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Kerala Plus Two Sociology Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 6 The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
The Challenges of Cultural Diversity Questions and Answers
Individuals develop their sense of being (identity) through
A large group of people that successfully claims legal monopolistic rights to use force within a particular region is called ……….. by Max Weber.
In 1953, under the leadership of …….. a State Reorganization Commission was appointed,
a) Jawaharlal Nehru
c) Faisal Ali
d) Drs. Radhakrishnan
Who was the Congress leader that fasted demanding a new Andhra State based on language?
b) Faisal Ali
“Minorities are an explosive power. If it explodes the entire nation will crumble.” who said it?
Article… says that all groups of people will have the right to protect their language, script and culture,
a) Article 27
b) Article 28
c) Article 29
d) Article 30
Article … says that all minorities will have the right to establish and run educational institutions to suit their interests.
a) Article 27
b) Article 28
c) Article 29
d) Article 30
Narrow mindedness based on religious dogma, prompting violence is, …………..
Match the following.
|Sriramulu||State Reorganization Commission|
|FasalAli||State Reorganization Commission|
What is the meaning of cultural diversity?
Diversity means difference. When we say that India is land of cultural diversities we mean that there are different kinds of social groups and communities here. These communities are formed on the basis cultural symbols like language, religion, sect, caste, and jati. When these communities live as part of a nation, there is bound to be cooperation and confrontation.
Why does cultural diversity bring strong challenges?
In communities united by language or religion, there will be strong cultural bonds. These bonds are capable of organizing people into strong groups. Challenges are not raised merely by cultural differences. Economic and social inequalities also make problems complex. When steps are taken to end the injustices to one group, other groups often object to such steps. When OBCs were given reservations, the upper caste people came out protesting. Things become worse when limited resources like river water, jobs, and government funds are to be shared.
What are the factors that work against the unity and? indivisibility of India?
There are many evil powers that work against the unity of our land. Communal riots, jati-fights, demand for separate countries and regions, etc. are activities against the unity of the country. It is true that many people do not have any patriotic feelings. When we examine the past history of India, we will realize that these kinds of divisive tendencies are not new in the country. Even before independence, such problems existed.
What are the bases of community’s being (identity)?
bases of community’s being are birth and inclusion.
What are the features of community being (identity)?
Some of the important features of community being are the qualities of being ‘accidental’, unconditional and un-escapable. These qualities emotionally weld an individual to the community. The community gives meaning to the world of the individual and gives the awareness of who he is. That is why when the community is threatened, individuals react emotionally and violently.
The other thing about community is its universality. The members of a particular community will have one land of birth, one mother tongue, one family and one faith. This may not be true for all. But generally, this is the case.
A political community with some prerequisites is called a nation. A fixed region, people, a government, and sovereignty are the important factors that make up a nation. A nation has political and legal institutions to control the people who live in that region. Max Weber defines a nation as a large group of people that successfully claims legal, monopolistic rights to use force within a particular region.
“Desom” is different from community. Comment.
The question raised here is whether design is different from Tribal group, religious community or regional community. There is no ideological difference between design and community. Any large community can form a de som any time. But it may . not be possible for a particular community to form a de som.
Describe the national policy of integration.
India is a land of many languages, regions, and religions with different habits and customs. It is a land of diversity. Integrating the different people here is not an easy task. In some countries, they use force to integrate the people. They suppress regional, religious and linguistic minorities and force them to accept the cultural values and rules of the majority community. This is very unfair. But in India national integration is done keeping the linguistic, regional and religious diversities intact. We seek unity in diversity.
“The right and practical way is allowing the cultural diversities to co-exist.” Give your comment.
Countries that suppress minorities alienate them. They develop enmity and hatTed for the nation. Very often such suppressions bring the opposite result, instead of destroying the communal spirit of the suppressed, it increases that spirit. The best way is to allow the cultural difference to co-exist.
Discuss the India approach to communal being.
India has a positive approach to communal being since it is a nation of different faiths and beliefs. From the very beginning, India had accepted equal treatment to all manners of people. Although some leaders of the majority community wanted India to be a Hindu nation, the leaders of the country did not approve it. India stresses national integration. The Constitution declares India to be a secular State. But the fact remains that we have not been able to integrate ourselves fully. Even now we have evil things like “Jati’ in our midst.
- India gives strong protection to the religious minorities.
- In India, there is no shortage of ideas or rules. But the difficulty is inputting the rules into practice.
- In spite of our limitations, India is a good example of a secular, democratic State.
Critically examine Regionalism in India.
