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Kerala Plus Two Sociology Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 3 Social Institutions: Continuity and Change
Social Institutions: Continuity and Change Questions and Answers
In the Census taken by the British Government in the year ………… information about the caste was included.
From the names given below, who is not considered to be a leader of the lower castes of South India?
a) Sri Narayana Guru
c) Chattambi Swamikal
From… the British Government began to take regular census every 10 years.
From among the given things what is not an important feature of the Upper Classes?
a) right to education
b) right to enter temples
c) Not drinking alcohol
d) political power
Not drinking alcohol
From the following chose the family in which members of only two generations live: Joint family, Nuclear family, Extended Family.
The family in which newly married couples stay with the family of the father of the groom is called …….
A family of a mother with her children and their children is called ………
What are the 3 most important social institutions of a society?
Jati, Tribe (Gotram), Family
The 4-phase division of the society is called ……….
Who is the father of Indian Sociology?
b) G. S. Ghurye
c) M.N. Srinivas
Match the following
|Fought against caste system
|Sri Narayana Guru
|Information about Caste
|More than 1000 sub-castes
Explain the different levels of the meaning of ‘Jati’.
Jati is translated as ‘caste’ in English. Caste actually comes from Portuguese. It means ‘pure breed’. Jati shows a social arrangement of people based on birth. Varna is another word that means Jati. Both these words ‘Jati’ and ‘Varna’ are often used as synonyms. But actually there are some differences between them. Varna is a Sanskrit word. It means color. The ‘Varna’ system originated during the Veda period. At that time the people were divided into four groups – Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaisya, and Sudra. This 4-class division is called Varna, in these 4 groups, a good number of people were not included.
They were excluded from the 4-Varna system. They included those ostracised from the Jati, foreigners, slaves and the people of the defeated nations. These people who were excluded from the 4-Varna system were called ‘Panchamar’ or ‘the fifth group’. Jati is a common name to indicate a group. In this, even inanimate things, plants, animals and persons were included. Thus Jati is simply an institution and S does not mean Varna.
Explain the relation between Jati and Varna.
In fact, the actual relation between Jati and Varna is often debated by scholars. There are many imaginary concepts about this. Varna system is an all-India system. The 4-Varna system can be seen everywhere in India. But Jati is a regional or local institution. A Jati found in one area of India may not be found in another area. The Jati chain is different in each area. The main difference between Jati and Varna is in the number. Vamas are 4. But there are hundreds of Jatis and Updates. The Jati system is highly complicated.
What are the main features of Jati?
- Jati is decided by birth.
- Marriage in the same group (Swagana Vivaham).
- Restrictions in food items and sharing of food.
- Hierarchical system by giving people high, low and middle status.
- Upajatis and upa-upajatis
- Kulathozhil (specified family jobs)
What re the contributions of Jyoti Rao Phule?
Jyoti Rao Phule was later known as Mahatma Phule. He started a Social Reformation Movement in Maharashtra.
- He gave leadership to a fight against Brahmin domination and Jati system.
- He worked for the education of the lower castes and women.
- He rejected the idea of ‘purity-pollution’ (suddha- asuddha) concepts.
- He worked for righteousness and human rights of the lower castes.
- • He found the Satyajodhak Samaj.
Jati system is a combination of two kinds of principles. Explain.
Theoretically, Jati system is a combination of two kinds of principles. One kind is based on differences and distance. The other kind is based on universality and power hierarchy (chain).
Each Jati is supposed to be different from others. Therefore each Jati was expected to keep away from other Jatis. Most of the rules and regulations of Jati are formulated on the principle of preventing the mingling of Jatis. Thus there were restrictions regarding marriage and ‘panthibhojanam’ (eating together).
At the same time a Jati can’t survive by itself. It can survive only as part of larger community. And this is its universality. The community (society) as a whole is not based on any principle of equality. There is a hierarchical order there. It is like a ladder. In this ladder each Jati is given its place.
Jati is a combination of two kinds of concepts:
a) Differences and distance from other Jatis.
b) Part of a larger community and part of a power hierarchy.
Explain the purity-pollution (Suddha-Asuddha) concept of Jati system.
Purity and Pollution are like antonyms, opposite to each other. Purity is associated with the higher classes whereas impurity or pollution is associated with the lower classes. Purity is related to those things which are considered sacred. Thus some rituals in temples can be performed by only the Upper Castes like Brahmins. But those who do lowertypes of jobs, like cleaning, sweeping, etc. are considered impure and even their touch was avoided polluting (untouchability) by the Upper Classes.
What changes did Colonialism bring in the Jati system?
