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Kerala Plus One History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Changing Cultural Traditions
Plenty of facts are available about the history of Europe from the 14th century. Explain.
Plenty of facts are available to us to understand the history of Europe from the 14th century. They include documents, printed books, artworks, sculptures, buildings, and clothes. In Europe and America, they have been carefully preserved. The first person who taught people the importance of preserving historical evidences was Leopold von Ranke, the famous German historian. He said that the most important responsibility of a historian is writing about nations and their politics and to do that a historian must make use of different documents and files in the various government departments.
During the period of Renaissance, the Italian cities revived. Evaluate the validity of this statement.
With the fall of the Western Roman Empire, many of the Italian cities which were the centres of political and cultural activities faced ruin. There was no unified government in Italy. Although the Pope was a sovereign in his own nation, he did not have any appearance of a ruler of strength. As Islam was building up a common culture outside Europe, Italy was a weak and scattered place. But the Renaissance slowly helped the revival of Italy.
When trade between the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic countries increased, the Italian ports were re-energized. From the 12th century, when the Mongols began trade with China through the silk route, the trade between some Oriental countries and Europe increased. Some Italian cities had their role in this expansion of trade.
“Humanism is part of a curriculum.” Based on this statement, write about the features of humanism and its relation with the Universities.
Humanism is an important feature of Renaissance. The Italian cities and universities played a major role in the growth of humanism. The first universities of Europe were started in Italian cities. From 11th century onwards universities in Padua aid Bologna there were centres of law studies. Since the main business in the cities was trade, there was a great need for pleaders and notaries. To enact laws and to interpret them and to make written agreements, their service was essential. So law became an important subject in universities. Since law is an important discipline in Humanities, humanism became a major part of the curriculum.
Who is “Renaissance Man”? Explain.
The term Renaissance Man is used to mean a person with different interests and capabilities. It was a common term used for showing that a person is an exceptional one. Since the famous people or the geniuses of those times came from different countries, this term was used to refer to anyone of them. The leaders of Renaissance were people that were simultaneously experts in scholarship, diplomacy, theology, and art.
“Humanists divided history into many eras.” This is an opinion Biju expressed in a classroom discussion. Do you agree with him? Can you approve of this division of history by the humanists? Explain.
Humanists divided history into the following Ages:
- 5thcentury to the 14thcentury – Middle Ages.
- From the 15thcentury onwards-Modern Age.
The Middle Ages Period was further subdivided like this:
- 5th to the 9thcentury – Dark Age.
- 10th to 11thcentury – Early Middle Age.
- 11th to 14thcentury – Late Middle Age.
This division of history into various Ages by humanists was later approved by scholars. But recently some historians questioned this division. They disagreed with the idea of dividing centuries into Ages depending on the dynamics of culture. They felt that calling and depicting a period as Dark Age is not appropriate.
The Arabs have contributed greatly to the growth of Renaissance Science and philosophy. Discuss.
The monks and priests of the Middle Ages were familiar with the writings of the Greeks and Romans. But they did not do anything to popularise these writings. In the 14thcentury, many scholars started reading the translated works of Greek writers like Plato and Aristotle. For this they, the scholars, are indebted to the Arab translators. It was the Arabs that carefully preserved the old manuscripts and translated them.
The works of Greek writers were available to the European scholars in two ways. They were able to read them through Arabic translations. Moreover, the works of Arabic Persian scholars were translated by Greeks and thus they too became available to the Europeans.
All these books were about Nature Science, Mathematics, Astronomy, Medicine, and Chemistry. Four most important scholars that contributed greatly to the growth of Renaissance Science and philosophy
were: Ptolemy, Avicenna, al-Rasi and Ibh Rasheed.
Realism was The most important feature of Renaissance Art. What is realism? How did it reflect in the Renaissance Art? Explain with examples.
