Kerala Plus Two Political Science Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Rise of Popular Movements
Match the following.
|1.||Chipko Movement||A.||Medha Patkar|
|2.||Dalit Panthers||B.||Sunderiai Bahuguna|
|3.||Bharathiya Kisan Sabha||C.||Nam Deo Dhasai|
|4.||Narmada Bacho Andolan||D.||M.S.Tikait|
1 – B ; 2 – C ; 3 – D; 4 – A
Fill up the following table.
Expand the following abbreviations.
a) Narmada Bachao Andolan
b) Bhartiya Kisan Union
c) Mazdur Kisan Sakti Sanghatan
During June 2005 Indian Parliament passed the law regarding Right to Information. A popular movement originated in
Rajasthan influenced it. Which was that Popular Movement?
Mazdoor Kisan Sakti Sanghatan
Fill up the table given below.
|1.||Anti Arrack Movement||A : Andra Pradesh|
|2.||Movement for Right to Information||B : ?|
Which of these statements is incorrect?
The Chipko Movement
a) was an environmental movement to prevent cutting down of trees.
b) raised questions of ecological and economic exploitation.
c) was a movement against alcoholism started by the women.
d) Demanded that local communities should have control over their natural resources
c) was a movement against alcoholism started by the women.
Some of the statements below are incorrect. Identify the incorrect statements and rewrite with necessary correction:
a) Social movements are hampering the functioning of India’s democracy
b) The main strength of social movements lies in their mass base across social sections.
c) Social movements in India emerged because there were many issues that political parties did not address.
a) Social movements are hampering the functioning of India’s democracy
Match the following.
|Chipko Movement||Medha padker||UP|
|Narmada Bachao Andolan||Sunderlal Bahuguna||Maharashtra|
|Dalit Panthers||Dr. B.R. Ambedkar||Madhyapradesh|
|Bharathiya Kisan Union||Mahendra Singh Tikayat||Utharakhand|
|Chipko Movement||Sundarlal Bahuguna||Uttarakhand|
|Narmada Bachao Andolan||Medha Patkar||Madhya Pradesh|
|Dalit Panthers||Dr. C.R. Ambedkar||Maharashtra|
|Bhartiya Kisan Union||Mahendra Singh Tikayat||Uttar Pradesh|
In recent times it is noted that people are organized in a non political manner to deal with the problems they are facing. Agitations in Muthanga, Plachimada, Chengara etc can be cited as examples. Prepare a Politics in India since Independence
brief note about the origin of these types of non political popular movements with examples.
It is the dissatisfaction among people that causes them to organize in a non-political manner to find solutions to their problems. Even after 30 years of independence, neither the government nor the party was able to solve some democratic problems. In the 1970s, women, students, subalterns, peasants, etc. realized that politics wouldn’t solve their problems. Therefore they rallied under various social organizations and made their demands.
The presence of social organizations thus became very much felt. Most of these organizations were formed against exploitation of Nature, inequality, exploitation, social evils, alcohol and such things. Women took a major role in all these. Chipko Movement, Dalit Panthers, AntiArrack Movement, Narmada Bachao Andolan, National Fish Worker’s Union etc. are some such organizations that gained international attention.
Political Parties are always making efforts to resolve the problems faced by the people. But at the very same time non-party movements are strengthening throughout the country. Find out the reasons behind the formation of non-party movements.
ln the 1970s and 80s, there are many groups of people that were not satisfied with the working of the existing political parties. This caused the formation of non-political groupings. In many spheres they were able to bring about changes. Even then economic inequality and poverty remained on a large scale. The benefits of the economic gains did not reach all levels of the population. There was a big gap between the industrial and rural sectors. Many felt this was injustice.
Many political parties lost their faith in the democratic system. Therefore they were forced to adopt new methods. Students, subalterns and Adivas is joined together and worked for the poor people, fighting against social evils. They were known as Voluntary Organizations. They did not support any political party or contest elections. They did not want to work in political parties. They discovered that direct interference was better than seeking political solutions to problems.
They also believed that such interventions would help the democratic government . Therefore they we known as non-political movements. They worked in urban and rural areas. But when more and more money came from outside, some of these groups became weak.
Prepare a seminar note about the most significant Non Political Movements in India.
The Most significant Non Political Movements: In the 1970s people became impatient. The Government and the political parties were not ready to solve their problems. Therefore the people at the lowest strata like the Adivasis and Dalits rallied themselves under the umbrella of some social organizations to fight for their rights. They discovered that direct interference was better than seeking the help political parties. Thus in the Indian political history, non-political movements were formed. Some took up environmental issues, some worked for job-related things and some worked against social evils.