Scholars say1 that colonialism brought drastic changes in the Jati system. There are some scholars who even argue the Jati-system as we see it today is not part of the Indian system, but is a creation of colonialism. However, these systems were not deliberately introduced but happened over centuries, it is true that the colonialists did make some changes in the existing system.
Who is Periyar? What were his contributions?
E . V. Ramaswami Naicker is called Periyar. He was a rationalist and a leader of the lower caste people of South India. He taught that all people are equal and freedom and equality were the birthrights of everyone. He formed the ‘Swabhiman Movement.’ He took part in the Vaikom Satyagraha, in Kerala.
What were the reforms made for the prosperity of the lower castes by the Colonial rulers?
Towards the end of their rule, the Colonial Masters took some interest in bringing prosperity to the so called lower classes of people. As part of the reform activities, in 1935, the Government prepared a schedule of the lower classes. This schedule was officially approved by a law. Those that were approved in the schedule were known as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and they got special considerations from the Government.
All the lower class people who even suffered from the inhuman, horrible ‘untouchability’ were in the schedule. This way the Colonial rulers brought some good changes in the rigid caste system in India.
What were the factors that brought changes in the Indian Jati System after independence?
Changes in the Jati System were brought by different factors working together. They included industrialization, urbanization and spread of modem education.
Developmental activities by the nation and the growth of private industries brought economic changes. This indirectly affected Jati system. Modern industries created a lot of new employment opportunities. The Jati laws did not apply to those jobs. When people of different castes began go work together in factories and business enterprises, many of Jati restrictions became impractical and irrelevant.
Urbanization made life according to Jati laws impossible. People of different Jatis had to live together in cities. It was not practical to live in the city following Jati system. There people had to live together.
Codify the ideas of Sree Narayana Guru.
- He propagated the principle of universal brotherhood.
- He fought against the Varna system and dominance by the Upper Class.
- He tried to wipe away the evil practices among the Ezhavas.
- He formed the SNDPYogam.
- He brought a silent revolution in the Kerala Society. He spread the message of One Jati, One Religion and One God for Man.
What is Sanskritization?
Sanskritization is a process by which members of the lower classes adapt the lifestyles and social conventions of the Higher classes with the intention of raising their own status in society. It is a way through which the lower class people try to enter the higher classes. They do it through imitation.
What is meant by dominant Caste (Prabala Jati)? What are they?
Through the land reform measures after independence, many people got ownership of their lands. Among these new owners of land, the castes that had big numbers were called dominant castes by M.N. Srinivas. The land reforms took away the rights of many high caste estate owners to their estates. They were not making any contributions to the economic system except that they collected axes from the farmers. The lands that were confiscated from these landlords were given to people at the next lower level. The people who newly got the land rights were not farmers. They were simply managers of agriculture. They were middle-class Dalits who had a lot of members. Here are some dominant castes:
a) Yadavs of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
b) Vokkaligas of Karnataka.
c) Reddys and Khammans in Andhra Pradesh.
d) Marathis of Maharashtra
e) Jats of Punjab, Haryana and Western UP.
f) Patidars of Gujarat
What were the special features of the dominant castes?
The special features are:
- Large number
- Land and economic power
- Political power
What are the permanent features of ‘Gotras’ (Tribes)?
The permanent features of Gotras include their region, language, special physical features, and environmental habitat. The Tribals in India are scattered in many regions of the country. But in some places, there are some concentrations. Among the Tribals, some 85% live in Central India. Central India is a wide area extending to Western Gujarat and Rajasthan, Eastern West Bengal and Orissa. Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh, Parts of Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh come in this vast area. Of the remaining 15%, more than 11% live in North-East States, and the remaining in different other States of India.
If we look State-wise, most of them are found in the North-East States. Except in Assam, all the North East States have Tribals which come to more than 30% of the total population. In Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland 60 to 95% of the people belong to Tribal groups. IntherestoflndiatheTribalpopulation is negligible. Except in Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, the Tribals are less than 12% of the population. Hills, forests, village plains and even some industrial ‘ belts of cities are the habitats of these Tribals.
Based on language, how are the Tribal groups categorized?
Based on language, Tribal groups are categorized into 4:
The first two, Indo-Aryan and Dravidian, are also spoken by other people of India. Among the Tribals, 1% speak Indo-Aryan and 3% speak Dravidian languages. Austric and Tibeto-Burman are the most popular languages of the Tribals.
Based on physical and racial features, the Tribals of India are divided into 5:
Of these the last two – Dravidian and Aryan, are shared by other Indians also.
Tribal Groups are categorized based on their acquired features. Explain.
