Students can Download Chapter 7 Peasants, Zamindars and the State Notes, Plus Two History Notes helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 7 Peasants, Zamindars and the State
1. In the 16th and 17th centuries, some 80% of the Indian population lived in villages. The landowners and agriculturists were engaged in the production of agricultural crops.
The landowners claimed a part of the produce. This caused cooperation as well as conflicts between them; The village society was formed by agricultural relations.
2. The basic, factor of the agricultural society was villages. The activities of the farming community consisted mainly of preparing the farms for cultivation, sowing the seeds and harvesting. They also took part in the production of agriculture-related things like sugar and oil.
3. Agriculture was done in two seasons – Spring and Autumn. The Spring crops were called Kharif and the Autumn crops were called Rabi. In most areas, cultivation was done at least twice.
4. In the agricultural society of the middle period, women played a significant role. They worked along with men in the fields. The men ploughed the land and made it ready for planting. Women sowed seeds, weeded the farm, harvested crops, threshed and separated the grain from the chaff.
5. In the middle ages, there were dense forests in East India, Central India and North India, Jharkhand, Western Ghats and the Deccan Plateau.
6. Forests were considered as a haven for criminal activities. They were shelters for criminals and outlaws.
7. The economic base of the Mughal Empire was land. The biggest income for the government was land tax. Therefore the Mughal Empire formed an extensive system of administration for the efficient collection of taxes from different areas of the nation. The head of the Revenue department was called diwan whereas the department was known as daftar.
8. A main feature of the Mughal Rule was Mansabdari system. It was Akbar who formulated this policy. This is a system where civil and military positions and responsibilities were combined
9. In the 16th and 17th centuries the Mughal Empire unified its powers and resources. Soon it became a big power like the Ming (China), Safavid (Iran) and Ottoman (Turkey).
- 1526: Babardefeats Ibrahim Lodhi, Suttan of Delhi and becomes the 1st Mughal Emperor.
- 1530-40: First stage of the rule of Humayun
- 1540-55: Shershah defeats Humayun. Humayun seeks shelter in the Safavid Empire of Persia.
- 1555-56: Humayun returns to India and recaptures the lost regions
- 1556-1605: The rule of Akbar
- 1605-1627: Jehangir’s rule
- 1628-1658: Shah Jahan rules
- 1658-1707: Aurangazeb’s rule
- 1739: Nadir Shah attacks India. He loots Delhi.
- 1761: Ahmed Shah Abdali defeats Marathas in the Panipat Battle.
- 1765: East India Company gets the right to collect taxes in Bengal.
- 1857: The British oust the last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah and exile him to Rangoon.