A. Movements for the Preservation of Nature and its Resources:
The Most significant Non Political Movements in India were to preserve Nature and its resources. We know about the Plachimada Agitation against the Coca-cola Company. Other examples of such movements are those against biack sand mining in Alapuzha and for protecting the Silent Valley. Two other most important movements were the Chipko Movement under Sundarlal Bahuguna and the Narmada Bachao Movement under Medha Patkar.
This was a Movement that became famous the world over. It was started in 1973 in two or three villages of Uttarakhand. The Forest Department prevented the villagers from cutting down a certain kind of trees with which they made their working implements. But the same Forest Department gave permission to a Sports Equipment Manufacturing Company to cut down such trees for commercial purposes. This provoked the villagers. When the workers came to cut the trees, the villagers stood near the trees embracing them. (Chipko means embrace). This protest spread to many parts of Uttarakhand.
The people raised their voice against the exploitation of nature. They asked the government not to let outsiders come and exploit their resources. They wanted the power to manage them to be given to the local people. They also asked of permission to start small scale industries, protecting Nature and the Environment. They also . demanded minimum wages for the forest workers ,who had no land of their own.As a result of this Movement, the government issued an order prohibiting the cutting down of trees in the Himalayan side for 15 years. The role of women was great in this Movement. They also fought against social evils like drinking alcohol. With Chipko Movement, people realized that solutions to popular problems could be found through non-political movements.
Narmada Bachao Andolan:
This Movement came as a result of the Sardar Sarovar Project. This questioned even the economic policy of the government. It was also a movement against large scale displacement of people for huge developmental projects. People of Kerala had made similar protests against the Vallarpadam Project.
Sardar Sarovar Project is a large scale project. The project was to build a number of big and small dams. The project would cover Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra. This project would help Gujarat to have good irrigation and electricity. Narmada Bachao Andolan was to protect Narmada. The Movement demanded the stoppage of constructions in this river.
If this project is completed, 245 villages would be submerged underwater. Some 2.5 lakhs people will have to find new homes. Starting from these villages, the Andolan began to spread. The beginning of the Movement was by demanding to rehabilitate those who would lose their homes.
The argument also came up that the local communities should have power over the land, water and forests. They ask why in a democracy some people should become victims for the benefit of some others. Many large scale schemes have been implemented. Large scale displacement of people would adversely affect them. It also brings harm to Nature. All these were the causes for the Narmada Bachao Andolan.
The NBA met with stiff opposition. The government and the court gave permission to rehabilitate the displaced persons. It was because of this Movement that the Policy of Rehabilitation was formulated in 2003. But the Supreme Court criticised the Andolan saying that it was preventing development.
B. Movements Related to Caste Problems:
The fact is that even today the Dalits are being discriminated against. Although there are laws against such discriminations, they are, often violated. In Kerala we haveAdivasi Khshema Samiti, Ayyankali Pada and Adivasi Gotra Maha Sabha which are caste- related Movements. The Dalit Panthers is a nationwide Movement.
in the 1970s, many Dalit youths, who were degree holders residing in slums, showed their power. Dalit Panthers is the Movement working for the welfare the Dalits, it was first started in Maharashtra. It fought against caste discriminations. It wants the reservations for the Scheduled Castes and Tribes to be implemented properly. Although untouchability is legally prohibited, we can still see it in many parts of the country.
The activities of the Dalit Panthers are concentrated in areas where Dalits are subjected to discrimination and attacks. It also works in collaboration with Movements who have similar ideologies. In 1989, a law was enacted to give severe punishments to those who harm Dalits. The agenda of the Panthers is making the society equitable where there is no caste discrimination. After independence, the Movement also does activities for the welfare of the poor, wage earners and subalterns. Dalit Panthers made some electoral adjustments with political parties. But the Movement split into various fragments and its strength was lost.
C. People Movements Based On Work:
There are movements related to work. Such movements came up because many lost their traditional jobs and some others, especially peasants, faced many problems in their life. An example is the Muriyad Karshaka Sangham in Trichur District. The important Movements in India are Bhartiya Kisan Union and National Fish Workers’ Forum.
Bhartiya Kisan Union:
In the 1980s, some communities received different benefits as part of development. This caused many complaints against the government and the party. In 1988, in Uttar Pradesh, some 20,000 farmers assembled. They protested against the increased electricity rates. They protested in front of the District Collector’s office for 3 weeks and their demand was approved. It was a show of strength by an organized rural movement. The protesters were members of the Bhartiya Kisan Union. The peasants in Haryana, Punjab and Western Uttar Pradesh got the benefits of the Green Revolution.
Their main cultivation was sugar cane and wheat. With the liberalization policy, these farmers faced a crisis. The Bhartiya Kisan Union made protests. Their demands were: Increase the minimum price given to sugar cane and wheat, remove inter-State controls, give electricity at moderate rates, write off the agricultural debts and grant pension to agricultural workers.
