Kerala Plus Two Political Science Previous Year Question Paper 2014
“The first Five Year Plan concentrated on the agrarian sector of our country” whether this step made any benefit on our economy? Express your view on this. (2)
The first Five Year Plan aimed at improving agriculture. Here, stress was given to dams and irrigation. The land distribution was quite defective and so in the first Plan, stress was given to land reforms to rectify the situation.
Match the following : (2)
Sant Harchand – Mizo National Front
Indira Gandhi – Prime MinisterofKashmir
Lai Denga – Akali Dal
SheikAbdullah – Operation Bluestar
Sant Harchand Singh Longoval – Akali Dal Indira Gandhi – Operation Blue Star
Lai Denga – Mizo National Front Sheikh Abdullah – Kashmir Prime Minister
Explain the Punjab issue in the light of Ananthapur Sahib Resolution. How the issue resolved? (4)
The Indo-Pakistan division and the formation of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh caused the social situation in Punjab change. Punjab State came into existence in 1966 on linguistic basis. Akali Dal propa gated an idea called ‘Punjabi Suba’ and Indira Gandhi approved this demand. Thus Punjab was divided into Punjab and Haryana. Harýana was for the Hindi- speaking people and Punjab for the Punjabi speak ers. Even in the 1967 election, Akali Dal came to power in Punjab by making agreements first with Jan Sangh and later with Janta Party.
Because of certain reasons, the situation became bad for Akali Dal and before completing the term, the government was dismissed by the Centre. The Akali Dal could not get the support of the Hindus. The Sikh Com munityitself was divided on tribal and caste lines. The Dalits supported Congress. In 1970, a group of Akalis demanded political autonomy. They also said that there should be rethinking about Centre State relationship. In 1973, in Anandapur, they passed a resolution supporting this idea. They de manded a Sikh Kaum (Sikh Nation) through this resolution.
This resolution made only the Sikh community happy. In 1980 the Akali Government was dismissed. The Akali Dal leaders tried to prevent the sharing of river water. Some religious leaders also demanded freedom for the Sikh nation. The worst was the demand for an independent Khalistan.
Pakistan is not a stable democratic state. What are reasons for the failure of Pakistan in building a stable democracy? (2)
Because of the following reasons Pakistan does not have a stable democracy:
a. Interference by the army, priests and landlords in the administration.
b. Because of the dispute between India and Pakistan, the Pakistani army acquired great power.
c. Lack of international support for the democratic governments often helped the military to come to power.
d. America and some other Western countries prefer a military government in Pakistan. They are afraid that democracy there would make Muslim extremism grow and the extremists might get control over the nuclear weapons in the possession of Pakistan. They think military rule is better for the safety of the Western and Southern Asian regions.
Name the member nations of SAARC. (2)
- Sri Lanka
Name the common currency of European Union. (1)
ASEAN is developing as an alternative centre of power in the present-day world. Explain the objectives of ASEAN. (3)
ASEAN is an organization of South East Asian Nations. It was formed after the declaration made at Bangkok. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and Brunei are the embers of ASEAN. Its objectives are: quick progress in the economic condition of the member nations, social and cultural progress, protecting peace and stability in the region and settling disputes amicably among member countries.
‘On 25th June 1975 emergency declared throughout the country.’ Explain the circumstances which led to the declaration of emergency in the country. (4)
By June 1975, the enmity between the ruling party and the opposition became very strong. Jay Prakash Narayan demanded the resignation of Mrs. Gandhi. On 25 June 1975 there was a big protest on the Ramlila Ground in Delhi. There also he demanded
Mrs Gandhi’s’ resignation. He declared he would start a satyagraha. He asked the police and government employees not to obey any rule that was not normal. Government felt it could not continue working. Many people were against Congress As a reaction to all this, on 25 June 1975, Indira Gandhi declared an Emergency saying that there was threat to the internal security of the country.