Regionalism has taken deep roots in India. Regionalism comes from one’s loyalty to language, region, religion, culture, and tribe. When all these things are concentrated in one place, the regional tendencies grow fast. The feeling that they are exploited or neglected makes regionalism flare-up. It is hoped that Federalism will be a solution to the problems raised by regionalism.
How were the Indian States formed? Was language the only criterion?
Even before independence, the idea that States should be organized on a linguistic basis was discussed. In the 1920s, this idea was approved by the Indian National Congress. Provincial Units of the Congress were made on linguistic basis. Thus there were the unit of Marathi speakers, Oriya speakers and so oh. Gandhiji and other Congress leaders promised that after independence States would be formed on language basis.
But when independence was got, in Congress itself there were different opinions. Some leaders felt that if States are formed on linguistic basis, it would promote regionalism, causing the nation to disintegrate. Nehru, Patel and Rajaji opposed the formation of States on language basis. But a good number of leaders stood firm in their former decision. In this situation of uncertainty, people began to agitate demanding States based on language. Bengalis, Tamils and Telugus joined the agitation.
It was in the Telugu speaking areas that this agitation was the strongest. Sriramulu, a Congress leader and Gandhian, started a fast and he died. His death made the agitation flare-up. People fought on the streets. Finally, the government had to grant Andhra State. In 1953, a State Reorganization Commission under Fazal Ali was appointed. The Commission gave its report. On 1 November 1956, the report was enforced. According to this, 14 States and 5 Centrally administered regions came into existence.
Some leaders including Nehru were afraid that the division of States on linguistic basis might cause disintegration of the country. But things happened the other way. The linguistically formed States helped in unifying the country. It also strengthened democracy. Above all, the language States approved the concept of unity in diversity.
It should, however, be noted that not all states were formed on language basis. In 2000, three States – Chhatisgarh, Uttaranchal, and Jharkhand – were formed. Language did not have a role in their formation. Here the considerations were cultural and economic. India now has 29 States and 2 Central Areas. By merely forming States based on language, regional feelings won’t be satisfied. There is a need for a guarantee for their existence. This is done by the Constitution. It defines clearly the powers jf the States and the Centre.
In India, how has the Constitution allotted administrative subjects?
The Indian Constitution has divided the subjects into three: Central List, State List, and Concurrent List. The Central Government has full authority to make laws on the subjects in the Central list. The State government can legislate on their subjects. In the Concurrent List, both States and the Centre can legislate. In the Upper House of the Parliament, members are chosen from the State Assemblies. Moreover, when occasion demands, Committees and Commissions are appointed to determine center-state relations.
What are the problems faced by Federalism in India?
Although – Federalism is functioning satisfactorily, many problems and arguments are going on. Things got worse from the 1990s, after implementing the liberalization policies. When Indians and foreigners invest in the country, regional equality was not kept. Many States were ignored. Private investors want to invest in the States which are already rich in industries. They do that because in the developed States there will be roads and such other infrastructure facilities essential for industries.
Market economy will only widen the gap between the developed and developing or under-developed States. In short, liberalization has created regional inequalities and increased them. The only solution to this problem is government and the public sector taking the initiative and do things to bring the underdeveloped States at par with the developed ones.
What are some of the basic problems we face?
Some of the basic problems we face are:
a) Secularism Vs Communalism
b) Majority Vs Minority
The problems of secularism and communalism are related to the religious stance of the government. India is a secular State and communalism has no place here. The Majority Vs Minority problems are related to issues of number – a huge group on one side and certain smaller groups on the other side. There are suggestions to the government how it should act towards different religious-linguistic cultural groups which are unequal. India has protected the interests of its minorities through the Constitution itself.
Who are the minorities?
Sociologically speaking, minorities are not just people less in number, but also those who are disadvantaged in different ways. Therefore rich people with special rights can’t be called minorities. At the most we can say that they are minorities with special rights. Minorities actually mean people who are less in number and also suffer from certain problems. Sociologically speaking, a small number of people with sufferings of some kind can be called a minority. Statistically, other minorities are those who are left- ‘ handed, born on 29 February and so on.
But they are not considered minorities. There are minorities who suffer in one sense but are economically well off, The Parsis and Sikhs in India are minorities but they are well off economically. But culturally, their condition is not very good. Before the vast majority of Hindus, their number is very small.
What is Communalism?
Communalism is narrow-mindedness in which a person thinks that only his religion is right and others are wrong. It often leads to clashes. Those who are blinded by communalism consider followers of other religions as low and even as enemies. Communalism is very dangerous as it often leads to clashes between followers of different religions. It was communalism that caused India’s partition.
Communalism comes from the word communal. If we look into the dictionary meaning of ‘communal’ it means ‘shared by all members of a community’ or ‘for common use’. But in India, it has acquired this negative meaning of blind adherence to one’s religion with enmity for other religions. A word with a positive meaning has been changed into negative meaning.