The method of protest included rallies, protests, dharnas, getting arrested and filling jails. The Union pressurized the government to get their demands accepted. The members of this union belonged to one particular community. They met in the manner of traditional panchayats and discussed ways to overcome their economic problems. Until 1990, the Bhartiya Kisan Union kept away from political parties. The Shetkari Sanghatan in Maharashtra and the Rayata Sanghatan of Karnataka also came up with economic demands. In the 1980s these Movements of the peasants made big social impacts.
National Fish Workers’ Forum:
Many people make their livelihood by catching and selling fish. India has the second biggest group of fish workers. There are lakhs offish workers here. There was a problem that adversely affected the fishermen. With the arrival of trawling boats, the fish wealth
was taken away by the boat owners. Ordinary fishermen had to struggle for their livelihood. The Liberalization Policy of the 1980s made their life more difficult. Therefore they united at the national level. People from Kerala were in the leadership positions.
The Forum included women workers also, in 1991 they protested against the policies of the Central Government. The main reason was the government granting permit to international companies to catch fish even close to the Indian shores. In July 2002, the Forum organized a nation-wide strike demanding the ban of foreign trawlers. Now the Forum works for the welfare of the fish workers and also for the protection of Environment.
Movements Against Social Evils:
What is noteworthy in many Social Movements is the increased presence of women. Earlier, women took part in affairs related to the family. Their protests were mainly against dowry, sexual harassment in work places and public places. Most of those protests were carried out by educated or wealthy women.
But the fight against alcohol was led by illiterate women. March against Arrack: In the 1990s, many women in Nellur in Andhra became literate. In the class, women spoke about the drinking habits of their men-folk. Drinking alcohol causes both physical and mental harm. It also adversely affects the economic situation of the family. Men do not go to work. The manufacturers of various kinds of alcoholic beverages make money by using all sorts of illegal means. It is the women that suffer because of the drinking habit of men.
The women in Nellur protested against alcoholism and forced a wine shop to close down. This news spread like wild fire into some 5000 villages. They held meetings and passed resolutions and sent them to the Collectors. The arrack auction in Nellur had to be postponed 17 times. The protest in Nellur spread to the rest of the State. In short, where government s and political parties failed, such social movements won.
There are arguments in favour and against popular movements. Can you make a list showing the merits and demerits of Non-political popular movements.
These days the popular movements have a lot of importance in politics. Here are their advantages and disadvantages.
- It helps the people to recognize the value of democratic movements.
- It helps people to know the defects of political parties and the importance of social action.
- It represents new social fellowship. In the past the political parties did not pay any heed to the complaints of people.
- Mutual disputes are reduced. Different groups become active in social matters.
- Such popular groups help in the growth and functioning of democracy.
- Protests, dharnas, and rallies prevent governments from smooth functioning. Late decisions adversely affect proper ad ministration.
- Most Movements were for or against a particular issue. Thus these movements get the support of only some particular groups of people. Their activities, therefore, are limited.
- For democratic policies, there is a need for broad fellowships and unity. But such broad fellowship is not seen in most of these Movements.
- These Movements can work only for limited objectives. Often there are clashes between these Movements and Parties. There is a big gap between them.
Enumerate three laws enacted by the Parliament since independence, for the welfare of women.
The Indian women are generally in a backward state. Social reformers and freedom fighters have done a lot to improve the condition of women. Movement like Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj and Prarthana Samaj worked for gender equality. They also carried out some schemes for the welfare of women. Law prohibiting Sati (1829), Widow-Remarriage Act (1856),Politics in India since Independence.
Marriage Act (1856) etc. were done with the intention of women’s welfare. After independence, many lawswere passed to improve the lot of women. Some of the most important laws are:
- Hindu Marriage Act (1955)
- Adapting for Succession (1956)
- Anti-Dowry Bill (1961)
- Anti Foeticide Act (1971)
- Prohibition of Child Marriage Act (Amendment to the 1978 Law).
- Anti-Dowry Act (Amendment done in 1984)
What is SardarSarovar Project?
Jipl Sardar Sarovar Project was a multipurpose project. The advocates of this project say that this project will bring development to Gujarat and the three States sharing its border. They say it will give drinking water, irrigation, increased electricity production and better agriculture output in all these places.
In which year was All India Kisan Sabha established?
The All India Kisan Sabha was established in 1936.
Who led the Narmada Bachao Andolan?
Do movements and protests in a country strengthen democracy? Justify your answer with examples.
All over the world, Movements and Protests are considered to be part of democracy. In the Popular Movements, various groups of people get involved, and therefore the participation of the people is great. Studying about Popular Movements helps people to understand more about democratic policies. For example, the Anti-Arrack protest organized by the Andhra women paved the way for women to have seat reservations in the Parliament and State Assemblies.