‘Anti Arrack Movement in Andhra Pradesh was not a mere strike against the liquor mafia of the region, but it had wider perspectives’. How did the Anti-Arrack Movement contribute a great deal in increasing social awareness on women’s questions? (4)
In the 1990s, many women in Nellur in Andhra became literate. In the class, women spoke about the drinking habits of their men-folk. Drinking alcohol causes both physical and mental harm. It also adversely affects the economic situation of the family. Men do not go to work. The manufacturers of various kinds of alcoholic beverages make money by using all sorts of illegal means. It is the women that suffer because of the drinking habit of men. The women in Nellur protested against alcoholism and forced a wine shop to close down. This news spread like wild fire into some 5000 villages. They held meetings and passed resolutions and sent them to the Collectors. The arrack auction in Nellur had to be postponed 17 times. The protest in Nellur spread to the rest of the State.
Name the political leader who raised the popular slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’? (1)
Enumerate the strategies adopted by Mrs. Indira Gandhi to increase her popular support and to win the 1971 Lok Sabha elections. (4)
Raised the slogan “Garibi Hatao’.
Gave a boost to land reform measures.
Nationalized some major banks.
Got support from the regional parties striving for their development.
Match the following leaders listed in A with the parties in list B. (2)
A – B
Acharya Narendra Dey – Bharatiya Jan Sang h
EMS Namboodinpad – Swathantratha Party
C. Rajagopalachary – Communist Party
Syamaprasad Mukherjee – Socialist Party
Acharya Narendra Dev – Socialist Party E.JVI.S. Namboodiripad – Communist Party C. Rajagopalachari – Swat’antra Party Shyamaprasad Mukherjee- Bhartiya Jan Sangh
USA is often symbolized as the ‘World Police’. This term is used to indicate the hegemony of America in world politics. Explain the different dimensions of American hegemony in international politics? (6)
World nations try to gain and maintain dominance over others by using military, economic and cultural power. During the Cold War the fight was between the Soviet Union and America. With the disintegration of the Soviet, Union America remains the only Superpower. Dominance or hegemony is attained through three things:
- Hard Power
- Structural Power
- Soft Power
Hard Power: This includes military power and the relations between nations. Today America is in the forefront of military power. There is nobody to challenge its military might. It has the capacity to reach any corner of the world any moment. They spend a major part of their budget to maintain this position. They spend huge sums of money for research and technological developments. It is technology that keeps America in the forefront. With their military might they are even ready to police the world, and punish the culprits.
Structural Power: This dominance is based on the economic structure. The1 global economic system relies on America. If America helps the global economic system, it is mainly for their benefits and profits. But America does a lot of good things for the world. For example, communication channels through the oceans. Merchant ships travel through sea routes and America has much authority on the water transport system. It is the American navy that keeps the sea-routes safe for ships.
The next is the Internet. In fact it was an American military project. It was started in 1950. Today the global network functions using satellites. Most of them belong to America. 28% of the world economy is controlled by America. 15% of the international trade is also done by them. In any economic sector, at least one of out of three biggest companies will be American. The world economic structure follows the Breton Woods style of America. The World Bank,
I. M.F. and World Trade Organization etc. are examples of American supremacy in world business and finance.
Now comes another example – the MBA degree. It was America that made this course and the degree so popular. It was Americans who discovered that business is a profession that could be taught. The first Business School was established in Pennsylvania in 1881. Its name was Wharton School. Today in all countries MBA has become a prestigious degree.
Soft Power: This is the ideological and cultural dominance. America has become the model for all other nations and they try to copy America. In weak countries, America is able to make the people like its culture.
We all speak highly of the American life style and personal success. America is number one in the world. By using ‘soft power, and not force, America is able to achieve this dominance over the world.
Gorbachev tried to democratise USSR. He implemented economic and political reforms in the country. Read the above indicators and explain the role of Gorbachev to disintegrate USSR. (4)
The control exercised by the Soviet government on its citizens made their life difficult.