Codify the special features of communalists
All communalists believe in a ‘being’ based on religion. They also show hatred towards followers of other religions. Communalists are often violent. They insult and attack people who do not follow their tenets. Communalism gives too much importance to religion. They believe that religion is above everything else. A person’s wealth, profession or political leanings are not at all important. Only his religion is important. The many similarities among religions and their followers are denied by communalists.
Write a note on the communal riots in India
Communalism is an evil that spoils India. It is the source for all kinds*iaf conflicts. During communal riots, persons lose their human face and they become instruments in the hands of communal leaders. They become ready to do anything, to kill, rape or loot just to show their hatred for the other community. They justify their heinous crimes saying that they are taking revenge for what the other community had done to their ancestors or relatives in the past of present. Every region of India has become a prey to communal riots. The minority communities have suffered the most in these riots.
- In the riots, government and political parties have a big role.
- • The worst rioting after independence were witnessed in 1984 and 2002. In 1984 the riots were against the Sikh community, following the murder of Indira Gandhi. In 2002, there are anti-Muslim riots in Gujarat, following the burning 6f a train in Godhra. There were communal riots in India even during colonial rule. Many people believe that the riots were the results of the British policy of ‘Divide and Rule’.
What is secularism?
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries. This is a concept that is related to modernity, science and rationalism. Instead of depending on religious dogma to understand the world, secularism suggests alternative methods.
What is the meaning of a ‘secular’ State (Nation)?
In India, we use the word ‘secular1 as the opposite of communal. ‘Secular’ nation therefore means a nation that does not show any special liking forany particular religion. It is a concept against the narrow¬mindedness of communalists. Secularism not against any religion, but it does not have any special preference forany religion. All religions are equal in the eyes of a secular nation.
“India is loyal to secularism and at the same time it is also protecting the minorities.” Is this statement true?
This statement istme. It may look paradoxical. On the one hand, we say we are secular. On the other hand, we protect the minorities by giving them special considerations. In India, such a policy is essential because of our peculiar situation. We must not forget that we have so many minority groups and unless they are protected they will be in danger. This paradoxical attitude of the Nation is a highly complex matter.
When we do stray away from the aims of the Nation?
The nation strays away from its aims when its citizens are denied their legitimate rights. Despotic nations do not respect the human rights of their citizens. They either deny completely or seriously limit freedom of opinion, freedom of the media, political freedom, freedom from injustice, freedom to go to court etc. Corruption, inefficiency, lack of resources and so on spoil the image of a Nation. Because of these negative things, the institutions of the nation do not respond positively to the needs of the people. Thus often the nation moves away from its real aims. So we have to be vigilant.
What are citizen Groups?
Citizenry (Citizen group) is whole body of citizens which goes beyond family, community, market, or region. Here individuals come on their own and form organizations and institutions. It is a field where citizens are active. Here individuals take up social problems and try to exert pressure on authorities for the welfare of people. It consists of voluntary organizations, political parties, media houses, labor organizations, religious organizations, and non-governmental organizations. It works for the common good of the citizens.
The Emergency (1975-77) was a big shock to the people of India. Examine this statement.
The emergency declared by Indira Gandhi in 1975 was a big shock to the people. People came out strongly against the Emergency. This resulted in the formation of many citizen organizations. Many social organizations also came up during this period. Today the working of citizen organizations has extended to different spheres. Some of them are strong enough to influence national and international agencies.
Write a note on citizen groups and Right to Information.
One of the important spheres where citizen groups work is in the area of Right to Information. This started in the villages of Rajasthan. In the 1990s, a Citizens’ Organization named Mazdoor-Kisan Sakti Sangham wanted to get the records showing how the government money for village development was spent. Soon such demands came from different parts of the country. In spite of the strong objections from officials, government was forced to pass the Right to Information Bill. This ensured that the government has obligations to the people and the country and people can demand information on things they want to know.
Give a description about the Right to Information Act.
This Act was passed by the Parliament on 15 June 2005. On 13 October, it became law. With this, the people of India, except in Jammu-Kashmir, got the right to get government documents. Before this law came there were some other laws in India regarding the right of people for information. With the coming of the new law, all other laws of the past in this regard have become irrelevant. With this Law, anybody can seek information from authorities. In 30 days the authorities should reply to the requests. The law demands that each official should keep the information related to his office in the computer. This will help people to get quick replies. This Law empowers the citizens:
- To seek any kind of information.
- To get certified copies of documents related to the subject.
- To get copies as print or on disc, tape, floppy or video cassette.