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Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 1 Chapter 7 Kerala: From Eighth to Eighteenth Century
Kerala: From Eighth to Eighteenth-Century Textual Questions and Answers
The chief of Kudi was …………..
Prepare a note on Perumal rule and its characteristics.
The Nadus were under the Perumalswho ruled Kerala with their capital at Mahodayapuram (present Kodungaloor). All the 14 nadus from Kolathunadu in the north to the Venad in the south accepted the rule of the Perumal’s. It was during this period that a centralized rule came into being in Kerala for the first time. Rulers from Rajasekharan to Ramakulasekharan ruled during 800 -1122 CE with Mahodayapuram as their capital. Let us examine the characteristics of the rule of the Perumal’s.
- Perumal’s had representatives called Koyiladhikarikal.
- In the matters of administration, the Perumals were assisted by Naluthali, the council of Brahmins.
- Perumal’s had a militia called Ayiram (Thousand).
- Perumal’s levied taxes from the Nadus, Nagaras (Towns), Brahmin Gramas, Temples, etc.
Name major Naduvazhi Swaroopams.
Kola Swaroopam (Kolathunadu)
Nediyiruppu Swaroopam (Eranadu)
Perumpadappu Swaroopam (Kochi)
Thrippapur Swaroopam (Venadu)
Analyze the political history of Kerala from the eighth to the eighteenth century.
Until the 18th century, the Naduvazhi Swaroopams continued without much change. By the second half of the 18th century is Sultans of Mysore, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan led military campaigns which created frenzy among the Naduvahis of northern Kerala. Nediyiruppu, Kola and other smaller Swaroopams quickly came under the Mysore Sultans. Fearing the attack from Mysore Sultans many Naduvazhis and Desavazhis fled to Venado. The Perumpadappu Swaroopam of Kochi soon accepted the suzerainty of the Mysore Sultans. Only Travancore resisted the attacks.
It was during this period that Kerala was divided into three regions namely Travancore, Kochi, and Malabar. By the close of the 18th century, the East India Company defeated Tipu Sultan. As a result of this, the Malabar region which was under Tipu Sultan came completely under the British rule. With this, the independent rule of the Naduvazhis of Malabar came to an end. Travancore and Kochi continued to be princely states.
Which were the 3 types of lands based on ownership rights?
Match the following
Prepare a note on the system of tax developed by Mysore sultans.
The system of tax, the Mysore Sultans had developed was based on the total production from the land, of which a share was fixed to be collected as tax. Later the British conducted a land survey, divided the land in terms of acres and cents, and allotted them survey numbers. Similar land surveys were conducted in Kochi and Travancore. In Kochi, it was known as Kettezhuthu and in Travancore, Kandezhuthu. Accordingly, tax was fixed on the assessed land.
Identify different occupational groups during the medieval period.
- People engaged in agriculture and the making of agricultural equipment.
- People involved in handicrafts and the making of metal types of equipment.
- People engaged in trade.
- People involved in weaving and oil production.
- People involved in temple rituals.
- Officials connected to the Naduvazhi Swaroopams.
Discuss how the caste system formed in Kerala.
The descendants of those who were engaged in a particular occupation followed the same occupation. People engaged in the same occupation evolved into one caste. The Adiyalars who used to farm during the medieval times occupied the lowest rung in the caste hierarchy whereas the Brahmins were at the top.
Based on the family occupation, all other castes came in between these two categories. On the basis of the caste, the concept of purity and impurity sprang up.
By the beginning of the 19th century, the population of Malabar, Kochi, and Travancore were officially categorized on the basis of caste. Subsequently, caste came to be decided on the basis of birth irrespective of the occupation.
Which were the major trade centers in Kerala during the Medieval period?
Examine different kinds of trade prevailed in the medieval period.
Chanthas and Angadies were major regional trade centers. Commodities used daily such as paddy, rice, vegetables, betal nut, salt, fish, etc, were the major items exchanged.
Long-distance trade was mainly with Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Orrisa. Tamil Brahmins and Chettis were the main traders. Rice, Chilli, Cotton, other cloth materials, silk, and horses were brought to Kerala. Black pepper and other spices were taken from here.
The arabs, Chinese, Europeans, etc. were the main foreign traders. Black pepper, ginger, cardamom, cinnamon, other spices, coconut, etc. were taken from here. Gold, copper, silver, china clay pottery, silk, etc. were brought to Kerala.
What do you mean by salais?
The centres where the vedas were taught in the medieval Kerala were known as ‘Salas’
By 14th Century, books were written in
List the literary works of the missionaries.
- Puthan Pana by Arnos Pathiri
- Varthamanapusthakam of Paremakkal Thoma Kathanar.
Prepare a note on the administrative system of medieval Kerala.
During the period of Perumals, a centralized rule came into being in Kerala. By the 12th century, the Perumal rule came to an end. The Nadus became independent. The positions of power that developed in the Nadus were known as Naduvazhi Swaroopams. Until the 18th century, the Naduvazhi Swaroopams continued without much change.
Malayalam language literature, art, forms, and sciences flourished during the medieval period. Substantiate.
Influence of Malayalam is more evident in the works after the 12th century. By the 14th century, books were written in Manipravalam. Bhakti literature was present in the 17th century. District art forms developed during the period. During the medieval period, there was progress in the fields of Ayurveda, Mathematics, Astrology, and Architecture.
What were the features of Swaroopams?
The positions of power that developed in the Nadus were known as Naduvazhi Swaroopams. Swaroopams were the ruling families with the right of self-rule and the followed matrilineal system of inheritance. The Swaroopams had their own military.
Elucidate what is Anjuvannam and Manigramam?
Anjuvannam and Manigramam are the trade guilds existed in medieval Kerala till the 14th century. They were active in both sea and land trade.
List out various Maryadas existed in medieval Kerala.
- Swaroopa maryada
Identify the distinct art forms of Kerala that developed during medieval period.
How did Arab-Malayalm develop?
Malayalam was influenced by the language of the people who had come through the sea route for trade. Influence of the Arabs led to the development of Arab- Malayalam literature.