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Kerala Plus Two Sociology Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 2 Cultural Change
Cultural Change Questions and Answers
Muslim Reformists of the society like ………. criticized polygamy and purdah system.
……… was a modern social reform movement.
The modem social reform movement ………. was founded in Punjab.
M.N. Srinivas used the term … to show how lower castes imitated the lifestyle of the higher classes.
As a result of 150 years of British rule, there were Changes in the Indian-ness and Indian culture. M.N. Srinivas called these changes …………
………… started the first school for women in Pune
M.N. Srinivas used the term Sanskritization in 1952 when he was studying about the……….
Match the following:
|a) Rajaram Mohan Roy||Arya Samajam||‘Punjab|
|b) Swami Dayananda Saraswati||First school for girls||Pune|
|c) Jyotiba Phule||Brahma Samaj||Westernization|
|d) Jahanara Shanavas||Sanskritization||Bengal|
|e) M.N. Srinivas||Muslim social reformist||Opposed Polygamy & purdah|
|a) Rajaram Mohan Roy||Brahma Samajam||Bengal|
|b) Swami Dayananda Saraswati||Arya Samajam||Punjab|
|c) Jyotiba Phule||First school for girls||Pune|
|d) Jahanara Shanavas||Muslim social reformist||Opposed Polygamy & purdah|
|e) M.N. Srinivas||Sanskritization||Westernization|
Who is the author of Induprakash?
b) Jahanara Shanavas
d) Satish Sabarwal
Who coined the word Sanskritization?
a) Jyotiba Phule
b) M.N. Srinivas
d) K.T. Shah
Match the following:
|Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan||Sources of Knowledge|
|Raja Ram Mohan Roy||Aligarh Movement|
|Viresalingam||Sources of Knowledge|
|Sir S^yed Ahmed Khan||Aligarh Movement|
|Raja Ram Mohan Roy||Brahma Samaj|
Describe the 3 levels of social change in India during the colonial rule as suggested by the sociologist Sathish Sabarval.
a) Communication system
b) organizational forms
c) Nature of ideas
During the colonial period, there were a lot of changes in the communication system. Different technological advances increased the speed of communication. Printing Press, telegraph, microphone, steamships and railway helped people to communicate fast. Using the latest means of communication, reformists in different areas exchanged their views.
They could travel to different parts of the country and propagate their ideas. For example, in 1864, Keshav Chandra Sen from Bengal visited Madras. Pandita Ramabai traveled to different parts of the country. Some reformists even went abroad to visit different places and see things. Christian missionaries reached even the remotest villages in Nagaland, Mizoram, and Meghalaya.
Organizational forms: During this period many modem cultural organizations were formed. In Bengal, there was Brahma Samaj and in Punjab, there was Arya Samaj. In 1914 all India Muslim Women Conference . was established, Indian reformists conducted public, meetings to spread their ideas. They also made use of media like newspapers, bulletins, and journals. Some of the books of the reformists were translated into different Indian languages. For example, the 1868 book “Indu Prakash” by Vidyasagar was translated by Vishnu Sastri into Marathi.
Nature of ideas: The ideas propagated at this time were revolutionary and drastic. The new ideas of liberalism and freedom spread among the people. There were new concepts with regard to marriage and family. Mothers and daughters were assigned
Explain the contributions of women social reformists.
In the middle decades the 19th century, the idea of woman education was discussed widely and intensively. Social reformer Jyotiba Phule opened the first school for girls in 1848 in Pune. All social reformers advocate women education. They argued that for the progress of the society, women had to be educated. Many of them believed that many women of the pre-modern India were educated.
But some did not agree with this view. They pointed out that, only a few privileged women had such education in the pre-modem India. However, reformers wanted to give priority to woman education. They started discussing the meanings of tradition and modernity. People like Jyotiba Phule showed that India was a great country before the coming of the Aryans. But people like Bal Gangadhar Tilak stressed the glory India had during the Aryan era. In short, the reformers of the 19th century questioned meaningless rituals and traditions prevalent in the society. At the same time, they pointed out the good traditions.
