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Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 6 India, the Land of Synthesis
India, the Land of Synthesis Textual Questions and Answers
India the Land of Synthesis Questions 1.
The sufis helped to maintain relations among different religious during ………. and ………. periods.
Sultanate and Mughal
Bhakti Movement in Kerala Question 2.
Complete the table.
|1. Baba Farid||Ayodhan|
|1. Baba farid||Ayodhan|
|2. Sayyid Muhammed Jesudaras||Gulbarga|
|3. Shah alam Bukhari||Gujarat|
|4. Bahaudheen Sakaria||Multan|
|5. Shaikh Shihabudeen Suhrawardi||Sathette|
Class 9 Social Science India, the Land of Synthesis Kerala SCERT Solutions Question 3.
Mention the features of early Bhakti traditions.
- Its propagators were the saints who were Bhakti poets.
- Challenged the conservative Brahmanictraditions.
- Provided representation to the lower castes and women.
- Rendered contributions in the field of culture and music.
Where did Bhakti movement emerged at first?
Kerala Chronicle Question 5.
Discuss the role played by Alwars and Nayanars in propagating the Bhakti movement in South India.
The Bhakti movement emerged at first in Tamil Nadu. This movement was led by the Alwars and the Nayanars. The always were Vaishnavites and the Nayanars, Saivites. They composed and propagated devotional songs. Both the Alwars and the Nayanars opposed caste inequalities. Among them there were women saints also. The woman saint Andal was one of the famous Vaishnavite saints. Another woman saint Karakkal Ammayarwasa Saivite.
Prepare a flow chart showing ideas of Virasaiva movement.
Synthesis Pride Question 7.
Name the leader who made tremendous contribution to Vachana Sahityam
- Akka Mahadevi
Popular Literature Syllabus Question 8.
Examine the role of the idea of Kabir in promoting religious harmony among different sections of people.
A part of the Doha (meaningful couplets) of Kabir, who was an important figure in the Bhakti Movement is given above. He reminds that the Hindu and the Muslim are two wares made out of the same soil and he tried to promote brotherhood between Hinduism and Islam. The aim of Kabir was to propagate a religion of love uniting people of all castes and religions.
He strongly opposed all discriminations on the basis of caste, religion, class, family and wealth. He focused on the unity of humanity and vehemently opposed caste system and untouchability. He rejected idol worship, pilgrimages and bathes in holy rivers. He was not in favor of forsaking family life for accepting sainthood. The ideas of Kabir developed through discussions and deliberations on the basis of the Bhakti – Sufi traditions.
Keraliya Kalakal in Malayalam Language Question 9.
Name the women who were active in Bhakti movement.
- Akka Mahadevi
9th Standard Social Science Book in Kannada Question 10.
Prepare a note on the ideas of Guru Nanak.
Guru Nanak was another preceptor who focused on the idea of monotheism. He tried to combine the ideas of Hinduism and Islam. He was a spokesman of the ideals of religious tolerance and universal brotherhood. He opposed the rituals of both Hinduism and Islam. He said that one has to maintain purity in character and behavior to reach God. He vehemently opposed idol worship and pilgrimages.
He promoted a middle path which permitted spiritual life along with the responsibilities of a householder. The prayer songs known as ‘Shabad’ were the contribution of Nanak. He strongly opined that all human beings are equal and hence there is no need of caste distinction among them. He instructed his followers to have food from the common kitchen (lunger). He also instructed that the people from all castes could take food from the lunger. The ideas of Nanak later led to the emergence of Sikhism.
What are the changes brought about by the Bhakti movement in the social system of India?
Even though the Bhakti Movement evolved with the aim of dedication to God, it created certain qualitative changes in the Indian social system. The propagators of the Bhakti cult, through their words and songs, maintained that everyone was equal in front of God.
This strengthened the concept of social equality against caste discriminations. The idea of gender equality also began to take shape. The idea of social equality got wide popularity since the Movement was led by low caste people like Thiruppana Alwar, Kabir, and Lalded. Regional languages developed. Evil practices were questioned.
Complete the table.
|Languages||Works/Branches of literature||Authors|
Conduct a seminar on the topic the cultural life of medieval India/Areas to be considered:
1. Regional languages
3. Painting and architecture.
Growth of Regional Languages:
The propagators of the Bhakti – Sufi movements spread their ideas through their vernacular languages. This was to enable the common people to understand them. This resulted in the growth of the regional languages. The two forms of Hindi – Braj (Vrije language) and Awadhi were used as spoken languages. Many languages such as Punjabi, Kannada, Telugu, Oriya, Assamese, Marathi, Bengali, Sindhi and Malayalam evolved during this period. In almost all parts of the country, Persian was the court language of the medieval period. Hence many Persian words can be found in many regional languages.
Out of the relationship between Persian and Hindi, a new language, Urdu, came into being. Urdu is the most important example of the cultural synthesis of India during the medieval period. Urdu, which was spoken in the Deccan, was. strongly influenced by the languages such as Telugu and Marathi. Gradually Urdu became the most popular spoken language of the towns. In the Western Coast, merchants used Arabic. Soon it began to influence the regional languages of that area. Because of the influence of the Arabic language, a new mixed dialect, Arabi – Malayalam, evolved in Kerala.
