries made the member countries of the erstwhile Soviet Union come closer to them.
- Many big industries under government control collapsed.
- 90% industries were sold to individuals or private companies.
- The Russian Currency Rouble was devalued.
- Because of inflation people lost the value of their savings.
- In Cooperative farming, people had food security. But now it was not there. Russia had to import food grains.
- In Russia, the GDP in 1999 was less than that of 1989.
- The social welfare schemes were abandoned.
- As subsidies were withdrawn, many people experienced poverty.
- Educational and intellectual human resources were scattered and many people emigrated.
- Privatization made economic inequality among people.
In terms of loss of life. 9/11 was the most severe attack on US soil since the founding of the country in 1776.Discuss the impact of 9/11 and US reaction to it.(4)
On 11 September 2001, 19 terrorists hijacked 4 American planes and made them fly against some strategic buildings in America. Two of them hit the twin-towers of the World Trade Centre. One crash- landed on the Pentagon, which is the headquarters of American defence. The 401 one had to land in field in Pennsylvania. The American Congress Headquarters is nearby there. This attack is known as 9/11 (which means September 11). Some 3000 people died in the attacks. It was the biggest attack America ever faced after its formation in 1776. After this, America started its operation “Enduring Freedom”. It is aimed against the terrorists like the Al-Qaida and the Taliban of Afghanistan.
After the terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre, America started making plans to eliminate terrorism from the entire world. This is the goal behind “Operation Enduring Freedom”. It was against the people who destroyed the World Trade Centre, mainly Al-Qaida and Taliban. Americans arrested the suspects even without the knowledge of the governments of the countries of which they were citizens. They were brought to America and kept in secret jails. Some were taken to the American Naval Base near the Bay of Guantanamo. Neither the American laws nor international laws came to the rescue of these suspects. Even members of the UN were not allowed to visit these prisoners.
We can identify three constraints on American Power. Write two of these. (2)
In America, authority is divided. There the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary have powers. The President can’t use the military power the way he feels. Another restriction comes from the Mass media. Mass media frequently try to find out the views of the people. They try to evaluate the style of government and the politics of the country. American military actions also will be an important subject for discussion and evaluation. It is the mass media that plays a big role in the opinion formation.
The European Union has started to act more as a nationstate.’ Do you agree with the above statement? Give reasons for your argument. (4)
Yes, I agree. EU is an organization that was formed after the disintegration of the Soviet Union. It came into existence after the Maastricht Treaty. It has 27 members. It is supposed to be an effort to unify the political and economic matters of Europe. Common currency and a common flag, European Commission and Central Bank etc. make the EU the greatest economic power in the world.
The Government of India and Bangladesh have difference over several issue. Write three such issues.(2)
- Indo-Bangladesh border problems.
- Dispute about river waters.
- Refugee problem – illegal emigration
SAARC members signed the South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) in 2004.
Write the aim of SAFTA. (2)
- Reduce trade (commercial) tax up to 20%.
- Ensure mutual cooperation and peace among member countries.
The UN is an imperfect body but without it the world would be worse off.
In the light of the above statement write an essay on the role of UN in maintaining world peace.
Critically evaluate the structure and functioning of UN Security Council. (6)
It was the realization that war would bring only ruin to mankind that prompted strong nations to think about peace. They realized that a 3rd world war would destroy humankind itself and they so they wanted lasting peace. In San Francisco in California, representatives from 50 countries met from 25 April to 26 June 1945 and formed the UN Charter. On October 24 1945, the UN formally came into existence.
The headquarters of the UN is situated in a 15-acre area in the Manhattan Island. This space was donated by John D. Rockefeller. The first meeting of the UN took place in London in 1946.
Security Council has 5 permanent members. If any of these votes against a resolution, it would be cancelled. This special power given to the permanent members is called veto power.
This carries out the day-today activities of the UN. Its head is the Secretary General, who will be in power for 5 years. He should be a person who does not have any special loyalty to, or interest in, any particular country. There are Under Secretary- Generals and Asstt. Secretary Generals and Deputy Secretary General.
When all the members of the UN meet together it is called the World Parliament. Its first meeting was in London in 1964. At present the UN has 193 member countries. In 2002, Montenegro joined the UN as its the 192nd member and later South Sudan joined as the 193rd member. Each country can send 5 representatives to the General Assembly. But each country has only one vote. Once every yearthe General Assembly will meet.