Thus they started an era of social revolution. There were some questions that reform movements raised. Some movements gave importance to the problems faced by women in the upper castes. But some concentrated on the inequalities of jati system. Some people felt that jati system was against essential Hindu principles. Some argued jati and gender-related persecutions were part of religious dogma.
Muslim reformists raised their voices against polygamy and purdah system. In an All-India Muslim Women Conference, Jahanara Shanavas got ah anti-polygamy resolution passed. Jahanara argued that polygamy was against the teachings of the Koran. She asked educated women to end this injustice. This resolution against polygamy became an issue of great debate and discussion, especially in the Muslim papers. A women-oriented paper – Tahzib-i-Niswan – supported the resolution. But some papers opposed it. Debates were common among communities.
For example, Brahma Samaj strongly opposed ‘Sati’. But some conservative Hindus in Bengal formed an organization called ‘Dharma Sabha’ and demanded that Sati should be continued. They said that reformers have no right to interpret holy books. They complained to the British government against the reformers. Many Dalits turned against the inequalities preached by upper caste’ Hindus. A13-year old girl named Muktabar, a student in Jyotiba Phule’s school . in Pune wrote very strongly against a religion that upheld the rights of a few upper castes and rejected the rest.
Describe the Social Reform Movements of the 19th and 20th century India
Colonialism brought many changes to the Indian society. The 19th and 20th century Reform Movements came up to find solutions to the problems faced by the society. There were many useless and harmful social customs and rituals in the society. The worst things were Sati, child marriage, and Jati- discriminations. There were also female infanticide and untouchability. Fights against social ills had started in India even before the colonial period. Buddhism and Bhakti-Sufi Movements had tried to eradicate many evils. There are two special features about the Reformists of the 19th century.
First, they were brought up in the modern background. Secondly, they were influenced by the Western concepts of liberalism and a new reading and interpretation of the traditional literature of India and Indian concepts. In objecting Sati, Rajaram Mohan Roy made use of Western concepts like humanity and natural rights and also the Hindu Sastras. Ranade, the leader of the Prarthana Samaj also made use of Western concepts and Hindu Sastras in justifying widow- remarriage. In his books “The Text of the Hindu Law on the Lawfulness of the Remarriage of Widows” and “Vedic Authorities for Widow Remarriage”, he has shown that Hindu Sastra had approved widow re-marriages.
Modern education was liberal. Its contents included European Renaissance, Religious Reform Movements and Philosophical Thoughts. Their theme was humane, secular and liberal.
Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan was the leader of Aligarh Movement. His interpretation of the Koran stressed free research. He pointed out the similarities between the revelations of the Koran and the natural laws discovered by modem science.
Viresalingam was the leader of the Reform Movement in Andhra Pradesh. His book ‘Sources of Knowledge’ shows his scholarship about modern jurisprudence and oratory. He also translated Julius Huxley’s book.
Give short notes on Westernization, Secularization, Modernization, and Sanskritization.
Westernization, Secularization, Modernization, and Sanskritization are different concepts and in different contexts, they are used differently. Even then these
concepts often stand together or in a hierarchical order. This mutual relation between these ideas is quite natural in the Indian context.
Sociology may have its own interpretations about each of them. Colonial modernity is full of paradoxes. Let us take the example of Western education. Western education was brought to India by the British colonial government. This helped the growth of an educated middle class. This middle class had big dreams about western philosophical thoughts and liberal democracy. At the same time, they were ashamed of the colonial rule of their motherland and they upheld the traditional wisdom and scholarship . of ancient India. In the Reform Movement of the 19th century also we had this tendency. In short, the educated middle class and reformists received Western concepts and at the same time, they upheld India’s tradition.