People also used Sanskrit during the Middle Ages. Sanskrit was used in the court of Vijayanagara on festive occasions. Sanskrit prevailed as the language of higher education. The popular literature of Sanskrit such as the Puranas, Ramayana and the Mahabharata were available in the regional languages. The Persian literature influenced some poets and writers of the period. The most notable Persian writer of the period was Amir Khusrau. His love towards India and the pride of being an Indian is clearly revealed through the content of his works.
During this period a large number of Indian works were translated into Persian language,. Ramayana, Mahabharata, Atharvaveda, Upanishads, etc. belong to this category. The historic chronicle of Kalhana, Rajatarangini, was translated into Persian during the reign of the Kashmir king, Zain-ul-abin.
Hindi received tremendous impetus during the medieval period. Ramananda and Kabir delivered their moral advice in Hindi. The dohas of Kabirwere the finest example of Hindi literature. The Sursagar of Surdas, Ramacharitamanes of Tulsidas, the Bhajans of Mirabai and Padmavati of Malik Muhammed Jayasi enriched Hindi language.
It was during the medieval period that music was enriched with different forms. Considerable progress was attained by the Carnatic music, the musical style of South India. The famous Carnatic musician of the period was Naik Gopal. A large number of musicians migrated from Deccan to North India during the medieval period. During the same period, a new music style evolved in North India, due to the influence of Persian music. It came to be known as the Hindustani music. Amir Khusrau, who lived in the Sultanate period was one of the famous Hindustani musicians of the Sultanate period.
Amir Khusrau received training in different aspects of Indian music from the Carnatic musician, Naik Gopal. The medieval rulers were patrons of this category of music. New forms of music emerged during this period. The techniques of Persia were experimented in Indian music. The singing styles such as Khayal and Thumri got popularity. Many musical instruments like sitar, sarangi, tabala, etc.also became popular. The special interests of some Sufis in singing also were responsible for this. It was through the Sufi saints that Khayal and Gazal became widespread in India.
The musical works of Sanskrit were translated into Persian during this period. The work on Music Ragadarpan was translated into Persian during the regime of Firoz Shah Thuglaq. Emperor Akbar was a great lover of music. Abul Fazl states that 36 musicians were patronized by Akbar. The most famous among them was Tanzen. The Durbar raga, which enriched the Hindustani music was his contribution. The work Sangeeta Ratnakaram authored by Sarngadevan of the 13th century was an important contribution of medieval India to music. The camatic music of South India was influenced by the Persian and Arabic music during the Vijayanagara rule.
Architecture and Painting:
Architecture and painting attained progress in India during the medieval period. Itwasduringthe medieval period that the new styles of architecture such as Dravida, Nagara, Indo- Persian, etc. developed. The blending of different sculptural styles was a specialty of the age.
The painting style that came into vogue during the Mughal period is known as miniature painting. This is the style of drawing pictures like the pictures in books. It was a combination of both Indian and Persian styles.
The Mughal Emperor Humayun contacted Persian artists, and Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdu Samad wer brought to his court. The Mughal style of painting was developed by them.
Painting competitions were organized in the royal institutes (Kharkhana) during the region of Akbar. people from different sections participated in them. The stories of Mahabharata were completely compiled into a series of paintings called Raznama by Daswant Who lived during the period of Akbar. Indian subjects and natural scenes gradually became the themes of painting. The painters of the period showed their proficiency in drawing the pictures of birds and animals. The quality of paintings increased considerably during the reign of Jahangir. Bishandas and Abul Hassan were the greatest painters of the period. Kalyandas was a painter during the period or Shajahan.
There were groups of painters during the medieval period. They were from many parts of India such as Gujarat, Kashmir, Deccan, etc. Their paintings were influenced by their respective regional styles. Their paintings were based on the themes of the puranas and stories of both India and Persia. The wall paintings of that time were also remarkable. The wall paintings on the Tanjore temple during the period of the Cholas were an, important feature of medieval painting. The Rajasthani style was another style developed during this period. It was a combination of the traditional and the Mughal styles of painting.
The cultural synthesis shaped in medieval India brought many changes in the history of India. The greatest models of this synthesis wer Din-i-llahi and Sikhism emerged from among the people. The new styles introduced in the fields of architecture, painting, literature, and music enriched the mixed culture of India. People from different regions of India, followers of different religions and institutions did make their contributions to this cultural synthesis.
Explain the features of Sufi movement in the medieval period.
The Sufis were those who showed reluctance to luxurious life and gave predominance to spiritual life. They consider devotion as a means to reach close to the God.
They preached to respect all human beings. The Sufi saint was known as Pir or Shaikh and his follower Murid. The residences of the Sufis are known as Khanqahs. The devotional songs reciting in the Sufi centers are the Qawwalis.
Match the following table
How did Urdu language emerge?
Out of the relationship between Persian and Hindi, Urdu came into being.