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Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 9 Vijayanagara: An Imperial Capital
1. Vijayanagar means the city of triumph. This is the name of a city as well as of an Empire. The Vijaynagar Empire was founded in the 14th century. It extended from Krishna River in the North to the southern end of the subcontinent. In CE 1565, the city was looted.
In the 17th and 18th centuries the Empire collapsed completely. Still the memories of this Empire were rooted in the minds of the people who lived in the Krishna-Thungabhadra Basin. They called it Hampi.
2. The first dynasty that ruled Vijayanagar was Sangama Dynasty. They ruled until 1485. Then they were ousted from power and the Saluva Dynasty came to rule. They ruled until 1503. They were followed by Thuluva Dynasty. Krishna Devarayar was a member of this dynasty.
3. In the Vijaynagar empire there was the system of “Amara Nayaka”. This system had much in common with the “Ikta System” of the Delhi Sultans.
4. By the 17th century the Amaranayakas became very powerful. They started challenging even the authority of the king. Some of them established their own kingdoms. This added to the fall of the Vijaynagar empire.
5. In the royal centre there are many temples. But most of the temples are seen in the ‘Holy centre’. The royal centre is also rich in temples.
6. The kings of Vijayanagar created new traditions. They started exhibiting statues of kings in temples. The visit of the king to a temple was treated as an official or formal occasion. At this time all the leading Nayakas also accompanied the king.
7. We have a lot of information about the Vijaynagar empire. They include photos, city plans, plans of buildings, and sculptures. The information that was got by Mackenzie, who made the first survey of Vijayanagar, collected it from the descriptions of travellers and from the stone inscriptions and it throws much light in the Vijaynagar empire.
This Site is protected by the Archaeological Survey of India and the Karnataka Department of Archaeology from the 20th century.
Time Line – 1
Important Political Developments
- 1200-1300: Delhi Sultanate is established (1206).
- 1300-1400: Founding of the Vijayanagara Empire (1336).
- 1400-1500: Founding of the Sultanate in Gujarat and Malwa. Founding of the Sultanates in Ahmednagar, Bijapur&Birar. Portuguese attack Goa (1518).
- 1500-1600: Destruction of Bahmini. The Coming of the Sultanate in Golkonda (1518) Babur founds the Mughal Empire (1518).
Time Line – 2
Discovery of Viiavanaaara and its Protection
- 1800: Colin Mackenzie visits Vijayanagara
- 1856: Detailed photographs of the archaeological remains of Hampi are taken by Alexander Greenlow.
- 1876: J.F. Fleet records the inscriptions on the temple walls of the sites.
- 1902: Efforts are begun to protect Vijayanagara.
- 1986: UNESCO declares Hampi as a World Heritage Site.