- There was ho freedom of expression or democracy.
- Many institutions needed reforms. But the Communist Party strictly controlled them and reforms were not possible.
- The Party refused to give people their rights. The Soviet Union wds a Union of 15 Republics. They had their own cultures and problems.
- Although on paper there were 15 Republics, only Russia was allowed to exercise control. Russia other republics were either ignored or suppressed.
- Although the Soviet Union was able to maintain its equality with the US in arms race, it was very costly for them. Western technology was better than the Russian technology. The political and economic needs of the Soviet people were not taken, care of by the Soviet government.
- Soviet Union used most of its resources to develop atomic weapons, to make arms, to increase military facilities and to develop its satellite East European countries.
- The go-slow policy, refusal to correct mistakes and the closed door policy quickened the country’s downfall.
At the time of Independence India faced many challenges. Identify three important challenges faced by our country during independence and describe briefly on each of them. (4)
Independent India faced three kinds of challenges.
a. Integrating India
b. Ensuring the welfare of the people and development
c. Establish a democratic system
a. Integrating India: When India got freedom, it had more than 500 Princely States. The rulers of these places wanted to get back their sovereignty when the British left. The government approached the Princely States keeping three things in mind.
a. The majority of people of the Princely States wanted to join the Indian Union.
b. Giving some kind of self-rule to some Princely States.
c. In the background of the division, we needed States with precision.
Integration: Except Junagarh, Hyderabad. Kashrnir and Manipur, all the Princely States signed in the Instrument of Accession and joined the Indian Union. Then through a referendum, Junagarh joined Indian Union. Because of popular uprising in Hyderabad against the Nizam, the Indian army took some action and got Hyderabad also into the Union The Congress Group in Manipurwanted to join thp Union, but other parties objected. However, the Manipur king was persuaded and he too joined the Union. Kashmir King also signed the Instruction of Accession to save himself from the attacks of Pakistan and thus Kashmirtoo became part of India.
The division of the country into States on linguistic basis showed that it could accommodate all the diversities. The people cart accept the diversities and live in unity. This is the strength of a country. The Telangana protest and the martyrdom of Potti Sriramulu should be remembered he? Ensuring the welfare of people: India Was a poor country. The country has included provisions in the Constitution to ensure protection to the socially backward people, to religious and cultural minorities and to give ail the people equality. Through Directive Principles, the Constitution shows us the way to eradicate poverty and to make the marginalized people come into mainstream society.
Five Year Plans: The country has a development model based on socialist principles. We have adopted a mixed economy accommodating both public and private sector enterprises.
Establishing democratic system: Democracy was a discovery of foreigners. But the big thing was that we chose democracy in spite of the fact that India is a poor country and there are many illiterates here. The first election was called the greatest gamble in history by foreign media. A British member of the Civil Service said that the future generations would condemn this democratic process as a foolish enterprise. The first Election Commission was formed with Dr. Sukumar Sen as the Commissioner. Illiterate Indians were supposed to think in terms of caste and creed. But by making a voters’ list based on our secular system and equality, we succeeded in conducting a fair election and we were successful in our democratic experiment Even after 70 years of independence, we still face some challenges to our democracy. There are new demands for regional autonomy. There is the Maoist threat. There is intolerance, following the integration of Manipur. There is the Kashmir problem. In spite of all these we have been able to maintain our democratic tradition. After the 1975 Emergency, our rulers have been able to maintain democratic order without any interruption.
Give a brief note on the Green Revolution and its contribution to the food security of our country. (3)
Green Revolution is the name given to the policies of the government which aimed at maximum production in the minimum period in the agricultural sector. In the 1960s, the agricultural sector was in a very bad shape. Between 1965 and 67 there were huge droughts in many parts of India. This reduced food production and in many areas there was famine like condition.