Realism was the most important feature of Renaissance Art. Renaissance Artists tried to picture the human body exactly as it is. The studies of the scientists helped them to do it.
To learn about the structure of the skeleton, artists visited laboratories in medical schools. It was Andreas Vesalius who for the first time examined the human. body by cutting it into pieces. Andreas Vesalius was a Belgian who was a Professor at the Padua University. This greatly helped the modem anatomical studies. Renaissance artists wanted to present things as they were.
In the Renaissance period, there lived some geniuses who were equally proficient in painting (drawing), sculpture and architecture. Explain with examples.
In the Renaissance period, there lived some geniuses who were equally proficient in painting, sculpture and architecture: The most important among them was Michelangelo (1475-1564). The pictures he drew on the ceiling of Sistine Chapel, the sculpture of Pieta, and the dome of the St. Peter’s Basilica which he planned, etc. made him immortal.
Another person who was a genius in sculpture and architecture was Filippo Brunelleschi. It was he who drew the plan for the exceptional dome of the Florence Cathedral.
There was a significant change at this time. Until now, an artist was known as a member of some guild of artists. But from the Renaissance Period, they were known by their personal names.
“It was not the Europeans that discovered printing, Sini.
“It was Gutenberg who discovered printing,” Shamir.
With whose opinion do you agree? Along with your views, write about the changes printing brought in society.
The greatest discovery of the 16th century was the “printing press”. It is true that printing was not originally discovered by the Europeans. For printing, the Europeans must be indebted to the Chinese and the Mongolian rulers. When European traders and diplomats visited the royal courts of the Chinese and Mongol rulers, they learned some things about printing. This helped the Europeans to develop their own printing. Even gun powder, magnetic compass, and abacus were developed this way.
Before the advent of printing, books existed in the form of manuscripts. But the invention of the printing machine by Gutenberg started the printing revolution.
Humanists brought a new concept about human beings. Discuss.
Humanists gave importance to ways of good conduct. They suggested how people should talk politely and dress decently. They also pointed out the characteristics a cultured person should have. Humanism taught that people have the capacity to make a good life even without power and wealth. It taught that human nature had different aspects and some of them were against the three special aspects which the feudal society thought essential for attaining a satisfactory life.
During the period of Renaissance, the role of women in public life was very limited. Examine the validity of this statement.
The dowry which women received at the time of marriage was invested in the business of their husbands, but they did not have the right to interfere in business affairs or have their say in any such matters. Very often marriage alliances were used to strengthen, businesses. It was usual for parents to send their daughters to convents to become nuns if they could not find the dowry necessary for their marriage. The role of women in public life was very limited. The society looked at them as keepers of the house, housewives.
Religious reform movement was started in Germany. Based on this statement, prepare a seminar paper.
Religious reform movement was started in Germany. The leader of this movement was a young priest named Martin Luther (1433-1546). He started strong propaganda against the vices and evil practices that were rampant in the Catholic Church at that time. He argued that there was no need for an intermediary between an individual and God. He asked his followers to rely entirely on God. He taught that only good faith and would lead them to a good life and to heaven.
The religious reform movement caused a split in the Catholic Church. The Churches in Germany and Switzerland ended all their relations with the Catholic Church and the Pope. The people who went out of the Catholic Church were named “Protestants” as they protested against the Church.
The ideas of Luther were propagated in Switzerland by Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1534). Later John Calvin (1509-64) gave strong leadership to the Protestant Movement there.
The reformers had the support of merchants. Therefore they got great support in the.cities. But in the rural areas, the Catholic Church was able to maintain its supremacy. Among the German reformists, there were also the Anabaptists who wanted radical changes in Christianity. They considered the concept of heaven as freedom from all kinds of social persecutions. Anabaptists argued that since all people were created equal there was no need for anybody to pay taxes. They also taught that people should have the right to elect their own priests. The farmers who were suffering under the feudal lords were deeply impressed by these new ideas and they welcomed them.