Security Council decides on the administrative policies of the UN. Its main concerns are International peace and security. It is the Security Council that decides about the membership of any country. It has 15 members. America, China, Britain, Frances and Russia are the permanent members. India, Brazil, South Africa, Japan and Germany are 1 countries that are trying to get permanent membership.
Security Council has 5 permanent members and 10 members who are chosen for a period of 2 years. The Chairmanship of the Council will be on a rotating basis each month. Its responsibilities are settling disputes between nations, plan arms control activities, resist attacks and take military action against the attacker, recommend the appointment of the Secretary General, recommend the inclusion of new members in the UN, etc. To take decisions on any matter there should be at 9 votes in favour including the 5 votes of the permanent members.
Economic and Cultural Council:
This has 54 members. It channelizes the working of the main agencies of the UN.
International Court of Justice:
This solves the disputes between member nations. Its headquarters is Hague in Netherlands. It consists of 15 judges, who are appointed for a period of nine years. The first Indian to be appointed as a judge here is Justice Narenda Singh. BN Rao and RS Pathak also served as judges later.
This is a Council that administers regions that do not have their own governments. When the colonies of the European countries got their freedom, this Council administered them. It had 11 members. With the freedom of Palao, this Council has stopped working.
UN is the biggest organization in the world. It is nofa world government, it has no right to question the freedom and sovereignty of any country. Its main aim is the welfare of mankind. It is a common venue for settling disputes among member nations. Any free nation can become its member. It does not differentiate countries on the basis of size or wealth. Every country has equal right in the UN. Now the country has 193 members, the last member is South Sudan. In 1945, Fifty nations met in San Francisco and made the UN Charter. India was among the 50 nations. The working of the UN is based on this Charter. It has the status of the UN Constitution.
Write a note on terrorism as a threat to security in the world. (4)
Political attacks make the life of ordinary citizens difficult. The terrorists want the political circumstances to change. They try to bring about changes by threats or armed attacks. By unleashing violence, they make the people restless. They try to make the dislike and discontentment of the people their weapon against governments. Their activities include hijacking planes and bombing trains and markets and other places where people assemble. They attacked and destroyed the World Trade Centre in New York on 11 September 2001, The government and the people are more cautious now against terrorists.
The Earth Summit in 1992 addressed the issue of Global Environmental Protection. Write the significance of this summit. (2)
The environment is facing a lot of threats. The emission of carbon dioxide in huge quantities and pollution resulting from it, the greenhouse effect, the holes in the Ozone layer etc. are huge problems.. The 1992 Earth Summit took decisions to lessen the impact of all these on the environment by taking appropriate measures. It wants to preserve the earth and the environment for the future generations by embarking on schemes of sustainable development and not over exploitation of earth’s resources.
Globalisation has political economic and cultural con-sequences.Illustrate the above statement. (4)
The concept of globalization is the exchange of ideas, materials and human resources. Now this exchange is possible among nations without much control. Looked at this.way, it assumes different levels of political, economic and cultural meanings. In his sense it has merits and demerits. Some societies may be affected only very little, but some may be affected much more. Let us see how it works: Political results: Politically speaking, the authority of the government gets weaker.
It will have to reduce its welfare schemes. Instead of social welfare, the stress is on the market. With the coming MNCs (Multi National Corporations), it becomes difficult for the governments to take independent decisions. According to the advocates of globalization, no political power of the government is lost. The essential things will remain under the authority of the government. Since technology has advanced so much, governments can do a lot. Technology helps governments to know the details of their citizens and make the administration efficient.
Globalization has influenced the economic sphere greatly. World Bank, IMF, WTO etc, play big roles. All these are controlled mainly by America and its allies. The world economy itself has come under their influence. In this, a re-thinking is necessary. It is high time that we found out who the beneficiaries of globalization are.
As a result of globalization, import controls are reduced or removed. The developed nations can now invest their capital in the developing nations. Investing in the developing nations is more profitable. Technologies develop without any limits of borders. But regarding the movement of people, the developed nations have made certain rules. Their countries are kept safe from foreign workers through the policy of Visa. Because of the visa rules, the jobs of their citizens are not taken away by emigrants.There are arguments in favour and against economic globalization.
Although the policy is the same, different places get different results. Those who think of social justice can look at the limitations on government only as a demerit of globalization. Those who are economically backward need some special security not to suffer from the demerits of globalization. Some people believe that globalization makes the poor people poorer and so it must be stopped. But globalization brings about huge economic growth and the social welfare of many. Large scale commerce makes the economy better. It is not easy to prevent globalization in the forward march of history.