Colonial modernity not only presented new ideas, but it also caused the re-thinking and re-interpretation of Indian traditions. Culture and tradition are living concepts. People study them .and make timely changes. For example, we can think of the traditional dress, sari, worn by Indian women. Today some Indian women wear sari, with a Western touch. The old and the new are fused. They wear saris and at the same time, they use petticoats and blouse.
In India, we have many structural and cultural diversities. India is a land of diversities. These diversities are found in geography, race, language, religion, politics, and culture. It is these diversities that cause different things like Sanskritization, Modernization, Westernization, Secularization and so on to influence the diverse people. First, we talk about Sanskritization. There is a reason for that. Sanskritization had started even before the colonial rule. Through many ways, it continued to exist during and after the colonial rule.
The other three happened during the colonial period. These were brought about by the Western concepts like freedom and individual rights. Awareness of these concepts made Indians feel about the injustice of the colonial rule. It also gave them a sense of shame. It also created in them a desire to go back to their own tradition and heritage.
As a process of cultural change, explain the effect of modernization!
Modernization has a long history. Modernization means the path Western Europe and America followed in the 17-19 centuries. Spokespersons for modernization say that other societies also must follow this very same path. From 19th century, there have been changes in the viewpoints regarding modernization. Modernization was evaluated relating it to creative and desirable values. People and societies wanted to become modem. In the 20th century, this view became strong. The progress in technology and manufacturing process was considered modernization. The shift from traditional society to a more cultured society is also called modernization.
It was considered the opposite of tradition In India, modernity began during the colonial rule. It is this colonial background that marks our modernization and secularization different from those of the Westerners. Modernization and secularization are mutually related. They both are modem concepts. So we discuss them together here. Sociologists have tried to define and interpret the meaning and content of the process of modernization. In their views the following are the features of modernization:
- Modernization denies regional limitations and narrow views, it gives importance to universality and cosmopolitan attitudes.
- it. gives preference to science and reason above emotion and irrationality.
- St treats the individual, and not groups, as the basic unit the society.
- Birth should not be the basis for one’s profession or status. It should be chosen by individuals.
- St should be wisdom that must determine our approach to nature. Fate or destiny has no place here.The identity of a person must be chosen and acquired, not imposed.
- In the bureaucratic system, family, residence, community, etc. should have separate existence.
Explain the concept of secularism. How did it affect Indian Jati system?
In the Western world, secularism means the process by which the influence of religions is reduced. Supporters of modernism believe that the influence of religion is getting less in modern societies. The indicators of secularism are people’s distancing themselves from religious institutions (like not going to church or temple), the fall in the influence of religious organizations in social and material thinking of people and people becoming less faithful in their beliefs. But somehow there are terrible religious clashes in many parts of the world. The feeling that the growth of modernity will reduce the influence of religion on people exited long ago. But this is not fully right.
Western and modem thoughts, modern communication systems, etc. did not reduce the influence of religion. On the contrary, some new kind of religious reform organizations are coming up. For the rituals, they gave some non-religious connotations. Rituals have certain non-religious meanings. For example, marriage is an occasion where people get an opportunity to mingle with their colleagues and also bosses. It also gives people an opportunity to show off their wealth – their fine clothes and ornaments. Such festivities have also acquired political and economic implications. For example, the long rows of cars of guests, the VIPs attending the function and the sumptuous meals served, etc. will show the status of the family in the community.
Jati system is also adversely affected by secularism. In traditional India, Jati system worked within a religious framework. Purity-Pollution concept was a basic tenet. Today Jati works as political pressure groups. In contemporary India there are many communal organizations, and political parties are formed on communal basis. To achieve their goals they go on exerting pressure on the nation. This kind of change that has happened is what is called as secularization of Jati.
What are the criticisms that have come up against Sanskritization?
