You can Download Structural Change Questions and Answers, Notes, Plus Two Sociology Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Kerala Chapter 1 help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Kerala Plus Two Sociology Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Structural Change
Structural Change Questions and Answers
When did the tea industry begin in India?
Who was the Chairman of the National Planning Committee formed in 1939?
a) Jawaharlal Nehru
b) K.T. Shah
c) M.N. Roy
d) Rajendra Prasad
………. means a specific region, where people live in unity and ruled by a sovereign government.
Production of goods with the help of machinery run by steam or electricity is called ………..
In 1938 the Indian National Congress formed a National Planning Committee with ………. as its chairman.
………… said that when villages and cities have mutual contacts, Indian villages will be subject to urbanization.
The knowledge of ………. opened a way for Indians to the global market.
In 1690 an English merchant named ……… made arrangements to take three Indian villages on lease. 1690 …………
In 1698, the British built ………. for defence.
Match the following.
|De-industrialization||Division of Bengal|
|Swadeshi Movement||Traditional industries|
|Swadeshi Movement||Division of Bengal|
What are the features of capitalism?
Capitalism is an economic system in which means of production like factory, land, etc. are in the hands of private individuals. Capitalist production of goods is aimed at the market, its aim is profit. “Profit, maximum profit” is the slogan of capitalism. Capitalism has the capacity and energy to grow and spread. These are the tendencies that capitalism showed even at the beginning. To get maximum profit, capitalism modernized production, using technology and labour.
Explain the relation between colonialism and nationalism.
They are contradictory concepts. Democratic rights are anti-colonial. Colonial rule is foreign rule. Nationalism shows the freedom of the people and their sovereignty. Our leaders knew this paradox. They declared that freedom is our birthright. They fought for our political and economic freedom.
What is colonialism?
Colonialism is the rule imposed by one country on another. Here, colonialism is considered a foreign rule. But actually foreign rule is only a part of colonialism. Colonialism is, in fact, a structure and a system. It is a robbery organized by the capitalist countries to exploit other countries.
Describe how the industrialization process in Britain affected India during the colonial rule.
As a matter of fact, British industrialization proved to be destructive to India. It led to the ruin of Indian industries. The urban centres in India were also destroyed. The machine-made goods from England • flooded our markets and our goods could not compete with the cheap goods from England. Slowly the traditional industries in India were ruined. The conquest of the Native States by Britain also affected our industries adversely. Industries that produced top quality goods for the kings and queens and nobles and the rich were closed down. The workshops attached to the palaces also stopped working. Thus there was over-all ruin of Indian industries during the colonial rule.
Compare the industrialization and urbanization of England with India.
Sociologists have often discussed the paradoxes in colonialism. They have compared the growth of Western industries and the prosperous Middle Class with the experiences in India. These studies show that industrialization is not merely producing goods using machines. It also includes the rise of new social classes and their interrelationships. Industrialization in India brought many changes in the Indian society and the studies discuss them.
Discuss the role played by independent India in encouraging industrialization.
Independent India did a lot to boost industrialization. Even during the freedom struggle, our national leaders were aware of the need for industrializing India. India was exploited by the colonial rulers. The leaders believed that pre-colonial India was rich and prosperous and it was the colonial rule that made India poor and backward. They thought they could build a strong economic base by reviving the old industries.
The Swadeshi Movement, which was a result of the Division of Bengal, exhorted people to boycott British goods and use swadeshi goods. This boosted our industrialization. This tradition was taken up by the government of India, after freedom. People were made aware that only industrialization^pould lift them from the pit of poverty into which they had fallen during the colonial rule.
Leaders understood that only the development of heavy industries, machine manufactured goods, growth of the public sector and the co-operative sector, could bring about industrialization in the country. Nehru said that a modern and prosperous India must be built on giant steel factories, huge dams and power stations. Leaders like Nehru also gave importance to industrialization, it was given priority in the Five Year Plans.
Describe the urbanization process in independent India
First of all, we see that people from villages are migrating into towns and cities seeking employment. They leave their family members behind in the villages and stay in cities. Most of these people, nearly 75%, who work in the cities, send money to their relatives in the villages. They also visit their kith and kin 4 or 5 times a year. A good number of people have also migrated to foreign cities. For example, many people from Gujarati villages have gone to cities in Africa and Britain. They build beautiful homes in their villages and invest their money in land and industry. They have also founded educational institutions and other Trusts. Secondly, in the villages close to the industrial cities, there is another kind of influence from urbanization.
For example, when a township like Bhilai was established in the middle of many villages, some villages were completely wiped out. Land belonging to many other villages was also taken by making the people vacate the* homes. To those lands, people from other places migrated. This increased the demand for houses. There developed a market. There were also problems of clash between the locals and those who came from faraway places.
Thirdly, some villages located around the cities were absorbed into the cities making them part of the metropolitan or megacities. Entire lands, which were used for cultivation and grazing, were now used for city development.
Discuss the differences in colonization before the capitalist system and during the capitalist system.
Sonne foreigners came to India, looted its wealth and resources and went back to their countries. They attacked and established their authority here before the start of the capitalist system. Britain and some other colonial powers came to India during the capitalist time. There were big differences between the colonization before capitalism and after it. those came to India before capitalism just to loot her wealth. They also took tributes from Indian rulers. They did not interfere with the Indian economic system. They went back to their homes after looting India and collecting tributes. Many of those who attacked India later became Indians, like the Mughals. They also lost their foreign traits.
Write a note on the National Planning Committee.
1939, the Indian National Congress formed a National Planning Committee. Its chairman was Jawaharlal Nehru and its General Secretary was K.T. Shaw. Although the Committee started working in 1939 itself, Nehru was arrested by the British. In the meantime, the Second World War started. In spite of all these setbacks, the Committee went ahead with its work. There were 27 sub-committees which were grouped into 8. The Committee gave importance to the following areas:
c) Profession and Population
d) Exchange and Finance
e) Transport and Communication
f) Health and Housing
h) The role of women in the planned economic system. The Committee made a plan for the comprehensive development of India. Even before India had got its independence, many of the subcommittees submitted ad-hoc reports or their final reports. During the 1948 – 49 period, all these reports were published. In March 1950, the government appointed a Planning Commission. Its Chairman was Nehru. It is this Commission that prepared the Five Year Plan.
Describe the beginning of industrialization in India.
Industrialization started in India with the establishment of plantation industry. Indigo, tea and coffee were the main plantation industries. Tea plantations were developed mainly in Assam, Bengal, South India and Himachal Pradesh. Government gave all kinds of help to the British plantation owners. It even collaborated with the owners to hire labourers and to force them to work. The owners used all kinds of unjust means to make the workers do maximum work for their own profits. Democratic laws of human values did not mean anything to these profit-motivated British.
Tea industry in India dates back to 1851. Most of the tea plantations were in Assam. At the beginning of the 20th century, some 6 lakh labourers worked in these plantations. Since the population of Assam was small, labourers from other provinces were brought. They were promised high wages by agents because it was risky to work in plantations due to different kinds of diseases including malaria. But owners were not ready to give high wages. They tried cheating and forced to get labourers into their plantations. To help the owners, government also passed some penal laws.