The farmers of Germany who were inspired by the ideas of Luther and Anabaptists organised strong protests against their persecutors. But Luther was not in agreement with those who wanted radical changes. So he exhorted the German rulers to suppress the peasant revolts. In 1525, with the support of Luther, the protests were successfully suppressed.
But Radicalism survived all these oppositions. In France, the radicals joined with the Protestants. The Catholic authorities in France were cruelly persecuting the Protestants there. The Protestants argued that they have a right to remove the Persecutor and elect a new person according to the will of the people. Following this, France also, like other European countries, recognized the Protestant religion.
The Catholic Church allowed the Protestants to have their own way of worship. In England also there was a reform movement. The rulers of England ended ail their relations with the Pope. The King or Queen of England became the Head of the Church there.
To face the Protestant Revolt, the Catholic Church began to bring in reforms. These efforts of the Church to reform itself are collectively called Counter-Reformation. The priests of Spain and Italy stressed the importance of living simple lives and serving the poor.
In Spain St. Ignatius Loyola led the efforts to reform the Catholic Church. To face the Protestant threat, in 1540, he founded a Congregation called the “Society of Jesus”. The members of this Congregation are called Jesuits. Their goal was to serve the poor and enlarge their knowledge of other faiths.
The Christian concept of the Universe was proved wrong by Copernicus. Based on this statement, examine the astronomical revolution brought by Copernicus.
It was Copernicus, from Poland, who changed the Christian concept about the Universe which was prevalent until then. He started an astronomical revolution. He presented his views about the Universe in his famous book “De Revolutionibus” which means on the revolutions. Copernicus theorized that the sun is the centre of the solar system and the earth and other planets revolve round the sun. This is known as the Heliocentric Theory.
The Heliocentric Theory of Copernicus was taken forward by Johannes Kepler and Galilei Galileo. Do you agree with this view? Explain.
The theory of Copernicus was approved by people Only after a long time. It was Galileo and Kepler, two famous scientists, who took his theory forward to its perfection.
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), a German scientist, popularised the idea that the earth was a mere part of the solar system. He wrote this in his famous book “Cosmographic Mystery”. He also proved that the planets revolve around the sun not in a circular manner but in an elliptical course.
What is Science Revolution? What are the contributions made by Science Groups towards the propagation of the ideas of the Science Revolution?
The work of thinkers like Galileo showed that it was not belief but knowledge that is the basis of observations and tests. By moving through these paths shown by the scientists, physics, chemistry, and biology made fast growth. This new approach to man and nature is called the ‘Science Revolution’ by historians. Because of the science revolution, atheist and non-believers in any religion started looking at Nature, and not God, as the creator of things. Even those who retained their faith in God started thinking of God as a distant power who does not interfere in the day-to-day working of the world.
“The Renaissance era was completely different from the past,” Shibu.
“The Renaissance is a rebirth of the Greco-Roman traditions,” Babu.
“The period before the Renaissance was a Dark Period,” Razia.
Based on these paradoxical views, examine the concept of Renaissance.
Peter Burke, a modem historian from England, says that by using, the term Renaissance Jakob Burckhardt exaggerated the difference between the periods before it and after it. Peter Burke added that it would mean that during the Renaissance period the Greco-Roman cultures revived and the scholars and artists accepted the Christian view of the world instead of the pre-Christian view.
Both these arguments are exaggerated in their own ways. The scholars before the Renaissance were familiar with the then cultures and therefore. It would be incorrect to say that the cultures had a rebirth. In the case of religion also there was no serious departure from the past. Religion continued to be an essential part of the life of people.
The Humanist historians pictured Renaissance as a period of energy and artistic creativity. At the same time, they considered the Middle Ages as a park Period with no development at all.
Many of the features of Renaissance could be seen in Italy in the 12th and 13th centuries. But some historians point out that even in the 9th Century France there were literary and artistic development like those of the Renaissance period.