The concept of Sanskritization as propounded by M.N. Srinivas has been severely criticized by many. Here some of the criticisms.
a) Sanskritization exaggerates the upward mobility of the lower castes. Sanskritization tried to say that it will help the lower caste to reach the higher steps of the Jati ladder. But it did not bring any structural change. It brought some changes in the position of some people. They made their position better by keeping themselves within the framework of their Jati. In other words, the inequalities still continue.
b) Sanskritization viewed the lifestyle of the higher caste as superior and that of the lower castes as inferior. Therefore it was natural for the lower castes to imitate the superior lifestyle of the higher castes.
c) Sanskritization tries to justify a system based on inequality and exclusion. It speaks as if there is nothing seriously wrong with untouchability and purity-pollution concepts. With such an attitude, a society with equality is unthinkable.
Here is the concept of a low caste person regarding purity- pollution:
“Although goldsmiths are a higher caste than us, our caste-laws prohibit us from accepting food or water from them. We think that goldsmiths are very greedy and to dig out gold they can even wash human excreta. Therefore, although they are of a higher caste, they are more impure than us. We don’t accept any food from even higher caste people who do dirty jobs.” This shows how discriminatory feelings change lives of people. What is seen here is not to bring out a society with equality but to prolong the attitude that accepts discrimination and exclusion. This is an anti-democratic viewpoint.
d) As a result of Sanskritization’s low caste, people accept the conventions and rituals of the higher castes. This results in the isolation of girls and women, dowry stem and discrimination against other castes.
e) Critics also point out that as a result of Sanskritization, the special features of Dalit community and culture have been destroyed. For example, the value of the jobs done by the lower castes was reduced. Such jobs were pictured as shameful. Their traditional knowledge in local medicine and herbs, environment, agriculture, animal husbandry, artisanship, etc. was presented as useless in an industrial age.
Write a note of Westernization.
By westernization, we mean the changes that took place here because of our contact with Western culture and the Westerners. Westernization is a process by which western lifestyle is imitated. It wasM.N.Srinivasthatfirsttalkedaboutthisconcept. He defines westernization thus: “Westernization is the changes that happened in the Indian society as a result of the British rule in India for more than 150. years. That word includes changes in technology, institutions, ideas, and values
Westernization is the imitation of the external forms of Western culture. It is not necessary that people accept modern values like democracy and equality. Westernization is of different kinds. One of them is the subculture of the Indian intellectuals. It is this intellectual group of Indians that first got into contact with Western culture. Their western education gave this opportunity.
They accepted the thought processes and lifestyles of the westerners. They also tried to spread it among their people. Thus it gave birth to a westernized subculture. The 19th-century reformists come in this category. But the western thoughts and lifestyle influenced only a small portion of Indians. But some western features had greater impact here. This is the second level of westernization.
The new technology, dress, ways of eating, etc. of the western culture brought changes in the style and habits of most Indians. Most middle-class families gladly welcomed them. Following the westerners, they bought radio,fridge, sofa set, dining table and chairs for their homes. There were also changes in art and literature. Artists like Ravi Varma and writers like Rabindranath Tagore, Chandu Menon, and Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya were influenced by western culture. The style, theme and technique of Ravi Varma pictures were influenced by western as well as traditional art. In 1870, Ravi Varma agreed to make a portrait of the Family of Kizhakke Palat Krishnan Menon.
This picture of a matriarchal family in Kerala resembles very closely to a patriarchal family, with father, mother, and children, of Europe. As part of westernization changes also happened in other spheres. Clashes between generations, as seen today, are of western import! M.N. Srinivas said that lower classes tried Sanskritization whereas the upper classes tried westernization.
In a country with such diversities as India, Srinivasan’s view does not carry much weight. For example, the members of the Thiyya community, especially the elite, deliberately tried to be westernized and wanted to follow British culture. It was part of their efforts to reject Jati system and get into a cosmopolitan lifestyle. In the same way, people belonging to different communities in the North Eastern States were given new opportunities because of their esteem education.