Acquired features include the ways they earn their livelihood and their mixing with Hindu communities. Sometimes both these happen simultaneously. Based on the means of their livelihood, Tribais are grouped as fishermen, collectors of food, hunters, shifting cultivators, peasants, estate workers, and industrial workers.
Adapting Hindu ways of life is another criterion for the categorization of Tribal Groups. In Sociology, political science and public matters this criterion is more widely used.
Write about the mainstream views about the Tribal Groups of India.
In 1940 there was a controversy regarding separation/ integration of the Tribal groups in India. This was the result of a feeling that Tribal Groups should themselves separately from the mainstream society. The spokesman for the Separation theory was Verrier Elwin and the spokesman for Integration was G.S. Ghurye.
The proponents of the Separation theory argued that the Tribals should be kept separate from the mainstream society. They said that these Tribals should be protected from traders, financiers, Hindu and Christian missionaries. All these people are trying to make the Tribals laborers without land and thus make them non- Tribals. The Separation Theory supporters argued that the close relation between Tribals and mainstream society would result in their ruin.
On the other hand, the Integration theory supporters argued that Tribals are part of the Hindu community. GS. Ghurye called them backward Hindus. He argued that the Tribals should be integrated into the mainstream Hindu community. They also said that since the Tribals are backward Hindus, they also should be treated like the other Scheduled Castes and given all considerations.
This argument created a lot of noise in the Indian Constitutional Assembly. People supported both sides. Finally, it was agreed that the Tribals should be integrated into the mainstream gradually. It was this approach -gradual or controlled integration – that resulted in many welfare schemes for the Tribals. There were many welfare schemes for them, provisions for them in the Five Year Plans, specific Tribal schemes, Tribal welfare blocks, multiple-aim schemes and so on. But the integration of the Tribals created a basic problem. The Five Year Plans during the Nehru Era gave prominence to Industrial and agricultural development. Later government followed the same policy The stress was given to the construction of huge dams and factories and exploiting mineral wealth for the development of country.
What are the problems faced by the Tribals?
Tribals depended on the forest for their livelihood. The loss of forests was a big blow to them. During the British rule forests were exploited. This tendency continued even after independence. The coming of the land under private ownership also adversely affected the Tribals. When private landowners had their own private lands, the Tribals held their land collectively. This collective ownership proved harmful to them. For example, when a series of dams were constructed on Narmada River, ail the communities did not equally share their advantages and disadvantages. It helped the private landowners but it was harmful to the Tribals, who owned the land collectively.
Many of the regions where* Tribals are concentrated are becoming the targets, and thus victims, of national development schemes. Non-Tribals migrate into their areas in large numbers. It proves a great threat to ihe Tribals and their ways of life. It also reduces their population. For example, in Jharkhand, because of the migration by non-tribals into the new industrial areas, the number of Tribals has been reduced drastically there. But the most dramatic development was in North-Easter States. In States like Tripura, the Tribal population has come down to half in just one decade. The same thing was seen in Arunachal Pradesh. ,
What are the reasons for the rise of Tribal Movements?
There are mainly two reasons. One of them is the problem related to the control of land, forests and such other important economic resources. The second problem in connected with the racial-cultural being of the Tribals.
What are the special features of the internal structure of the family?
The following are the features:
- A family can be nuclear or joint.
- It can be patriarchal or matriarchal.
- The hereditary rights can be paternal or maternal.
What are the differences between a nuclear family and an extended family?
Nuclear family is the smallest. It is also called the primary family. In a nuclear family, there are the parents and their children. It consists of members belonging to two generations.
An Extended family is quite different. It is commonly known as joint family. There are different types of extended families. In an extended family, more than one couple and their children live. This can be a group of brothers and their families. It could be the family of an old couple whose children and grandchildren stay with them. An extended family is often seen as a sign of India. But that was never a strong-knit family. It was limited to some regions and some communities. An extended family is not a strong form even now.
What are the other forms of families?
In the different communities of India, different forms of families are found. These differences occur because of the factors like residence, authority, and heredity. Depending on the residence (dwelling), families are of two kinds: paternal and maternal. When the newly married couple stays with the parents of the bride, we call it maternal family. On the other hand, when the newly married couple lives with the parents of the groom, it will be called paternal family.
Depending on hereditary rights there are two kinds of families-matriarchal and patriarchal. In matriarchal families, properties go to the daughters of the mother. In patriarchal families, the property goes to the sons.
How can we divide the family based on authority?
Here also we divide the families into patriarchal and matriarchal. In patriarchal families the men wield authority. The father is the leader. In matriarchal families, women wield the authority. The mother is the leader here.