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Kerala Plus Two Sociology Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Suggestions for Project Work
Suggestions for Project Work Questions and Answers
What is Research?
Research is a search. Through research, the boundaries of knowledge are expanded. There are some differences between what we read about research and the actual research. Research is something that do after entering a field. First, we choose a problem or a question. To get the answer we go into the field.
What do you understand by the research method?
A most important factor in research is choosing an appropriate method for it. Once the problem or question is selected, the next step is deciding the research method.
There are different research methods. They include interviews, observations, surveys and so, son. Sometimes it is possible that the answer to the research problem may not be found by following just one method. In that case, researchers may have to use more than one research method.
When choosing a research method, some factors need special consideration. These factors include technical criteria to practical considerations. Technical criterion means the relation between the questions and the style. Practical consideration includes the time available for the research, the availability of documents and records, the circumstances at the places where research is to be done and so on.
What are the three methods of data collection?
The first method interviews. By conducting interviews with different students in different schools you can collect data. You can ask for their honest opinions. You can compare the answers of one group of students with another group from another school. The second method is observation. You can use this method for research. For this you may have to spend time in different kinds of schools, schools for boys, schools for girls and co-education schools: You should then observe how students behave in these different places. By making close observations, you may be able to get the answer to your research problem.
The third method is survey, For this a questionnaire is prepared. The questionnaire should be made in such a way that students should be able to give their franks opinions about their schools. After that, an equal number of the questionnaire should be distributed to each kind of school. After getting them filled, collect them and analyze the answers.
What are the difficulties faced in a research?
Researchers may find certain practical difficulties. Imagine that you are doing a survey as part of the research. First of all, you have to get enough copies of the questionnaire. For this you need money, time and efforts. To distribute the questionnaire among the students you will need permission from their teachers. The first time, you may be denied permission. You may be asked to come back at a later date.
Even if you distribute copies of the questionnaire, many students may not fill them and return them. Sometimes they may leave some questions unanswered. Then you will have to decide how to solve.the problem. Or you may take only those copies which are fully answered, and reject those which are only partly answered. You should be able to face any problem that might come up during your research work.
Describe the features of survey method.
Survey is the method of collecting information directly from people by making answer a questionnaire you have prepared. Depending on the subject, the number of persons included in the survey could be small or big. After preparing the questionnaire, there are two ways of getting answers. One is reading the questions to the respondent and getting immediate answers. The other is distributing copies of the questionnaire and collecting them later with answers. There are advantages and disadvantages to the survey method.
The biggest advantage is that you can include many people in the survey. Since there are many respondents representing different groups of people, the researcher may get comprehensive answers, One disadvantage of this method is that you can’t make changes in the questionnaire once it is prepared and copies taken, if the questions are understood in a wrong way by the respondent, it will reflect in the answers. If the respondent gives an interesting answer, the researcher can’t ask more questions to get more things from him. Questionnaires are like photographs taken and they can’t be changed at will.
Describe the interview method.
Interview is quite different from survey. In survey, information is collected from different people answering the same type of questions. But in
interview, information comes from individuals. In survey there are many people, interview is limited to a few.
Interviews can be structured (planned) or (unstructured) unplanned. When questions are ready-made, the interview will be structured. But when questions are developed on the spot, depending on the answers of the respondent, it will be called unstructured.
Interviews can be intense. The researcher may have to spend a lot of time with the interviewee. Sometimes a person may have to be interviewed more than once.
Interview is an old method of research. In this, researcher can renew the questions, alter them and include new questions. He can forward by correcting, altering and adding. But the problem here is that only a few people can be interviewed. Only opinions of a few selected people can be obtained. This is the major defect of interview method.
Explain the Observation method,
Observation involves orderly observation and precise recording. Here the researcher observes what happens in the circumstances which are related to the chosen subject. This may look an easy method. But practically it is not so. The researcher should be able to decide among the things he observes, without prejudice, what is relevant to the research and what is irrelevant.
Sometimes it is possible that things that did not happen might be more interesting and important than the things actually observed. Imagine your research topic is “How are people belonging to different classes making use of certain public places.” The poor or middle-class people may have never come to these public places: For example how many people might have stayed in “The Gateway Hotel at Marine Drive, Kochi? Imagine how important is the thing that has not happened!