To overcome this crisis, India was forced to seek assistance from countries like America. Following the American policies, we too started some new economic policies. The government wanted self-sufficiency in food and therefore a new agricultural policy was implemented. This policy included farming all lands where irrigation was available, using high yield varieties of seeds and fertilizing the land. Subsidies were given for irrigation and insecticides. It was also decided that the government would purchase the produce at a minimum price. All these changes together paved the way for what is known as the Green Revolution.
The Green Revolution brought some positive changes in agricultural growth. Food stuff was easily available. Of course, it was the rich merchants and large farm- owners that were the prime beneficiaries. There was a polarization of the rich and poor. This helped the Left Parties to bring together the poor farmers and the masses. As a result, there arose a powerful Leftleaning lobby of middle-class farmers.
Identify the person who is popularly known as the ‘Milkman of India’. (1)
“Indo-China war of 1962 made many impacts in our domestic and in international politics”. On the light of the above statement briefly describe India-China relations. (7)
Nehru had an open-hearted approach to China. But people like Pate! thought China was not a country to be believed. Nehru never expected any attack from China. But in 1962, China did attack India.
Two things spoiled tne relations between India and China. One was the Tibetan issue and the other was border disputes. Even in the 1950s when they were friends, India and China had border disputes. China was not ready to accept our suggestions regarding the border. China claimed Ladakh in Kashmir and some areas of Arunachal Pradesh to be theirs. During the period of 1957-59, they also took Aksai Chin sector and built the Karakoram Highway. The second issue was Tibet. In 1950, China annexed Tibet, it was a breach of faith. In the beginning India kept quiet. But the Chinese started imposing their culture on the Tibetans. In 1959, the Tibetan Spiritual leader, Dalai Lama, sought refuge in India. China then accused India saying that India was acting against the interest of China, in October 1962 China infiltrated into Indian territories which it claimed to be hers. The first attack lasted a week Chinese army occupied some place in Arunachal Pradesh. The next attack came a month iaier. But the Indian army stopped the Chinese in the western part of Ladakh. China declared a unilateral ceasefire and retreated from the places it had taken.
Results of the india-China War: During the war, Russia kept her neutrality. India had to seek support from America and Britain. The war was shameful to the country. But it strengthened national feeling Nehru’s close friend and the then defense minister V.K. Krishna Menon had o resign. Nehru was criticized for blinding believing China for his lack of military preparation to prevent the attack. A no-confidence motion was brought against his government. In Lok Sabha there were a lot of discussions. In many bye-elections Congress lost. The Opposition was also affected by the war. In 1964 Communist Part was divided into two – Pro-Chinese and Pro-Russia. One was CPI (M) and the other was CPI.
The War awakened the nation. The North-Eastern region was backward. The Chinese war prompted the nation to keep its unity and to embark upon developmental projects.
During the Cold War period the super powers made alliances with comparatively weaker states. Identify the significance of such alliances. (2)
During the Cold War period, the Superpowers competed among themselves to assist the smaller powers. It was because the Superpowers needed the smaller
powers for the following:
- To get oil and essential minerals.
- To get areas to make military camps.
- To spy on other countries.
- Some of the expenses for the military would be borne by the smaller nations.
After 1989, India is witnessing a politics of coalition. Analyse the merits and demerits of coalition politics practiced in India. (3)
a. It is more democratic.
b. Local or regional problems could be handled more efficiently.
c. Makes the administration more transparent.
d. Gives continuity to governments.
a. Stability is not ensured.
b. Less efficient
c. It would be difficult bold and strategic decisions,
“Ayodhya issue created far-reaching consequences” on the light of the above statement, explain how the Ayodhya issue reflected in Indian politics after 1990’s. (3)
a. Political parties could not get majority and ensure stable government.
b. There was criminalization of politics.
c. Religious fundamentalism came into politics.
UN is the world organization constituted after the Second World War for the promotion of international peace and security. After completing 65 years, UN needs basic reforms. Explain in your view about the restructuring of UN. What should be the position of India, in the restructured UN? (6)
There is a need to reform UNO as per the need of the time. The circumstances today are different from those existing at the time of the formation of the UNO. There should be objective solutions to the problems of the world. No country should assume the role of world police.
There should be a structural change in the UN to enable it to eradicate terrorism. There should be proper representation of the developing nations in the UN. The demand of India to have permanent membership in the Security Council is a logical and just demand. India wants permanent membership because of the following reasons:
- It has the world’s second-largest population.
- It is the largest democracy in the world.
- India has participated in the UN activities since its inception.
- It has long relations with the UN Peacekeeping force. India’s economic situation is improving.
- India gives regularly to the UN budget.
- It has never defaulted on any payment.
The above reasons are good enough for India to get a permanent membership in the UN Security Council. Permanent membership has its own significance. India’s importance will increase in world matters. Our foreign policy will influence others.
Modern world faces new security threats. Identify four among them and give brief explanation to each of them. (4)
a. Terrorism: Political attacks make the life of ordinary citizens difficult. The terrorists want the political circumstances to change. They try to bring about changes by threats or armed attacks. By unleashing violence, they make the people restless. They try to make the dislike and discontentment of the people their weapon against governments. Their activities include hijacking planes and bombing trains and markets and other places where people assemble. They attacked and destroyed the World Trade Centre in New York on 11 September 2001. The government and the people are more cautious now against terrorists.
b. Human Rights Violations: We see that throughout the world there are human right violations. There is no unified thinking in any country about how to protect human rights. Recent incidents of human right violations are the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq, the ethnic cleansing in Ruanda and the mass killings of the people of Eastern Timor by the Indonesian army. All these prompted world leaders to have a talk. The talk was about whether the UN should interfere in such matters. The matter is still unresolved.
c. Global Poverty: This is another factor of security threat. It is believed that the population in the underdeveloped countries will triple in 50 years. In countries where the population is low, the per capita income will be high. Therefore the economically advanced countries will prosper further whereas the poor countries will grow poorer. The gap between countries of the North and South will increase. People from the South countries immigrate to the North countries for better life and earning. This also creates a threat forthe security of mankind.
d. Contagious Diseases: Contagious diseases are another threat to mankind. AIDS, bird flu, SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) etc. are dangerous contagious diseases. These spread quickly from one country to another. A country’s success or failure in controlling these diseases affects other countries also. Recently swine-flu spread all over the world. It is when a problem becomes a threat to a nation and its people that it becomes an international security threat.
Globalization has its cultural consequences. Globalization imposes Western Culture on the rest of the World. On the basis of the above statements explain the cultural consequences of globalization. (3)
Globalization is the exchange of ideas, materials and human resources. Now this exchange is possible among nations without much control. Looked at this way, it assumes different levels of political, economic and cultural meanings. In his sense it has merits and demerits. Some societies may be affected only very little, but some may be affected much more.
Let us see how it works. Politically speaking, the authority of the government gets weaker. It will have to reduce its welfare schemes. Instead of social welfare, the stress is on the market. With the coming MNCs (Multi-National Corporations), it becomes difficult for the governments to take independent decisions.
Globalization has influenced the economic sphere greatly. World Bank, IMF, WTO etc. play big roles.
All these are controlled mainly by America and its allies. The world economy itself has come under their influence. In this, a re-thinking is necessary. It is high time that we found out who the beneficiaries of globalization are.
The effects of globalization are not limited to political and economic spheres. It affects our home, food, dress and even thoughts. There is a fear that it would lead to a single world culture. There is the dominance of Western Culture in globalization. There is a danger to traditional cultures. But some people say that culture is not something that sands still. Every culture accepts things from other cultures.
Protection of global commons is important for the existence of life in our Planet. Explain global commons and the efforts to preserve them. (3) .
The earth’s atmosphere, Oceans, Antarctica, Space etc. are global commons. For the survival of mankind these have to be protected. There are many steps taken at global level for their protection.
The following are some of them:
Schemes for Sustainable Development.